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3 3433 08159967 7 



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Piibbiiied as ihe Act directs Apni 21.1778 

'/.-..(/ •V/.Vr'^H/ -■■■'/ /,!/.■' 

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L U S I A D; 


A N 



The Original Portuguefe of Luis de Camoens. 


INTERPRES. Hoi. Akt. Poet. 



For J- B£w, Pater-nofler-Rowi T. Payni, Mews-Gate; J. DoostKY, Pall- Mall} 
J. RoBsoN, New Bond- Street;. J. AiMON, Piccadill/; T. Cadbll, Strandt 
W. Flexney, Holburn; and J. S swell, Cornhill, Londok. 


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My Lord, 
' I ^HE firft Idea of offering my Lusiad to fome dif- 
tinguiflied Pcrfonage, infpired the carneft wifli, that it 
might be accepted by the illuftrious Reprefentative of that 
Family^ under which my Father, for many years, difcharged 
the duties of a Clergyman. 

Both the late Duke of Buccleugh, and the Earl of 
Dalkeith, diftinguifhed Him by particular marks of their 
favour; and I muft have forgotten Him, if I could have 
wifhcd to offer the firft Dedication of my literary labours to 
any other than the Duke of Buccleugh. 

1 amy With the greateji refpeSl^ 
^ My LORD, 

o Tour Graces mojl devoted 

And mojl obedient bumble Servant ^ 





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IF a concatenation of events centered in one great aftion, 
events which gave birth to the prefent Commercial Syftem 
of the World s if thefe be of the firft importance in the civH 
hiftory of mankind, the Lufiad, of all other poems^ challenges 
the attention of the Philofopher, the Politician, and the 

In contradiftinftion to the Iliad and iEneid, the Paradife 
Loft has been called the Epic Poem of Religion. In the fame 
manner may the Lufiad be named the Epic Poem of Commerce, 
The happy completion of the moft important defigns of Henry 
Duke of Vifeo, Prince of Portugal, ,to whom Europe owes 
both Gama and Columbus, both the Eaftcrn lind the Weftern 
Worlds, conftitutes the fubje^t of that celebrated Epic Poem, 
(known hitherto in England almoft only by name) which is 
now offered to the Englifh Reader. But before we proceed to 
the hiftorical intioduftion neceflary to elucidate a poem 
founded on fuch an important period of hiftory, fome atten- 
tion is due to the opinion of thofe Theorifts in political phi- 
lofophy, who lament that either India was ever difcovered, and 
who aflert that the increafe of Trade is big with the real niifery 
of mankind, and that Commerce is only the parent of dege- 
neracy, and the nurfe of every vice. 

Much indeed may be urged on this fide of the queftion, but 
much alfo may be urged againft every inftitution relative to 
man. Imperfeflion, if not neceffary to humanity, is at leaft 
the certain attendant on every thing human. Though fome 
part of the traffic with many countries refemble Solomon's 
importation of apes and peacocks ^ though the fuperfluities of 

b Hfc» 

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life, the baubles of the opulent, and even the luxuries which 
enervate the irrefolute and adminifter difeafe, are introduced 
by the intercourfe of navigation -, the extent of the benefits 
which attend it, are alfo to be confidered, ere the man of cool 
realbn will venture tp pronounce that the world is ii^uredi 
and rendered lefs virtuous and lefs happy by the increaie of 

If a view of the ftate of mankind, where Commerce opens 
no intercourfe between nation and nation, be neg]e£ted, unjuft 
conclufions will certainly follow. Adhere the ftate of bar- 
barians, and of countries under the different degrees of civi- 
lization, are candidly weighed, we may reafonably expeft a juft 
deciiion. As evidently as the appointment of Nature gives 
pafture to the herds, lb evidently is man born for fociety* 
As every other animal is in its natural ftate when in the fitua- 
tion v/hich its inftindl requires ; fo man, when his reafon is 
cultivated, is then, and only then, in the ftate proper to his 
nature. ^ The life of the naked favage, who feeds on acorns 
^d fleeps like a beaft in his den, is commonly called the na-^ 
tural ftate of man j but if there be any propriety in this 
aflertion, his rational faculties compofe no part of his nature^ 
and were given not to be ufed. If the favage therefore live in 
a ftate contrary to the appointment of nature, it muft follow 
that he is not fo happy as nature intended him to be. And a 
view of his true character will confirm this conclufion. The 
reveries, the fairy dreams of a Roufleau, may figure the para- 
difiacal life of a Hottentot, but it is only in fuch dreams that 
the fuperior happinefs of the barbarian exifts. The favage, it 
is true, is reluAant to leave his manner of life j but unlefs 
we allow that he is a proper judge of the modes of living, 
his attachment to his own by no means proves that he is hap- 
pier than he might otherwife have been. His attachment only 
exemplifies the amazing power of habit in reconciling the hu- 
man breaft to the moft uncomfortable Actuations. If the inter- 
courfe of mankind in Ibme inftances be introduftive. of vice, 
the want of it as certainly excludes the exertion of the noblelt 

virtues > 

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virfetifif; andif the ieeds of virtue are indeed in the hearty they 
often fie dormattt» and eren unknown to the favage pofleiTon 
The moft beautiful defcriptioo of a tribe of favages, which we 
may i:>e aflbred b from real Hfi^ occurs in theife words $ And 
the £ve ^ies of Dan ^ cmn to Laiih» Mnd Jaw the people that 
men thar^ bow they dwelt carekfi ^er the manner of the Zidoniam^ 
fmet and fecure^ and there wm m magifirate in the land that ndght 
put them to fiame in any thing . . . . And the ipies faid to their 
faeethren^ jifife^ that we may go up agmnfi tbem\ for we have feen 
the land^ and hdold it is very good • • * • and they came unto Lsa&^ 
unto a people that were quiet and ficure^ and they fmote them with 
the edge of the fword^ mid burnt the dty with fre i and there woe 
m Deliverer^ becaufe it was far from Zidon, and they. bad no h^ 
ntfs with mtf mm— *-"* However the happy fimplicity of tfaii 
&ciety may pleafe the nan of fine imaginatiDn, the true pfal«> 
lolkfj^Mc will view the men of Laifii with other eyes. How« 
erer virtuous he may fiippole one geiKradon> it requires an 
aheration of human natare, to preierve the children of the 
next in the fame generous eflrangement from the felfifh paf<- 
fions, from tliofe pailions which are the parents of the ziBtt of 
tnjttftice. When his. wants are eafily fuppiied, the manners of 
the laifage will be fimjde, and often humane, for the human 
heart is not vicious without objefts of temptation* But theft 
will foon occur; he diat gathers the greatdl quantity of fruit 
will be envied by die left induftrious : The nninformed mind 
&ems infenfiMs cf the idea of the right of pofleffion which 
the hhaar of acquixemefit gives. Whm want is preifing, and 
the fupply at hand, the only conitderatton with fuch minds is 
thedan^ of ieizmg it; and where there is no magiftrate to 
put to jfha$ne in 4my things depredation will ^n difplay all 
Jta borrows. Let it be even admitted that the innocence of 
lifae men Gi Laifh <oiiId iecu« them from the oonfequences of 
their own ^mwofirained iddfi^ses $ ccmld even this impoilibility be 
finrmeusaited, 6iil tJhey iare « (wrttcfaed prey to the firft invaders i 
jand becaufe they have no ixoltnels .with any man, they will 
foda» detimnpn Whik iiusnan natiure is the £uBLe» the iate 

b a of 

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of Laifh will always be the fate of the weak and defencelels $ ' 
and thus the mofi: amiable defcription of favage life, raifes in our 
minds the ftrongeft imagery of the mifery and impoffible conti^ 
nuance of fuch a ftate. But if the view of thefe innocent people 
terminate in horror, with what contemplation fhall we behold 
the wilds of Africa and America ? The tribes of America^ 
it is true, have degrees of policy greatly fuperior to any thing 
underftood by the men of. Laifti. Great mailers of martial 
oratory, their popular alTemblies are fchools opea to all their 
youth. In thefe they not only learn the hiilory of their na- 
tion, and what they have to fear from the ftrength and deligns 
of their enemies, but they alfo imbibe the mofl ardent fpirit 
of war. The arts of ftratagem are their ftudy, and the moft 
athletic exercifes of the field their eipployment and delight. 
And what is their greateft praife, they have magijhuites to put 
to Jhame. They inflict no corporeal punifhment on their coiln* 
trymen, it is true, but a reprimand from an Elder, delivered in 
the afiembly, is efteemed by them a deeper degradation, and 
feverer puniftunent, than any of thofe, too often moft impoli- 
tically adopted by civilized nations. Yef, though poflefTed of 
this advantage, an advantage impofiible to exift in a large 
commercial empire, and. though mafters of great martial po- 
licy, their condition, upon the whole, is big with the moft 
ftriking demonftration of the mifery and unnatujcaii ftate of 
fuch very imperfect civilization.. Multiply^ and repknijh the 
earthy is an injunction of the beft political philolophy ever 
given to man. Nature has appointed man to cultivate the 
earth, tp increafe in number by the food which its culture 
gives, and by this increafe of brethren to remove ibme, and to 
mitigate all the natural miferies of human life. But in direct 
oppofition to this is the political ftate of the wild Americans^. 
Their lands, luxuriant in climate, are often defolate waftes> . 
where thoufands of miles hardly fupport a few hundreds of fa^ 
vage hunters. Attachment to their own tribe conftitutes their 
higheft idea of virtue ; but this virtue includes the moft brutal 
depravity, makes them efteem the man of every other tribe a$ 


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IN T R O D U C T I O N. v 

an enemy, as one with whom nature had placed them in k ftate 
of war, and had commanded to dcftr<ty *. And to this principle^ 
their cuftoms and ideas of honousr ferve as rituals and minifters. 
The cr6dties pra^ifed foy the American favages oa their pri- 
&> war (and war is their chief employment) convey every 
idea exprefTed by the word diabolical, and give a nioSt (hocking 
view of the degradation of human nature :[;. But what pecu- 
liarly completes the charafter of the favage is his horrible fu- 
perftition. In the mioft diftant nations the favage is in this the 
feme. The terror: ef evil fpirits continually haunts, him 3 his 
God is beheld as a relentlefs tyrant, and is worfhipped often 
with cruel rites, always with a heart foil of horror and fear. 
In all the numerous accounts of iavage wordiip, cme trace 
of filial dependance is not to be found. The very ireverfe of 
that happy idea is the hell of the ignorant mind. Nor is this 
barbarifin confined alone to thofe ignorant tribes, ,whoni^ wcr 
call favages. .The vulgar of every country pofiefs it in certaia 
degrees, proportionated to their opportunities of converfationr 
with the 'more enhghtened. AH the virtues and charities, which 
either dignify human nature or render it amiable, are cultivated 
and called forth into a^on by fociety. The favage life on the^ 
contrary, if we may be allowed the expreflion^ inftin^Uvely 

• This ferocity of favage manners affords, 
a philofophical account how the moft diftant 
and inhofpitable dimes were firft peopled. 
When a Romulus crt&.s a monarchy and 
makes war on his neig^ibpurs^ ibme nattt- 
rally fly to the wilda. As their families in- 
creafe, the ftronger commit depredations 
on the weaker ; and thus from generatiba 
to generation,^ they who either dread jufl 
punilhment oj-unjuft oppreflion, fly farther 
and farther "^L fearch of that proteAion 
which is only to be found in civilized fociety.. 

X Unlefs when compelled hy European 
troops, the exchange of prifoners is never 
pra&^d by the. American favages. , 
Sometimes, when a favage lofts a ion in • 
war, he adopts one of the captives in his 
fiead; but this feldom occurs; for the 
death of the prilbner feems to give them 
much more fausfadion^ The viQim is tied 

to a tre^, his teeth and nails ^are drawn, 
burning wood is held to every tender part,» 
his roafted fingers are put into the bowl or 
a pipe and fmoaked by the favages'; his 
tormentors ynth horrid howls dance ronnd^ 
him, wounding him at every turn with their 
poignards ; his eyes are at liA diruft out,.' 
and he is let loofe to ftaeger about as his 
torture impels him. As k>on as he expires, 
his diflevered limbs are boiled in the war-[ 
kettle, and devoured by his executioners..' 
And fnch is the power of cuflom and the 
ideas of honour, that the unhappy fufferer ' 
under all this torment betrays no £gn of 
fear or grief. On the contrary he upbraids' 
His escecutioners with their ignorance of the 
art of tormentine, and boafts how many of 
their kindred had found their grlve in his ' 
belly, whom he had pn| to death in a much, 
fcverer manner, 


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Harrows th« mind i and thus, 1^ the exdc^on of the nobler 
feelings, prepares it, as a ibil, ready for everj vice. Soidid 
difpofition and bafe ferocity, tog^er vnA the moft unhappy 
foper(tition, are every where the proportionate attendants o{ 
ignorance and fevere want. And ignoiance ax»i want are only 
removed by intercourie and the offices of fociety. So feif* 
evident are thefe pofitions, that it requires an apology for in- 
filling upon them ; but the apology is at hand. He who has 
fead knows how many eminent writers ^, and he who has con* 
verfed knows how many relpe^ble names, conned the idea 

"^ tiM flMlior of dwt Tofaimtioai imi^ 

Mitn tf Jk CmmiM da Ev^tm imu At 
dmm tmiu^ it one «f Ac wuutkj mho «Ait 
due the fipwe as hamiier duui the dvil 
ttfe. Ifii MMt $rt'nm ftbridged : Tbe 
ft n y hm no care or Ihy frr die fttare, hh 
koBtrng end fifhittg give Tum e certan fub* 
fllbMe. ' He iUept fond, ud kMirt not 
tiio difcofci of dtici.> He caniioc want what 
be does not defire, nor defire that wliick he 
dMi Mt koo«i» and teaBaiiDn or grief do 
not enter hit fool. He it not under the 
oontrool tff a fopertor in his a£tionB ; in m 
mgd$ 6yB oor nitthor, tbe^ikr^ only ief* 
fers the evils of nature. 

If the ttvnizedy be adds^ ei^oy the de« 
gandes of life» hare better fbod» and are 
more -comfortably defended a^ainft the 
duAge of fcafons, it it afe which makes 
Sheie thiqgi neoeflary^ and they are pur- 
diafed by the painful laboors of the mol- 
tioide who are the 'bafis of fodety. To 
trittt outnjees is not the man of avil life 
csmofed; if lie has property, h is in danger; 
aM government or authority it, acooimnfi' 
to this audior, the grcateft of ah evib. if 
there is a iandne in the north of Amerioi, 
the finrage, led by the wind and die fun, 
can go to abetter dime^ but in the horrors 
of ULinxne, war, or pelHlence, the ports 
and barriers of poliihea ftates place the Tub- 
jeds in a prilbn, where they muft perilh — 
H refitroit uuon^^Thxtt ftill remains an 
infinite diBertnce between the lot of the 
dvilizedand tbe favages adilftrence. touu 
en$urt^ all ^tiseh^ to die difadvanti^ge of 
ibdety, that tnjultice whidi rejgns in 'Ae 
inequality of fbrtones and condidons. ^* In 

line, fi^rs he, as the wiAi tat 
is one of ^ firft inlBn^b of man^ he who 
can 'join to the poAHBon of this ptiautivo 
rights the moral fccoiigr of a fiibfiienQEw 
f which we were juft told the lavage codd 
do) it iooomparably mora happy than iho 
ddi man farroonded with laws, fiiperiony 
pr^odices, and fafhions, which endanger' 
ms Ilbeity."-*^-— 

$uch are the fendments of Abbe Raynal^ 
a writer whofe fpirited manner, and inte- 
lefting fiibjefl, have acquiied him mai^ 
readers. As he is not fingular in his efti- 
mate of lavage happtneu, his argomentt 
merit examiaadott. And a view of the fall 
tendency of his a/Tertions will fuffidently 
w faie his condafions. Noths^g tarn be 
more evident, than that if habit deflroy the 
relifh of the elegancies of life, habit alio 
win detboy the pkafare of hundng and 
fifhing, ^raen thefe are the ible bufiaefs of 
the favage. If the favage has no care and no 
fnperior, thefe vciy drcumftances naturally 
brutaliie his mind, and render him vidous, 
fierce, and fellfith. Nor is he fo free from 
caie, as fome philofophers en their couches of 
down are apt to dream . Becaufe hundng and 
fifiiiag fcem pleafant to us, are they aHb a 
pleafiTre to the wretdi who in all feafons 
mufi IbOow them for hu daily fuftenance? 
You may as well maintain that a poiHOion, 
jaded widi fkd^e. and fliivering with wet 
and cold, it extremely happy, becaufe .«n« 
tiemen ride on Jiorfebaclc for thdr pleailire. 
That we cannot want what we cb not de- 
fire, nor defile what we do not know, are 
jufl pofidoni ; but does it follow, that fud) a 
ftate is h»pier than that which brings the 
wiOies and cares of dvD life? By no means: 


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I Nc T R a D I? C T I O N. « 

of innocence aad happtnefs with the life of the iavage and 
the unimproved ruftic. To fix the charader of the iavage is 
therefore neceliary> ere we examine the aflfertiony that ^ it had 

Vor aoooinditwiD thbarBDacot; iafeafibilk]r coover&tian of reined and elevated under* 

and happindf proceed in the fame gradation,. landings. Bat to philofophize is the con- 

and of confeqnence an oyfter * is the happieft tagion which infoAs the efprits forts of the 

of all aaiaais. The advwntacjes ascribed to continent; and onder the mania of this 

the favage over the civilized uFe» in the time difecfe, there is no wonder that common 

of war ml famine, in die equality of rank, fenfe is ib often cmdfied. It ia only the 

and iecnrity (^ fiberty, offer an outrage to i^ntation of thoie who fupport fome opi^ 

common fenle, and aj« ftriking inftances nions that will apologlfe for the laboor of 

that no paradox is too grofs for ue xeverie* ivfating them* We may tlierefcre, it ia 

of modem phtlofophyv This author qoite hoped, be forgiven, if, m bagaitlU^ we fmile 

ftrgets what dSangm the favagea are every at the triumph of our author, who thus (ama 

where eapefed to ; bow dieiv lands, if of 19 his argcunencs : ^* jifrit toMf, un mat 

any value, are fore to be feiaed by their ** pint terminer ce grand proceP^Aftcr all* 

more powetfisl neighbours, and milkons of ** one word will decide this grand difbnte. 

tWr perfoos enflavtd by the mara poliibed ** (o ftrongly canvaSed among pbilofopben ;? 

fiates. He quite forgets the infinite difi^ee ^ Demand of the man of civil Hfe, it ha i» 

between die reftntrces of die fecial and fii^ ^ happy? Demand of the fava^ if he i» 

^SVe life} betiMMn thecomfertaadnitniABfed ^ mttavaUe ? If both aafwer. No, the dtC* 

by^ fociety to infirmity and old age,, and the ** pute is determined.'' By no means ^ 

miferaUe ftate of the favi^ when he can fcr tha beidl that is contented t# waHow ii» 

no lonjpr purine his hunting and fiihingk the QHre« is by this argument in a happier 

,He alio quite fbvgets the infinite difiEerence fiate than the man who has one wim to* 

between the difcourlb of the fava^^ hut, iatisly, however reaAnabljr he may hope te» 

and the ccena deerum^ the friendihip and do it by tda indoftry and viitueu 

* And rar anchor ia reality pmm far, " nuMui c«r £^^,.*->-WkiMft ttait Sootshniai^ ilyf h«, frfke 
** bcinf left albne^o thorifleof Femandei, was oaly unhappy while his memory remained ; bnt when hb 
^ ■attnral wants to en^rofled fasm that heibrgot hb coantry, his bogmge, Ms name, and ctcb the artScv 
** latba of words, this European, at the end of ibnr yean, fonnd hioifelf eaicd of the bufden of fitctal 
** fife, la having the happinefi to loft the uie of relleaion, of thoft thought* whkh led him back to iBe 
*\j^^* or taught him to dread the future.*' But this is as enuneous in faa, as fuch happinefi is laU^ ii» 
Ifhiloibphy. Alexander Selkirk fell into no fuch (fate of happy ideotifm. By his own account he acquired 
uidc«i the gveatali traM|utlity of miod, whkh arofe from reHgsDos Abnufion to his lata. He bad witli^ 
him a bible, fome books of mathematics and practical divinity ; the daily penifal of which both fbrtifiecl 
Sis putiem» and ainnM his tedious hours. And hf profeiled that hc-fcaied he would never again be ior 
fooda Chriftian. In bis domeAic oecooomy he Ihewed every eaertiou of an intelligent mind. When CapC* 
Hoaers fiwnd him in 1709, tlie aocouaU which he gave of the fpriags and vegetabks of the ifland, were of 
the greatcft fervice to the (hip's company. And the Oiptain found him fo able a failor, that he imme^ 
diaSaly made Mm nurte of hU Mp. Having km Capt. RogersVveflcI at fta^ he made a fire ib the nigfatr 
^ orafcquence of which a boat was fent to csamhie the Ihoiv. He laid he hkd feen Ibme Spaniards an 
difii«Bt times^ land on the ifland, but be had always fled from them, judgmg they would oertainlv pot 
him to death, in order to prevent any account which he might be able to give of the Sooth Seas, lliis is 
not the reaibnhig of the man who has forgotten his name and his country. And even his annifemensa 
diibover hamoor, and a aaiod by no means wrapt up in duU or iawi^e traaquillity. He had Uught a nonbcr 
of his tame goats and cata to dance on their hinder legs ; and he himielf fung, and danced along wfth them^ 
This he exhibited to Capt. Rogers and his company^. The Captain indeed fays he ivmneA to have foi^ottea 
part of his language, as he fpoke his words by halves. But let it be remembered, that Selkirk was born :n 

diiiiie of the acquired tongue, as well as fudden paffion/ will recail the native dialed. --It is no wonder, 
therefore, that an Engllikman fbould tUak he 4niIm his words by halves. Se&irk had aoC beea full fonr 
years on the ifland of Fernandes, and on his rctorn te-Enghnd, the narrative which he gave of his fnicr- 
mgs abided tkchiM of R^binfen Ch^. 


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been happy for hoth the old and the hew worlds, if the Eaft 
and Weft Indies had never been difcovered." The bloodfticd 
and the attendant miferies which the unparalleled rapine and 
cruelties of the Spaniards fpread over the new world, indeed 
difgrace human nature. The great and flourifhing empires of 
Mejjico and Peru, fteeped in the blood of forty millions of 
their fons, prefent a melancholy profpeft, which muft excite 
the indignation of every good heart. Yet fuch defolation is 
not the certain confequence of difcovery. And even fhould 
we allow that the depravity of human nature is fo great, that 
the avarice of the merchant and rapacity of the foldier will 
overwhelm with mifery every new discovered country, ftill are 
there other,. more comprehenfive views, to be taken, ere we 
decide againft the intercourfe introduced by navigation. 
When we weigh the happinefs of Europe in the fcale of po- 
litical philofophy, we are not to confine our eye to the dread- 
ful ravage^ of Attila the Hun, or of Alaric the Goth. If the 
waters of a ftagnated lake are difturbed by the fpade when 
led into new channels, we ought not to inveigh againft the 
alteration becaufe the waters are fouled at the firft j we are to 
wait to fee the ftreamlets refine and fpread beauty and utility 
through a thoufand vales which they never vifited before. Such 
were the conquefts of Alexander j temporary evils, but civi- 
lization and happinefs followed in the bloody track. And 
though difgraced with every barbarity, happinefs has alfo fol- 
lowed the conquefts of the Spaniards in the other hemifphere. 
Though the villainy of the Jefuits defeated their fchemes of 
civilization in many countries, the labours of that fociety 
have been crowned with a fuccefs in Paraguay and in Canada, 
which reflefts upon their induftry the greateft honour. The 
cuftoms and cruelties of many American tribes ftill difgrace 
human nature ; but in Paraguay and Canada the natives have 
been brought to relifti the bleflings of fociety and the arts of 
virtuous and civil life. If Mexico is not fo populous as it 
once was, neither is it fo barbarous j the ftirieks of the human 
vi6lim do not how refound from temple to temple j nor docs 


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the human heart, held up reeking to tlie Sun^ imprecate the 
vengeance of heaven on the guilty empire *. And, however 
impolitically defpotic the Spanifh governments may be, ftill 
do thcfe colonies enjoy the opportunities of improvement, 
which in every age arife from the knowledge of commerce 
and of letters; opportunities which were never enjoyed 

in tlicir conferenoea with the Spaniards and 
the dreadful croeldes they fnffered, divert our 
view from their oompfete chanAer. But 
ilmoft every thing was horrid in their dvH 
enftofDs and religioiiB ritei . In Tome tribi^ 
tt> cohabit with their mothers^ fifters, and 
daughtersy was eftcemed the meant of do- 
Bemc peace. In othen, catamites were 
maintained in every village; thefe went 
fe>m houie to bouTe as they pleafed, and it 
was ankwfiil to refiife them what viauals 
they chafed. In every tribe the captives 
taken in wto were mnrdcred with the moft 
wanton craehy, and afterwards devoned 
by the viaors. Their religions rites were» 
it j^ble, fmi more horrid. The abomi- 
aations of ancient Moloch wefe here oat- 
numbered; children, virgins^ flaves, and 
captives, bled on diiivrent altan, to mpuit 
their various gods. If there was a lowdty 
of human vidims, the priets amoaneed 
that the gods were dying of thirll fiir homaii 
blood. And to prevent a threatened fiunine 
the kings of Mexico were obliged to make 
war on the neighbouring fiates^ to Smlj 
thealtars. . The prifbners of eidier fide died 
by the hand of the prieft. Bat the nam- 
ber of the Mexican facrifices ib greatly ex- 
ceeded thofe of other nations, that the 
Tlafcalans, who were hunted down for this 
porpofe, readily joined Cortez widi about 
200,000 men, and fired by the mbft fixed 
hatred, enabled him to make one great &- 
qifice of the Mexican nation. Without the 
afifbmce of thefe potent anxiliaries Cortez 
nevier coold have conqoered liexioo. And 
thus the barbarous croeky of the Mexican^ 
was the real caufe of their very fignal d6^ 
ftniftion« Am the horrid foenes of Gbdiators 
amafed ancient Rome, fo their more horrid 
iacrifices ieem to have formed the chief en- 

tertainment of Mexico. At the dedicatSoa 
of the temple of Vitzolipatzli, A.D. i486, 
64,080 human viftiau were faoiiced in fbor 
days. And, according to the beft acooonu, 
their annual facrifices required feveral thou* 
fands: The IkuUs of the vittms fometimes 
were hung on Mngs which reached from 
tree to tree around their temples, and fome- 
times were built up in towers and oamented 
with lime. In fome of thefe towers Andrew 
de Tapia one day counted* 136,000 fknlls* 
When the Spaniards pve to the Mexicans a 
pompous difplay of the greatnefs of their 
monarch Charles V. Moateanma'^ orators in 
return boafted of the power of their empe- 
ror, and enumerated among the proofs of 
it, die mat number of his homan &cri- 
fioes. He could eiiily conquer that great 
people, the Tlkfcalans, they faid, but he 
chuji» 10 preferve them to fopply his altars. 
During the war with the Spaniards they 
increaled their ufual facrifices^ till priefl ana 
people, were tired of their bloody religion, 
rrequent embaflies from different tribes 
complained to Cortez that they were weair 
of tkeir. rites, and intreated him to teach 
them his law. And thou&h the Peruvians. 
it is faid, were more poKmed, mm! did not 
faoifice qmte fo many as the Mexicans, yet 
200 children was the ufual hecatomb ror 
the health of the Yaca, and a much larger 
one of all ranks honoured his obfequies. 
The mediod of facrificing was thus ; Six 
prieib hud the viftim on an altar, which 
was nantrar at top, when five bending him 
acrofs, the fixth cut up his ftomach widi a 
Iharp flint, and while he held up the heart 
reekmg to the fun, the others tumbled the 
carcafe down a flight of flairs near the altar^ 
and imi^diately proceeded to the next fa- 
crifice. See Acofta, Gomara, Careri, the 
Letters of Cortez to Charles V. &c. &c. 

* By moltiplyiai the numbers, no doubt, of the horiaontal and perptadiodir rows into ca/db o^^het. 




under the dominion of Montezuma and A4;ab&Ii^. But 
if from Spanifli, we turn our eyes to Britiih Americsv, what « 
glorious pro^cft ! Here formerly on the wild lawn, perhaps 
twice in the year^ a few favage hunters kuidled their evening 
fire, kindled it more to proteft them from evil Spirits and 
^eafts of prey, thaa from the cold; and with their feet 
pointed to it, flept on the ground. Here now population 
fpreads her thoufands, rard fociety ajqieats m S;U its blefSngs 
<^ mutual* help, and the mutu^ lights of intelle6):ual im- 
provement. ^* What work trf art, *or power, or public "utility, 
'^ hfls -ever ^qmalled the glory of. having peopled a continent, 
" without guilt or bloodfhed, with a mutwtttde of free and 
*^ happy coimnon-weakhs, to have givea them the beft arts of 
" life and government! ** To have givtn a favagt continent 
an hnage of «be Briti^ conftitution is indeed the greateft 
glory of the BritiJh crowji, " a greater ihan any other nation 
" ever acquired.;*' and #pom the oonfe<|uences of the genius 0f 
Henry Duke ^f Vifeq, 4id the Briti^ American em|)Lre arife, 
an trmphr Which, tmlefe retarded by the iffibcral and inlruman 
%kit of religious fanatklim, will ia a few centuries, perhap$> 
be the glory of the world. 

Stubborn indeed muft be the Tlieoirift, who will deny the 
improvement, virtue, and h^ppinefs, winch in the rdftflt, the 
voyage of Coltinibus has fprcad ovsor tdic Weftern World* The 
happioefs which -Europe and Afia have received from the in- 
tercaurfe with each otter, cananot hitherto, it muft be owned, 
be compared either with the pofTefllon of it, or the fource of 
its increafe eftabliftied in America. Yet let the man of the 
moft mdaacholy views eAimate aH the wars ^and d^prcdations 
wjuch are changed vqpon the Portugucfe and other European 
iMrtiona, ftill will the £iiftem World a^^ar confiderably ad- 
vantaged by the voyage of Gama. If feas of blood have been 
Aed by tiie Portuguefe„ nothing new was introduced into 

* Thi$ was written ere the commencement of the unhappy civil war in America. And 
ini^^the iniamfie of <be4jpiik^:lhe Bxitiib cottftitniaont that aaaavy aay pcxhiyts i^ain 
dclcrve this character. 


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}skd^ Vhi and depredation, wen no unheard of ftfangers out 
tine hAfsiiB of theGangiea; aar could< the nature of the civil 
eftabliihments . of the eaftern* nations fecure a lafting peace. 
The ambittOA of thek native princes wa^ only diverted into* 
new'channela;; intechaimekv which^ in the natnral courfe oB 
human a£Eair9>, will certainly lead to permanent gavernmentfl;^ 
oftabliihtd on improved laws and. jaft dominion^. Yet even 
ere fech fpwnmidnts are formed) is Afia< no lofer by the ar- 
lovai^ of Ett»psana«. The horrid mafiaeres and unboundodi 
n^ne which) aosordo^ ta their awn annals^. foUowecl 1^ 
vifbories; of tkeHv Afian^ conquerors^ were never e^ualted by the- 
worft q£ thBAB StaropcaiH vaac^ihers. Nor is the eftablifla^ 
ttmat of improved gawcmments in the taft the dream of 
tiieory. Tb^. fiipemoritjF of the dml and military arts of 
tha Britiih, notwithftandtng idle hatefot ehnmfter of fome. 
individmds^ is at this^ day behrid in India with: all t^ afto^ 
aiihment of admiration i and admiratieg^ is always, fob-r 
lowed, thoiigh often with retarded ileps, by/ the ftrong defire 
of fimikup impfio^ement. Long after the faU of the. Reman 
empire^, the Roman laws were adopted by^ nations which an* 
cientB^ratw^ efteemed; as baebaroiMi* And thus^, in the courfe of. 
ages^ the. Rudiik laws,: aue ordiog ta evcsy teft of probability^.' 
wiU,. in India, luwe*a moil importittLr effeft,. will fulfil the 
prophecy of CamoenSi, and traasfbr to tfaie Britifli the hi£^ 
compliment he pays to his countrymen ;; 

Beneath their fway mi^eftie^ wiie, and a^U, 

Pfoud of heri vidorfs law8». thriee happier India (huled. 

In former agps* and within thefe few years* the fertile em- 
pire of InAa. has exfadbited: every fcene of human miiiery, under 
theLundlftinguiflui^ rav^s: of their Mohammedan and native 
princes y ravages^ only> equalled in Europ^an^ biftory hf thofe 
committed under Attila, furnamed the fcourge of God, and the 
deftroyer of nations. The . Hcm- of patriotlfin- and o£ honoxu; 
were (eldbm known in the cabinets, of the eailern griiices tilt 

c a the 

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the arrival of the Europeans. Every fpecies of affaffinatioa 
was the policy of their courts, and every aft of unreftraiiiect 
rapine and maffacre followed the path of viftory. But fome of 
the Portuguefe governors, and many of the Bng^iffe officierS) 
have taught them, that humanity ta the cmiqueced i« the beft, 
the trueft policy. The brutal ferocity of their own conqucrors^ 
is now the objeft of their greateft dread y and the* fuperiority 
of the Britifh in war has convinced their ♦princes, tliat an al- 
liance with the Britifk is the fureft guarantee of their national 
peace and profperity. While the Bnglifh Eaft India Company 
are poflelTed of their prefent greatnefs, it is in their power to 
diffufe over the Eaft every bleffing which flows from the wifeft and 
moft humane policy. Long ere the Europeans arrived, a failure 
erf- the crop of rice, the principal food of India, has fpread the 
devaftations of famine over the populous plains of Bengal. 
And never, from the feven years famine of ancient Egypt ta 
the prefent day, was there a natural fcarcity in any country 
which did not enrich the proprietors of the granaries. The 
Mohammedan princes and Mdorifh traders have often added 
all the horrors of an artificial ta a natural famine. But how-^ 
ever fome Portuguefe or other govemots inay ftand accufec^. 
much was left for the humanity of the more exalted policy of 
an Albuquerque or a Caftro. And under fiich European go^ 
vernors as thefe, the diftreiles of the Eaft have often been al- 
leviated by a generoiity of conduA, and a train of refource^ 
formerly imknown in Afia. Abfurd and imprafticable were 
that fcheme, which would introduce the Britifh laws into 
India, without the deepeft regard to the manners and circum-^ 
ftances peculiar to the pec^)!^. But that fpirit of liberty upon 
which they are founded^ and that fecurity of property which 
is their leading principle, muft, in^ time, have a wide and ftu- 
pendous eflfeft. The abjeft fpirit of Afiatic fubmiffion will 
1>e taught to fee, and to claim thofe rights of nature,^ of wJiich 

• Mdukimned AllKban, Nabob of tBuCaraatic, decbnd,/<^I]iict ^ BritiA widi that 
** freedom of opennefs which they love, and lefteem it my honour, as well as ikurity, to 
^ be the ally of inch a natioii of priooes.'' 

. > the 

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the dispirited and pafltveGentoos could, till lately^ hardly form 
Ai idea^ From this, as naturally as the noon fucce^s^ the 
dawH, muil the other bleifings of civilization arife. For 
though the four great tribes, of India are almoft inacceffible 
to^the tntrodu^on of other manners and of other literature 
than their own, happily there is in human nature a propenfity 
to change. Nor may the political philofopher be deemed an 
enthufiaft, who would boldly prophefy, that unleis the Britiih 
be driven from India, the general fuperiority which they bear,, 
vyill, er^ many generations fhall have pafled, induce the moft: 
intelligent of India to break the (hackles of their abfurd fu<- 
])erftitions, and lead them to partake of thofe advantages « 
which arife from the free firope and due cultivation of At. ra^ 
tional powers. In almoft every inftance | the Indian inftitu-- 
tions are contrary to the feelings and wifhes of nature. And 
ignorance and bigotry, their two chief pillars, can never fecure 
un^terablc duration *. We have certain proof, that the; hor* 
rid cuftom of burning the wives along with the body of the 
deceafed hufband, has continued for upwards of 1500 years;. 
we are alfo certain, that within thefe twenty years it has be- 
gun to fall into difufe. Together with the alteration of this- 
moft ftriking feature of Indian, manners, other, aflimilations to* 
European fentiments have aljceady taken place -f-. Nor can the^. 
obftinacy even of the conceited Chinefe always rdift the defire 
of imitating the Europeans, a people who in arts and in arms^ 
are fo greatly fuperior to themfelves* The ufe of. the twenty^' 
four letters, by which we can exprefs every language^ appeared! 
at firft as miraculous to the Chinefe. Prejudice cannot always 
deprive that. people, who are not deficient in felfifli cunning,' 
of the eafe and expedition of an alphabet ; and it is eafy ta^ 

t. Every man muft follow his fiither's trade, and moft many a daoghter of the.iamex 
ocGupadoa. iRnumerable are their other barbarous refbidions of genius and inclinatioiu. 

* The impofiilnlity of alteration in the religion of the Bnmins, is an aCertion-agaioft' 
hJRs* The high antiquity and unadulterated fameneis of their religion, are inipo£tiAnt on 
Europe. For a clear demonlbation of this, fee the Enquiry, 6cc» at the end of theVllth Luiiad. : 

t Set the above Enquiry, &c. 


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j&r I.N T R anuc'T I o v. 

forci^c ^ that» itr tiit cour& o£ a fevr. cenftorksi. iase alphabet, 
wtik certainly take place oi 1^; 6jG!,ooo arlMlnry marks^ whidk 
mmt renden the cultivation, of the: Cbinefe literature not only 
a labour of t^ utnnd: difficulftyi hut erea tho: attainment ^ 
it, impoffibk beyond a wpy Hmitcdi degree^. And^ from the kie^ 
tpodn^Hon of an. alphabet^ whatt impcoveraents may not be 
expe^kdrJrom the k^Knrious induftry of therChimefe I. Though 
noft. obftinately attsbcbed to their old euftomi»> yet thece ia a tbsr mBoamm.oi nations whtrh ia fuddea and rapid, and; 
Mrbidi a^a^with. a kiaid o£ infti£i6tive. fury agjainA ancient. 
pm|udice and ahfurdity t. It was that nation of inerchants>. the 
PhomiciaD% which diffiofed: thr ufe of letters through the? 
ancienti and Ccmiuerce vrAh undoubtedly di&ife. the fraie: 
bliffinga through the. moderui worid» 

To thisivicsw of the politieal luppimfai whtoh is fiire to be^ 
iBtnodiiced in ptopoittooiri to. civilizatton, let the Divine add» 
whan nay be cea^bnablyexpegfkd, from fuch opportunity of the 
incfea& of Religion. A fadiory of merchants, indeed, hae 
. feldoor been fovndr tO;be the fchool of piety ; yet^ wh^a the 
general marnieta^ of a people become aflionilatedto thofe^of a^ 
nan xational worflrip, ibmethij^ more, than ever waa pn>t^ 
dtncod by.anin£ant miffion, or therneighbourhood of an in&nt. 
colony, may then be reasonably expe£kedi and even. foretokL 

in eftimating the pditical happinefs. of a people,, nothing ia 
o£ greater hnpofrtance than their capacity of, and. tendency to^. 
inprDvement. Aa. a. dead lake, to continue our former al^ 
Itifion^. will remain in the &me:ftate for ageaand ages, fo? 
would the bigotry and fuperftitionaL of the Eaft continue the. 
fanoe; But if the lake is. begun; to: be. opened into a thouiand: 
rbuarlets^ who know& over w^atummmbered fieUs,. barren be^ 
fore, they may difFufe the bleffings of fertility, and turn a 
Arcary wiWemefa into aland of fooiety and joy; 

In contnift. to t\u%^ let. the. Golden. Coafi and other immenie 
rt^ons of Afrifca^be contemplated: 


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'Afric behold $ das, what altered vii;w ! 
Her lands uacultured> and her foas untrue ( 
•Un^oed with all that fweetens human life, 
Savage and fierce they roam in brutal ftrife ; 
Eager they graip the gifts which culture yields, 

Y<a naked roam their own negle^led fields 

Unnumber'd tribes as beftial grazers ftray, 
By laws unform'd, unform'd by Reafon's fwiy. 
Far inw^d ftretch the mournful fteril dales. 
Where on the parcht hill-fide pale famine waUs. 

JLusiAO X. 

Lot 128 view what ailUons of thefe vmihtippy lavages are 
•dragged fyom their native fields, and cut off for ever from att 
the ho^ and a41 tfae rights to which human birth entitled 
them. And who would hefitate to pronounce that N^4*o the 
.^Kaieft of patriots, who, by teachtng his countrymen the ertft 
^ focioty, (hoold teach 'diem to di^end themfelves in the 
:poieffion of their €elds, tiieir families, and their <)wn per-> 
jonal liberties ? 

Evident however as it is, that the voyages df Gaima And 
CohnniKis have already carried a •ruperk>r degree of happiiKii|» 
■and the promife of infinitely more^ to tfae Eailern and Weftem 
W<u4d8 } yet the advantages derived from <the difcovcry of thefe 
Hpims to Ewope may perkaiw he dented. Sot let us view 
what Europe was, ere the genius of Don Hcary gave hirth ^ 
idle ^irit of AMdern difcovery. 

Several ages before this period the feudal fyftem bad 4<;ge> 
berated into the oraft abfohite tyraMiy. The iharate exetciifetl 
4he moft deQ>otic authority over their va^s, and every icheoie 
of public utility was vendetted Mi^ni£ticable hf their continual 
petty wars with each otihar « smA to wluoh they lod their >de«> 
pendente as dags to tfaechaoe. Unabk to tiead, or to write hit 
own name, tfae Chieftain wias entirely jpeSMA by th^ aaoft 
JNntaatk opinion of miKtajy ^ory« and the feng xti bis ^o- 
fBcfik mtttftrel constituted hb bigfaiBft adcft «f SailCiC* '^^^ 

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Claffics flept on the (helves of the moilatteries, their dark, but 
happy afyluHi J while the life of the monks refembled that of 
the fattened beeves which loaded their tables. Real abilities 
were indeed poffeffed by a Duns Scotus, and a few othersj but 
thefe were loft in the moft trifling fubtleties of a fophiftry, 
which they dignified with the name of cafuiftical Divinity. 
Whether Adam and Eve were created with navels, and how 
many thoufand angels might at the fame inftant dance upon 
the point of the fineft needle without joftling one another, 
were two of the feveral topics of like importance which ex- 
cited the acumen and engaged the controverfies of the Learned. 
While every branch of philofophical, of rational inveftigation, 
was thus unpurfued and unknown, Commerce, incompatible 
in itfelf with the feodal fyftem, was equally negle^ed and 
unimpraved. Where the mind is enlarged and enlightened by 
learning, plans of Commerce will rile into aflion ; and theie, 
in return, wili, from every part of the world bring new ac- 
^jiiirements to philofophy and fcience. The birth of Learning 
^nd Commerce may be different, but their growth is mutual 
and dependent upon each other. They not only aifift each 
other, but the fame enlargement of mind which is neceflary 
for perfeftion in the one, is alfo neceflary for perfeftion in 
the other ; and the fame caufes impede, and are alike deftruc- 
tive of both. The Intercourse of mankind is the parent of 
each. According to the confinement or extent of Intercourfe, 
barbarity or civilization proportionably prevail. In the dark 
Monkifh ages, the Intercourfe of the learned was as much im- 
peded and confined as that of the merchant. A few unwieldy 
veflels coafted the fhores of Europe ; and mendicant friars and 
ignorant pilgrims carried a miferabk account of what was 
pafling in the world from monaftery to monaftery. What 
Doftor had laft difputed on the Peripatetic philofophy at fome 
Univerfity, or what new herefy had laft appeared, not only 
comprifed the whole of their literary intelligence, but was de- 
livered with little accuracy, and received with as little attenticm* 
While this thick cloud of mental darknefs overfpread the 


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vffibtta wotM, traa.DtMi Henry prince of Portugal bora, born 
to let mankind free irom the feodal fyflem, and to give to the 
whdle world every advantage^ every light that may poflibly be 
diffuled by the Intenxmrfe of unlimitted Commerce : 

. ■'■ " ' For then irom ancient gloom emerg'd 
The nfmg world of Trade: the Genius, then. 
Of N«vigatiofi, that in hopeleis floth 
Had flumber'd on the vaft Atlantic deep 
For idle ages, ftarting, heard at laft 
The Lufitaman Pdnoei who, heaven4nfpir'd 
To love of ufefiil glory rcus'4 mankind. 
And in nnbouaded Commerce mixt the world. Thom. 

In contraft to the tndtimsholy view of human nature, Aink 
ift barbarifm and benighted with ij^rance, let the prefent ftate 
of Europe be imparttaUjr eftirndted. Yet though the great in> 
citaib of opulence and learning cannot be denied, there are 
fi>ffle who aiSert, that virtue and happinefe have^ greatly de- 
dined. And the immenfe Overflow of riches, from the EzH in 
particular, has been pronounced big with deftru6tion to the 
BHtUh empire. Every thing haman, it is true, has its dark as 
Wdlas its bright fide; but let thefe popular complaints be 
etcamined, and k will be found, that modem Europe, and the 
Britilh empire in a very particular manner, have received the 
gfeateft and moft folid advantages from the modern enlarged 
fyfteffl of Commerce. The magic of tl^ old romances, which 
gOI^ make the moft withered, deformed hag, appear as the moil 
Ifeamiiiil virgin, ts every day verified in popular declamation. 
Andeat days are there punted in the moft amiable fimplicity, 
Add the modern ia the moft odious c<^ourfi. Yet what man of 
formne in England now lives in that ftnpendous grofs luxury* 
which every day was exhibited in the Gothic caftles of the old 
Chieftains ! Four or five hundred knights and fquires in the 
domeftit fttittlic <>f i warlike Earl was not uncommon, nor 
was the pomp of embroidery inferior to the profufe wafte of 

d their 

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their tables; in both inftanccs unequalled by all. the mad ez^ 
ceffes of the prefent age. 

While the Baron thus lived in all the wild glare of Gothic 
luxury, agriculture was almoil totally negleftcd, and his meaner ^ 
vaffals fared harder, infinitely lefs comfortably, than the meanefl: 
induftrious labourers- of England do now. Where the lands are 
uncultivated, the peafants, ill-cloathed, ill-lodged, and poorly 
fed, pafs their miferable days in (loth and filth, totally ignorant 
of every advantage, of every comfort which nature lays at their 
feet. He who pafles from the trading towns and cultured fields 
of England, to thofe remote villages of Scotland or Ireland, 
which claim this defcription, is'ailonifhed at the comparative 
wretchednefs of their deftitute inhabitants ; but few coniOider. 
that thefe villages only exhibit a view of what Europe was, 
ere the fpirit of Commerce diifufed the bleffings which naturally 
flow from her improvements. In the Hebrides the failure of al 
harveft almoft depopulates an ifland. Having little or notrafilc 
to purchafe grain, numbers of the young and hale betake them- 
felves to the continent in queft of employment and food, leaving* 
a few, lefs adventurous, behind, to beget a new race,, the heirs^ 
of the fame fortune. Yet, from the fame caufe, from the want 
of traffic^ the kingdom of England has often felt more dread*- 
ful effefls than thefe. Even in the days when her Henries and 
Edwards plumed themfelves with the trophies ^of France, how. 
often has Famine fpread all her horrors over city and village ? 
Our modem hiftories negleft this chara6lerifi:ical feature.of an- 
cient days ; but the rude chronicles of thefe ages infonn- us,: 
that three or four times, in almofl: every reign of continvance^^ 
was England thus vifited. The failure of one crop was then 
feverely felt, and two bad harvefts together were almoft infup- 
portable. But Commerce has now <^ned another fcene, haa 
armed Government with the happieft power that can be ex€a:ted 
by the rulers of a nation j the power to prevent every * cxtre-* 

* Extremity ; for it were both higUy imjoft and impolitic in GofemttKOkt, to allow im^ 
yortation in fnch a degree as might DC definitive of domeflic agriculturej even when therer 
is a real failure of the hanrefta 


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mity which may poffibly arife from bad harvcfts ; extremities,, 
which, in former ages, were efteemed more dreadful vifitations 
of the wrath of heaven, than the peftilence itfelf. Yet mo- 
dem London is not fo certainly defended againfl: the latter, its 
antient vifitor in almoil every reign, as the Commonwealth by 
the means of Commerce, under a juft and humane government, 
is fecured againft the ravages of the former. If, from thefe great 
outlines of the happinefe enjoyed by a commercial over an un- 
commercial nation, we turn our eyes to the manners, the ad- 
vantages will be found no lefs in favour of the civilized. 

Whoever is inclined to declaim on the vices of the prcfent 
«ge, let him read, and be convinced, that the Gothic ages 
were lefe virtuous. If the fpirit of chivalry prevented effe- 
minacy, it was the fofter^father of a ferocity of manners, now 
happily unknown. Rapacity, avarice, and eflPeminacy are the 
vices afcribed to the increafe of Commerce ; and in fome de- 
gree, it muft be confeflbd, they follow her fteps. Yet infinitely 
more dreadful, as every palatinate in Europe often felt, were 
the effeds of the two firft under the feodal Lords, than poflibly 
can be experienced under any fyftem of trade. The virtues 
and vices of human nature are the fame in every age : they 
only receive different modifications, and lie dormant or are 
awaked into a^ion under different circumftances. The feodal 
Lord had it infinitely more in his power to be rapacious than 
the merchant. And whatever avarice may attend the trader, 
his intercourfe with the reft of mankind lifts him greatly above 
that brutifh ferocity which actuates the favage, often the 
ruftic, and in general charaAerifes the ignorant part of man- 
kind. The abolition of the feodal fyftem, a fyftem of abfolute 
flavery, and that equality of mankind which affords the pro- 
tection of property, and every other incitement to induftry, arc 
the glorious gifts which the fpirit of Commerce, called forth 
by prince Henry of Portugal, has beftowed upon Europe in 
general ;. and, as if dirked by the manes of his mother, a 
xlaughter of England, upon the Britifh, empire in particular. 
In the vice of efifeminaCy ailone^ peri^^psj d^ we exceed our an- 

d2 c^ft^^^* 



ceftors 5 yet even here we have infinitely the adv^lntage over 
them. The brutal ferocity of former ages h now loft, and the 
general mind is humanifed. The favage breaft is the native 
foil of revenge 5 a vice, of all others, ingratitude excepted, pe* 
culiarly ftamped with the character of hell. But the mention 
of this was referved for the chara6ter of the favages of Europe*. 
The favage of every country is implacable when injured, but 
among fome, revenge has its meafure. When an American 
Indian is murdered, his kindred purfue the murderer, and foon 
as blood has atoned for blood, the wilds of America hear the 
hoftile parties join in their mutual lamentations over the 
dead ; and as an oblivion of malice, the murdered and the 
murderer are buried together. But the meafure of revenge;, 
never to be full, was left for the demi-fiivages of Europe. The 
vafTals of the feodal Lord entered into his quarrels with the 
moft inexorable rage. Juft or unjuft was no confideration of 
theirs. It was a family feud s no farther enquiry was made }, 
and from age to age, th« parties, who never injured each other, 
breathed nothing but mutual rancour and revenge. And ac** 
tions, faitable to this horrid fpirit, every where confcfled its 
virulent influence. Such were the late days of Europe, admired 
* by the ignorant for the innocence of manners. Refentment 
of injury indeed is natural; and there is a degree which is ho«* 
neft, and though warm> far from inhuman. But if it is the 
hard talk of humanifed virtue to prefcrve the feeling of an 
injury unrhixt with the flighteft criminal wifli of revenge, 
how impoflible is it for the favage to attain the dignity of for- 
givenefs, the greateft ornament of human nature ! As in in» 
dividuals, a virtue will rile into a vice, generofity into blind 
profufion, and even mercy into criminal lenity, fo civilifed 
manners will lead the opulent into effeminacy. But let it be 
confidered^ this confequence is by no means the certain refult 
of civiKzation. Civilization, on the contrary, provides the 
moft effeftual preventive of this evil. Where daffical literal 
ture prevails, the manly fpirit which it breathes muft be dif- 
fufed. Whenever frivoloofiieis predominates, when refinement 


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I N T R Q D IT C T.r O Ni xxjf 

degenerates into whatever enervates the mind, literary ign^ance 
is fure to eomplcat the eiFeminate charader. A mediocrity of 
virtues and of talents is the lot of the great majority pf map- 
kind ; and even this mediocrity, if cultivated by a liberal edu-r- 
cation, will infaUibly fecure its poffeiTor againft thofi} 9XC^&^ 
of effeminacy which arc really culpable. To b^ o£ plain i»«n-i^ 
ners it is not neceflary to be a clown, or tp wear cpad^ cloftth^ i. 
nor is it neceffary to lie on the ground and feed like thp favgggj 
to be truly manly. The beggar wbo^ behind the hedge, divides 
his offals with his dog, has often more of the nwi fenfuajifr 
than he who dines at an elegant table. Nor need we hefitstte 
to affert, that he who> unable to preferv^ a manly elegtmce qF 
manners, degenerates into the fetit maitre^ would have been,, 
in any age or condition^ equally infignificant and worthkfs* 
Some, when they talk of the debati^hery of the prefent agCt. 
fccm to think that th^ former w^ere all. innocence^ But this i^ 
ignorance of human nature. The debauchery of a barbarous* 
age is grpfs and brutal > that of a gloomy fuperftitioqs one,, 
fecret, excefEve, and murderous j that of a more pollih^d one,, 
not to make an apology, much happier for the fair fex ♦, aa4 
certainly in no cireumflrance fo big with poikical unhappineisv 
If one difeaie has been imported from Spanifh America, thft 
moft valuable medicines have likewife been brought from the^ 
regions; and diftempers, which were thought invincible by our 
forefathers, are now cured. If the luxuries of the Indie9 i|fl|W 
difeafe to our tables, the confequence is not unkn/t>wn ; tii» 
wife and the temperate receive no injury ; and intemperanqe b{u^ 
been the deflroyer of mankind in every age. . The opulence of 
ancient Rome produced a luxury o£ manners which provpdv 

* Even thae wtrm admirer of ftvage •*- A tender Mmembumce of the fyA en* 

liwpinefij tke author c^ ^ Uifiw* Fhu dearments, a generous partidpatton of care 

Ujopbiqui li Politiqui dis Etahltjjemtnsi &c. and hope, the compafSonatr ibittmenta oC 

confeiTes, that the wild Americans feem honoar, all thofe delicate fteHngs, which: 

dentate' of tke feeling of love.--*'^ Ip a arife into afie^on and hind attachment^ are 

^ little wkUiy fiiyi 1k^ ^hen ihe beat of inde^ incompatible with the ferocious andi 

*^ paffion isoratUbd, chey Jo6 al) affc^Jm grofs feniationa of the barbarian Qf any* 

<* and affiwtoifnt igr thrir women^ wl»om cooiury^. 

thejr. degrade to the moft fervile offices.'' 


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ixii I N T R O n U C T I O N. 

fatal to fhdt mighty empire. But the effeminate fenfualifts of 
thofe ages were men of no intelleftual cultivation. The en- 
larged ideas, the generous and manly feelings infpired by libe- 
ral ftudy, were utterly unknown to them. Unformed by that 
wifdom which arifes from fcience and true philofophy, they 
weie grofs barbarians, dreffed in the mere outward tinfel of 
civilization -f*. Where the enthufiafm of military honour cha- 
rafterifes the rank of gentlemen, that nation will rife into 
empire. But no fooner does conqueft give a continued fecu- 
rity, than the mere foldier degenerates ; and the old veterans 
are foon fucceeded by a new generation, illiterate as their fa- 
cers, but deftitute of their virtues and experience. Polite 
literature not only humanifes the heart, but alfo wonderfully 
ftrengthens and «ilarges the mind. Moral and political phi- 
lofophy are its peculiar provinces, and are never happily culti- 
vated without its afliflance. But where ignorance chara6lerifes 
the body of the nobility, the moft infipid diffipation, and the 
very idlenefs and effeminacy of luxury, ^re fure to follow. 
Titles and family are then the only merit -, and the few men of 
bufinefs'who furrouiid the throne, have it then in their power 
ti> iggrandife themfelves by rivetting the chains of flavery. 
A flately grandeur is preferved, but it is only outward ; all is 
decayed within, and on the firft ftorm the weak fabric falls to 
the duft. Thus rofe and thus fell the empire of Rome, and 
ttie much wider one of Portugal. Though the incrcafe of 
wealth did indeed contribute to that corruption of manners 
which unnerved the Portuguefe, certain it is, the wifdom of 
legiflature . might have prevented every evil which Spain and 
Portugal have experienced from their acquifitions in the two 
Indies.. Every evil which they have fuffered from their acquire- 
ments arofe, as fhall be hereafter demonftrated, from their 
general ignorance, an ignorance which rendered them unable to 

t The degeneracy of the Roman litera- branch of knowIedgCt and were ikuebre.- 

ture preceded the fate of that empire, and unable to hold the reins of emfnre. The 

the reafon is obvious. The men of ibrtnne degeneracy o( literary taile is, therefore^ 

:£rew frivolous, and fnperfidal in erery thcfureil'pioofof die general dcdeiifi«n* 

'^' ''* inveftigate 

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I N T R p D,U: C T I O N. xxiii 

^gV5j^ij;ate9r. apprehend, even the firft principles of civil and 
commercial philofophy . And what other than the total ecliple 
of their glory could be expelled from a nobility, rude and un- 
lettered as thofe of Portugal^ a^e defcribed by the author of the 
Luiiad, a court and nobility, who fealed the truth of all his 
complaints againft thefti^' by furring that greai man, the light 
t)f their age, to die in an alms-houfe ! What but the fall of 
their ftate could be expeded from' barbarians like thefe ! Nor 
can the annals of ^ mankind produce one inftance pf the fall of 
empire, 'wlferd^hfe chatadter of the grandees was oth^rtfaan 
that afcribed to his countrymen by Camoens^ 


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i *l^t ) 

ill I II 


HI s T o R y 


D I^ C O V JE RV O F I N D 1 A. 

NO lefTon can be of gresfter qational importance than the 
hiftory of the rife and the fall of a commercial empire. 
The view of what advantages were acquired, and of what 
might have been ftill added *, the means by which fuch empire 
might have been continued, and the errors by which it was loft^ 
are as particularly conspicuous in the naval and commercial 
hiftory of Portugal, as if Providence had intended to give a 
lafting example to mankind ; a chart, where the courie of the 
fafe voyage is pointed out $ and where the (helves and rocks, 
and the feaibns of tempeft, are difcovered, and foretold. 

The hiftory of Portugal, as a naval and commercial power, 
l)egins with the enterprises of Prince Henry. But as the im- 
provements introduced by this great man, and the completion 
of his deiigns are intimately conne^ed with the political ftate 
of his age and country, a concife view of the progrefs of the 
power, and of the chara6ter of that kingdom, will be necei^ 
fary to ekcidate the hiftory of the revival of Commerce, and 
the fubje6t of the Luiiad. 

During the centuries, when the effeminated Roman pro- 
vinces of Europe were defblated by the irruptions of northern 
or Scythian barbarians, the Saracens, originally of the fame 
race, a wandeiing banditti of Aliatic Scythia, fpread the fame 
horrors of brutal conqueft over the fincft countries of the 
eaftem world. The northern conquerors of the finer pro- 
vinces of Europe embraced the Chriftian religion as profeiTed 


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fe|4iik Isn^Ud, 




S I 



iPUiJi;. I 



Ifftbtltx* , 


Carina nia 








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^ 200 




: ■ .■ ■ MCI 
? no 

m mmt 




J.X^0*^^ t %i/^ . 

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by the nionks» and, contented with the luxuries of their new 
fettlements^ their military fpirit foon declined. Their ancient 
brothers, the Saracens, on the other hand, having embraced 
the religion of Mohammed, their rage of war received every 
addition which may poilibly be infpired by religious enthu- 
fiafm. Not only the fpoils of the vanquifhed, but their 
beloved Paradife itfelf, were to be obtained by their fabres, by 
extending the faith of their prophet by force of arms and 
ufm-pation of dominion. Strengthened and infpired by a 
commifiion which they efteemed divine, the rapidity of their 
conquefts far exceeded thofe of the Goths and Vandals. A 
great majority of the inhabitants of every country which 
they fubdued, embraced their religion, imbibed their prin- 
ciples, united in their views 5 and the profeffors of Moham- 
medifm became the moft formidable combination that ever 
was leagued together againft the reft of mankind. Morocco ' 
and the adjacent countries, at this time amazingly populous^ 
had now received the doftrines of the Koran, and incorpo- 
rated with the Saracens. And the Infidel arms fpread flaugh- 
ter and defolation from the fouth of Spain to Italy and jhe 
iflands of the Mediterranean. All the rapine and carnage com- 
mitted by the Gothic conquerors were now amply returned on 
their lefs warlike pofterity. In Spain, and the province now 
called Portugal, the Mohammedans erefted powerful king- 
doms, and their luft of conqueft threatened deftru£tion to 
every Chriftian power. But a romantic military fpirit revived 
in Europe, under the aufpices of Charlemagne. Several reli- 
gious military orders were eftabliflied. Celibacy, the ftudy of 
religion, and the exercife of arms, were the conditions of their 
vow, and the defence of their country and of the Faith, their 
ambition and fole purpofe. He who fell in battle was ho- 
noured and envied as a martyr. And moft wonderful viftories 
crowned the ardor of thefc religious warriors. The Moham- 
medans, during the reign of Charlemagne, made a moft for- 
midable irruption into Europe, and France in particular felt 
the weight qIF their fury j but the honour which was paid to 

e the 

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the knights who wore the badge of the crofs, drew the adven- 
turous youth of every Chriftian power to the ftandards of 
that political monarch, and in faft, (a circumftance however 
neglefted by hiftorians) gave birth to the Crulades, the be- 
ginning of which, in propriety, ought to be dated from his 
reign. Few indeed are the hiftorians of this age, but 
enough remain to prove that though the writers of the old 
romance have greatly difguifed it, though they have given full 
room to the wildeft flights of imagination, and have added the 
inexhauftible machinery of magic to the adventures of their 
heroes, yet the origin of their fi6lions was founded on hifto- 
rical fafts*. And, however this period may thus refemble the 
fabulous ages of Greece, certain it is, that an Orlando, a Ri- 
naldo, a Rugero, and other celebrated names in romance, ac- 
quired great honour in the wars which were waged againft the 
Saracens, the invaders of Europe. In thefe romantic wars, by 
which the power of the Mohammedans was checked, feveral 
centuries elapfed, when Alonzo, king of Caftile, apprehenfive 
that the whole force of the Mohammedans of Spain and Mo- 
rocco was ready to fall upon him, prudently imitated the 
conduft of Charlemagne. He availed himfelf of the fpirit of 
chivalry, and demanded leave of Philip I. of France, and of 
other princes, that volunteers from their dominions might be 
allowed to diftinguifh themfelves under his banners againft the 
infidels. His defire was no fooner known, than a brave ro- 
mantic army thronged to his ftandards, and Alonzo was vifto- 
rious. Honburs and endowments w«re liberally diftribated 
among the champions, aind to one of the braveft of them, to 
Henry J, a younger fon of the duke of Burgundy, he gave his 
daughter Terefa in marriage, with the fovereignty of the 

• Ariofto,who adopted the legends of the infidel knights. That there was a noted 

old romance, chufed this period for the fub* Moorifh Spaniard » named Ferraw» a redoubt* 

jed of his Orlando Furiofo. Paris beiieeed ed champion of that age, we have the tefti- 

by the Saracens, Orlando and the other mony of Marcas Antonius Sabellicus, » 

Chriftian knights aiTemble in aid of Charle- writer of note of the fifteenth centary. 
magne, who are oppofed in their amours and I See the notes on page 90 and 9 1 . 

in battle by Rodomont^ Ferraw, and other 


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countr^ es fouth of Galicia in dowry, commiffioning him to ex* 
tend his dominions by the expuliion of the Moors. Henry, 
who reigned by the title of Count, improved every advantage 
which offered. The two rich provinces oiEntro MinhoeDouro^ 
and Tra los Montesy yielded to his arms ; great part of Beira 
was alfo fubdued; and the Moorifh king of Lamego became 
his tributary. Many thoufands of Chriftians, who had lived 
in miferable fubjeftion to the Moors, or in defolate indepen* 
dency on ,the mountains^ took (belter under the generous pro- 
teftion of Count Henry. Great numbers alfo of the Moors 
changed their religion, and chufed rather to continue in the 
land where they were born, under a mild government, than 
.be expofed to the feverities and injuftice of their native go- 
vernors. And thus, on one of the moft ^f- beautiful and fertile 
fpots of the world, and in the fineft climate, in confequence 
of a Crufade * againfl the Mohammedans, was eftabliihed the 
fover^ignty of Portugal, a fovereignty which in time ipread 
its influence over the world, and gave a new face to the man- 
ners of nations. 

Count Henry, after a fuccefsful reign, was fucceeded by his 

infant fon Don Alonzo-Henry, who having furmounted fcveral 

dangers which threatened his youth X^ became the firft of the 

Portuguefe kings. In 1139 the Moors of Spain . and Bar- 

bary united their forces to recover the dominions from which 

they had been driven by the Chriftians. According to the 

lowcft accounts of the Portuguefe writers, the/army of the 

Moors amounted to 400,000 ; nor is this number incredible, 

when we confider what great armies they at other tim^? 

.brought to the field; and that at this time they came to 

-take poffcffion of the lands which they expe£lcd to conquer. 

Don Alonzo, however, with a very fmall army, gave them 

4)attle on the plains of Ourique, anji ,^ftcr a ftruggle of fiac 

1 ' t Small indeed in extent^ botfo rich in • In propriety moft certainly a Crofade, 

fertility, that it was called Medulla Hi/pa-^ though uiat term has never belore been 4^ 

£»/>«, 9" hi marrnv of Spoilt. Vid> Ref^ii plied to tl^ war. 

Antiq, Lvfit. L iii., , • * .... ^.f Sec the note on page 92, . * ^. / 

r -c. e 2 hours, 

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hours, obtained a moft glorious and compleat f viftory, and 
which was crowned with an event of the utmoft importance. On 
the field of battle Don Alonzo was proclaimed King of Portu- 
gal by his viftorious foldiers, and he in return conferred the 
rank of nobility on the whole army. But the conftitution of 
the monarchy was not fettled, nor was Alonzo invefted with 
the Regalia till fix years after this memorable day. The go- 
vernment the Portuguefe had experienced under the Spaniards 
tmd Moors, and the advantages which they faw were derived 
from their own valour, had taught them a love of liberty, 
which was not to be complimented away in the joy of viftory, 
or by the ftiouts of tumult. Alonzo himfelf underftood theiir 
fpirit too well to venture the leaft attempt to make himfelf a 
defpotic Monarch j nor did he difcover the leaft inclination to 
deftroy that bold confcioufiiefs of freedom which had enabled his 
army to conquer, and to eleft him their Sovereign. After fix 
years fpent in farther viftories, in extending and fecuring his 
dominions, he called an affembly of the prelates, nobility and 
commons, to meet at Lamego. When the aflembly opened, 
Alonzo appeared feated on the throne, but without any other 
mark of regal dignity. And ere he was crowned, the confti- 
tution of the ftate was fettled, and eighteen ftatutes were fo*- 
iemnly confirmed by oath J, as the charter of king and people j 
Aatutes diametrically oppofite to the jus divinum of kings, to 
the principles which inculcate and demand the unlimitted 
paflive obedience of the fubjeft. 

Confcious of what they owed to their own Valour, the 
founders of the Portugujefe monarchy tranfmitted to their heirs 
thofe generous principles of liberty which compleat and adorn 
the martial character. The ardour of the volunteer, an ar-^ 
Jour unknown to the flave and the mercenary, added to the 
moft romantic ideas of military glory, charaftcrifed the Portu- 

t For an account of this battle, and the.coronation of the fiirft king of Portagal, fee the 
liotejjp. 1 02. 

X The power of depofing, and of electing their kings, nnder certain circiinifbuices, ia 
vefted in the people by the ftasoccs of Lamego. See the notes, p. 102 and i^i* 


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guefe under the reigns of their firft monarchs. In almoft 
continual wars with the Moors, this fpirit, on which the 
exiftence of their kingdom depended, rofe higher and higher; 
and the deiire to extirpate Mohammedifm, the principle which 
•animated the wifli of vi6toiy in every battle, feemed to take 
deeper root in every age. Such were the manners, and fuch 
the principles of the people who were governed by the fuc- 
ceflbrs of Alonzo the Firft ; a fucceflion of great men, who 
proved themfelves worthy to reign over fo military and enter- 
prifing a nation. 

By a continued train of victories Portugal increafed confi* 
derably in ftrength, and the Portuguefe had the honour to 
drive the Moors from Europe. The invaiions of thefe people 
were now requited by fuccefsful expeditions into Africa. And 
fuch was the manly fpirit of thefe ages, that the ftatUtes of 
Lamego received additional articles in favour of liberty ; a 
convincing proof that the general heroifm of a people depends 
upon the principles of freedom. Alonzo IV. * though not an 
amiable character, was perhaps the greateft warrion, politician^ 
and rtonarch of his age. After a reign of military fplendor 
he left his throne to his fon Pedro, who from his inflexible 
juftice was fumamed the Juft, or, the Lover of Juftice* The 
ideas of equity and literature were now difFufed by this great 
prince J, who was himfelf a polite fcholar, and moft accom- 
plifhed gentleman. And Portugal began to perceive the ad^ 
vantages of cultivated talents, and to feel its fuperiority over 
the barbarous politics of the ignorant Moors. The great 
Pedro, however, was fucceeded by a weak prince, and the 
heroic fpirit of the Portuguefe feemed to exift no more under 
his fon Fernando, furnamed the Carelefs. 

But the general chara6ler of the people was too deeply im^ 
prefled, to be obliterated by one inglorious reign > and under 
John I. -f* all the virtues of the Portuguefe fbone forth with 

* For the diarafter of tliif prince, ice the f This great or ioce wasthe natural fon oi 

mott,p. 132. l^edro the Jiift. Some years after the mordcr 

t For anecdotes of this monarchy fee the of his beloved fponfelnez de Caftro (of which 
notes, p. 136 and 137. fte the text and notes, p. iz6$ ftc) left his 


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redoubled luftre. Happy for Portugal, his father beftowed a 
moft excellent education upon this prince, which added to, 
and improving his great natural talents, rendered him one of 
the greateft of monarchs. Confcious of the fuperiority which 
his own liberal education gave him, he was affiduous to be^ 
ftow the fame advantages upon his children 5 and he himfelf 
often became their preceptor in the branches of fcience and 
ufeful knowledge. Fortunate in all his affairs, he was moft of 
all fortunate in his family. He had many fons, and he lived 
to fee them men, men of parts and of aftion, whofe only 
emulation was to (hew affcftion to his perfon, and to fupport 
his adminiftration by their great abilities. 

There is fomething exceedingly pleafmg in the hiftory of a 
family which fhews human nature in its moft exalted virtues 
and moft amiable colours ; and the tribute of veneration is 
fpontaneoufly paid to the father who diftinguifhes the diffe- 
rent talents of his children, and places them in the proper 
lines of aftion. All the fons of John excelled in military exer* 
cifes, and in the literature of their age; Don Edward and 
Don * Pedro were particularly educated for* the cabinet, and 
the mathematical genius of Don Henry, one of his youngeft 
fons, received every encouragement which a king and a father 
could givC) to ripen it into perfection and public utility. 

Hiftory was well known to Prince Henry, and his turn of 
mind peculiarly enabled him to make political obfervations 
upon it. The wealth and power of ancient Tyre and Car- 
thage {hewed him what a maritime nation might hope ; and 
the flourifhing colonies of the Greeks were the frequent topic 
of his converfatioa, Where the Grecian commerce, confined 

father, whofe fevere temper he too well knew, Henry. Edward faocee^ed his father, (for 
fhoald force him into a di(agreeable mar- whofe chara6ters fee the note p. 162 and 
nage, Don Pedro commenced an amour with 1 63.) Juan, diftinguiihed both in the camp 
a Galician lady, ^ho became the mother of. andcabmet> in the reign .Qf.his brother Ed- 
John I. the prcfervcr of the Portnguefe mo- ward had the honour to oppofe the wild expe- 
parchy. See the notes, p. 143 and. 144* dition.againft Tangier, which was propofed 
• The fons of John, wno figure in hiftory, by his brother Fernando, in whofe perpetual 
were Edward, Juan, Fernando, Pedro, and captivity it ended. Of Pedro afterwards. - 

• as 

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as it was, extended its influence, the defarts became cultivated 
fields, cities* rofe, and men were drawn from the woods and 
caverns to unite in fociety. The Romans, on the other hand, 
when they deftroyed Carthage, buried, in her ruins, the foun- 
tain of civilization, of improvement and opulence. They ex- 
tinguifhed the fpirit of commerce j the agriculture of the 
conquered nations, Britannia J alone, perhaps, excepted, was 
totally neglefted. And thus, while the luxury of Rome con- 
fumed the wealth of her provinces, her uncommercial policy 
dried up the fources of its continuance. The egregious errors 
of the Romans, who perceived not the true ufe of their 
diftant conquefts, and the inexhauftible fountains of opulence 
which Phoenicia had eftablifhed in her colonies^ inftrufted- 
Prince Henry what gifts to beftow upon his country, and, in 
the refult, upon the whole world.. Nor were the ineftimablc 
advantages of commerce the fole motives of Henry. All the 
ardour which the love of his country could awake, con{pired 
to ftimulate the natural turn of his genius for the improve- 
ment of navigation. 

As the kingdom of Portugal had been wrefted from the 
Moors and eftabliftied by conqueft, fo its exiftence ftill de- 
pended on the fuperiority of the force of arms ; and ere the 
birth of Henry, the fuperiority of the Portuguefe navies had 
been of the utmoft confequence to the proteftion of the ftate. 
Such were the circumftances which united to infpire the de- 
figna of Henry, all which were powerfully enforced and invi- 
gorated by the religion of that prince. The defire to extirpate 
Mohammedifm was patriotifm in Portugal. It was the prin- 
ciple which gave birth to, and fupported their monarchy : 
Their kings avowed it, and Prince Henry, the piety of whofe 
heart cannot bequeftioned, always profefled, that to propagate 
the gofpel was the great purpofe of his defigns and enterprizes.. 

t The honour of this is due to Agricola, feveral ages after his time^ the Romans 
He employed- his legions in cutting down drew immcnfe quantities of wheat from 
forefts and in clearing marihes. ^d for their Biitiih province. 


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And however this, in the event, was ^ neglefted, certain it is, 
that the fame principles infpired, and were always profefled 
by king Emmanuel, under whom the Eaftern World was dif- 
covered by Gama. 

The Crufades, to refcue the Holy Land from the infidels, 
which had already been, however unregarded by hiftorians, of 
the greateft political fervice to Spain and Portugal, || began 
now to have fome efFeft upon the commerce of Europe. The 
Hans Towns had received charters of liberty, and had united 
together for the proteftion of their trade againft the nume* 
rous pyrates of the Baltic. A people of Italy, known by the 
name of the Lombards, had opened a lucrative traffic with 
the ports of Egypt, from whence they imponed into Europe 
the riches of the Eaft j and Bruges, in Flanders, the mart be- 
tween them and the Hans Towns, was, in confequence, fur- 
rounded with the beft agriculture of thefe ages J : A certain 
proof of the dependance of agriculture upon the extent of 
commerce. Yet though thefe gleams of light, as morning 
ftars, began to appear; it was not the grofs multitude, it was 
only the eye of a Henry which could perceive what they prog- 
nofticated, and it was only a genius like his which could pre- 
vent them from again fetting in the depths of night. The 
Hans Towns were liable to be buried in the viftories of a 
Tyrant, and the trade with Egypt was exceedingly infecure 
and precarious, Europe was ftill enveloped in the dark mifts 
of ignorance, and though the mariner's compafs was invented 

tNegleded in the idea of the com- England the greateft fervice, by introducing 

manders ; the idea of Henry however was the piefent iyftem of agriculture. Where 

greatly fulfilled. For the dominion of the trade increafes, men*6 thoughts are fet in 

rortuguefe in the Indian fea cut the finews action | hence the increafe of food which is 

cf the Egyptian and other Mohammedan wanted^ is fupplied by a redoubled atten- 

powers. But of this afterwards. tion to hufbandry ; and hence it was that 

Jl See the note on the Crufades, Lufiad agricalture was of old improved and dif- 

VIL fufed by the Phoenician colonies. Some 

t Flanders has been the fchool-miftrefs Theorifts complain of the number of lives 

«f hufbandry to Europe. Sir Charles Lille, which are loft by navigation, bot they 

a Royalift, refided in this country feveral totally for^t that commerce is the parent 

years during the nfurpation of the Regi- of populauon. 
cides; and after the Reftoration, rendem 


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before the .birth of Henry^ it was improved to no naval ad<- 
vantage. Traffic ftill crept, in an infant ftate» along the 
coafts, nor were the conftru6tion of (hips adapted for other 
voyages. One fuccefsful Tyrant might have overwhelmed the 
fyftem and extinguiihed the fpirit of commerce^ for it ftood 
on a much narrower and much feebler baiis, than in the days 
of Phoenician and Grecian colonization. Yet thefe mighty 
fabricks, many centuries before, had been fwallowed up in the 
defolations of . unpolitical conqueft. A broader and more 
permanent foundation of commerce than the world had yet 
feen, an univerfal bafts, was yet wanting to blefs mankind, 
and Henry Duke of Vifeo was born to give it. 

On purpofe to promote his defigns. Prince Henry was by his 
father ftationed the Commander in chief of the Portugucfe 
forces in Africa. He had already, in 14 12, three years before 
the reduftion of Ceuta*, fent a fhip to make difcoveries on 
the Barbary coaft. Cape Nam §, as its name intimates, was 
then the iVir plus ultra of European navigation ; the (hip fent 
by Henry however pafTed it fixty leagues, and reached Cape 
Bojador. Encouraged by this beginning, the Prince, while he 
was< in Africa, acquired whatever information the moft intelr 
ligent of the 'Moors of Fez and Morocco cpuld give. About 
a league and one half from the Cape of St. Vincent, in the 
kingdom of Algarve, Don Henry had obferved a fmall, but 
commodious fituation for a fea-port town. On this fpot, fupp 
pofed the Protmrntmum Sacrum of the Romans, he built his 
town of Sagrcz, by much the beft planned and fortified of any 
in Portugal. Here, where the view of the ocean, fays Faria, 
infpired his hopes and endeavours, he erected his arfenals, and 
built and harboured his fhips. And here, leaving the tempo- 
rary buftle and cares of the ftate to his father and brothers^ 
he retired like a philofopher from the world, on purpofe to 

* At die redoaion of Ceota^ itnd other fword. Yet thengh ef«n pofleffisd Vy die 
engagements m Africa* Prince Henry dif- enthafiafm of chivalry, hb geiuns for na« 
flayed a military genius and valour of the vigation prevailed^ and confii^ed biv^ ^ ^^ 
firft magnitude. The important fortrefs of fxx:k of Sa^ret. 
Centa was b a manim won by Us own - $ N^m^^xt Fortugoefei t tit^d^* 

f ^^^ t^TAjtX 

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render his ftudies of the utmoft' importance to lits iiappiiiefs. 
Having received all the light^ which could be difcovercd ift 
Africa, hi continued uaiwearied in his mathematical and geo^ 
graphical ftudies j the art of ihip-building received very great 
improvement under his direftion, arid the truth of his ideas 
of the ftrufture of the terraqueous globe are how confirmed. 
He it was who firft fuggefted the uTe of the compafs, and of 
longitude and latitude in navigation^ and how thefe might be 
afcertained by aftronomical obfervatiohs s fuggeftiwis and dif^ 
^eoveries which would have held no feccmd place among the 
conjeftures of a Bacon, or the improvements of a Newtoiu 
Naval adventurers were now invited from all parts to the 
town of Sagrez, and in 141 8 Juan Gonfalez Zarco and Trif- 
tran Vaz fet fail on an expedition of difcovery^ the circum-^ 
ftances of which give us a (hiking pi6ture of the ftiite of 
r^vlgation, ere it was new-modelled by the genius of Henry. 

Cape Bojador, fo named from its extent J, runs about fortj^ 
leagues to the weftward, and for about fix leagues off land 
there is a moft violent current^ which dafhing upon the ftielvcs»^ 
makes a tempeftuous fea. This was deemed impafSlble, for 
it was not confidered, that by ftatiding out to the ocean the 
current might tc avoided. To pafs this formidable cape was 
the commiflion of Zarco and Vaz, who were alfo ordered t(> 
proceed as far as they could to difcover the African coaft> 
which according to the information given to Henry by the 
Moors and. Arabs, extended at leaft to the equihodial || line.. 

t Forty lea^s appeared te a vaft diT- • tiicle« Atmtto have Been propagated on ^- 

tance to the failors of that age, who named pofe to difcredit Prince Henry^ repatation. 

this Cape Bojador, from the Spaniih, hJM^, The fiory ftanda thus ; Anthony Galvan tc^ 

to tompafs or go aboat. ktesi that Fran, de Soufa Tavares told him. 

II It was known that the Arabian Sssl that Don Ferdinand told him that in 15269 

waihed the eaftern fide of Africa: it was he feand, m ^e monaftery of Acoba^a^ a 

fimnifed therefore that afouthem promoa- chart of Afnca, lao yeara did, which was* 

tory bounded that continent. And certain iaid to have been copied from one at Venice^ 

it is, from the concurrent teftimony of all which alio was believed to have been copied 

the writers who treat of Don Henry's difco- firam <me of Marcd Paok), whkh> acoordin; 

veries, that Africa was fappofed to terminate to Ramnfius, marked the Cape of G( 

near to the equinoctial hne. The account Hoft. Marco Paolo is faid to Jiave travels 

of Marco Paolo's map, which, it is faidy led into India and China in the fourteenth 

placed ibc Southern Cape in iu pjroper lati* cenliuy • 


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Zarco and Vzz, however, loll their courfe in a ftorm, and were 
driven to a little ifland, which, in the joy of their deliverance, 
they named Puerto Santo, or the Holy Haven. Nor was Prince 
Henry, oii their return, lefs joyful of their difcovery, than 
they had been of their eicape : A ftriking proof of the mife- 
rable ftate of navigation ; for this iiland is only about f 60 
leagues, the voyage now of three or four days in moderate 
weather, from the promontary of Sagrez« 

The Difcovercrs of Puerto Santo, accompanied by Bartho- 
lomew P^eftrello, were with three fhips fent out on farther 
tnaL Pereftrello, having (owed fome feeds, and left fome 
cattle on Holy Haven, returned to Portugal -f-. But Zarco and 
Vaz direfting their courfe fouthward, in 1419, perceived fome- 
thing like a cloud on the water, and failing toward it, difco- 
v^ed an ifland covered with wopd^ which from thence they 
named Madeira ** And tl^s rich. and. beautiful ifland, which 
foon yielded a confiderable xevenue^ was the firfl: reward of 
the enterprizes of Prince Henry. 

If the IDuke of Vifeo's liberal ideas of eftablifliing colonies, 
thofe iinews of a comm^ercial ftate, or his views of African 
and Indian commerce, were too refined to ftrike the grofs mul- 
titude J yet other advantages refulting from his defigns, one 
would conclude, were felf-evident. Nature calls upon Portu- 
gal to be a maritime power, and her naval fuperiority over the 
Moors, was, in the time of Henry, the fureft defence of her 
exiftence as a kingdom. Yet though all his labours tended to 
eftablifli that naval fuperiority on the fureft bafis, though even 
the religion of the age added its authority to the cleareft po- 

t Unluckily alfo were left on this tfland erofTnefs of theRomaD policy, that, after the 

two rabbitSy whofe young fo increafed, that fall of Carthage, the navigation to thefe parts 

in a few years it was found not habitab]e» ceafed. One Macham, an EngUQiman, it 

every vegetable being deftroyed by the great is faid, (Harrises Voyages^) buried his mif- 

increafe of thefe animals. trefs in Madeira, in i344. Some veiTels 

• The difcovery Of Madeira by Prince driven by tempeft, had perhaps, before the 

Henry, was followed by the firft fettlement time of Don Henry, defcried the Madeira 

of that ifland, fince the days of Carthagi- iflands, but the regular navigation to them 

nian commerce. The Azores, Canaries, was unknown, till eftablifhed by this great 

and Cape de Verde iflands, were frequented prince« Vid. Farias torn. i.e. i. 
by that trading people ; but fuch was the 

f 2 litical 

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litical principles in favour 6f Henry; yet were his cnterprizes 
and his expefted difcoveries derided with all the infolence of 
ignorance, and all the bitternefs of popular clamour. Barren 
defarts like Lybia, it was faid, were all that Could be found, 
and a thoufand difadvantages, drawn from thefc data, were 
fbrefeen and foretold. The great mind and better knowledge 
of Henry, however, were not thus to be ftiaken. Though 
twelve yeais from tlie difcovery of Madeira had elapfed in un- 
luccefsful endeavours to carry his navigation farther, he was 
now' more happy; for one of his captains, named Galianez, . 
in 14:34 paffed the Cape of Bojador, till then invincible 5 an: 
afftioh, fays Faria, in the common opinion, not inferior to the 
labours of Hercules. 

GaFianez, the next year, accompanied by Gonfalez Baldaya^ 
carried his difcoveries many leagues farther. Having put two 
horfemen on fhore, to difcover the face of the country, the 
adventurers,. after riding feveral hours, faw nineteen men armed 
with javelins. The natives fled, and the two horfemen pur- 
fued, till one of the Portuguefe, being wounded, loft the firft 
blood that was facrificed to the new fyftem of commerce. A 
fmall beginning, a very fmall ftreamlet, fome perhaps may ex- 
claim, but which foon fwelled into oceans, and deluged the 
eaftern and weftern worlds. Let fuch philofophers, -however, 
be defired to point out the defign of public utility, which has 
been unpolluted by the depravity of the human paffions. To 
fuppofe that Heaven itfelf could give an inftitution which 
could not be perverted, and to fuppofe no previous alteration 
in human nature, is contradiftory in propofition 5 for as hu- 
man nature now exifts, power cannot be equally poffeffed by 
all, and whenever the felfifli or vicious paffions predominate, 
that power will certainly be abufed. The cruelties therefore 
of Cortez, and that more horrid barbarian Pizarro *, are no 

• Some eminent writers, both at home greatty fbftened the horrid features of the 
and abroad, have of late endeavoured to Mexicans. If one, however, would trace 
foften the chara£ter of Cortez, and have the true chara£ler of Cortez and the Ame« 
urged the neceffity of war for the Haughters ricans, he muft have recoutfe to the n»> 
Kc committed. Thefe authors have alfo jnerous Spaniih writers, who were either 


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more to be charged upon Don Henry and Columbus, than the 
villainies of the Jefuits and the horrors of the Inquifition arc 
to be afcribed to Him, whofe precepts are fummed up in the 
great command, Ta da to your neighbour as you would wifli 
your neighbour ta da to you. But if it is ilill alledged that 
he wha plans a difcavery ought to forefee the miferies which 
the vicious will engraft upon his enterprize, let the abjedlor 
be told, -that the miferies are uncertain, while the advantages 
are real and fure ; and that the true philofppher will not con- 
fine his eye to the Spanifh campaigns in Mexico and Peru, but 
will extend his profpeft to all the ineftimable benefits, all the 
improvements of laws, opinions, and of manners, which have 
been introduced by the intercourfe of univerfal commerce* 

In 1440 Anthony Gonfalez brought fome Moors pdfaners fta 
Lifbon. Thefe he took two and forty leagues beyond Cape 
Bojador, and in 1442 he returned to Africa with his captives.. 
One Moor efcaped from him, but ten blacks of Guinea and a 
confiidcrable quantity of gold duft were given in ranfom. for 
two others. A rivulet at the place of landing was named by 

witBcflTes of the £rft wars, or foon after 
fravefled iir tftofe cotmtrics. In thefe he will 
^nd many anecdotes which afford a light, 
not to be found in our modernifed hiftories. 
In thefe it will be found, that Cortez fet 
out to take gold by force, and not by efta- 
blifhing any fyftem of commerce with the 
nativea, the only juft reafon of eflfe^ing a 
fettleoient vat a foreign country. He was 
aiked by various flates, what comofiodities 
or drugs he wanted, and was promifed a- 
bundant fupply. He and his Spaniards, he 
aofwered, had a difeafe at their hearts, 
which nothing boc gold coaM cure ; and he ' 
received intelligence, that Mexico abounded 
with it. Under pretence of a friendly con- 
ference, he made Montezuma his prifoner, 
and ordered him to pay tribute to Charles 
V. Immenie fums were paid, but the 
demand was boundlefs. Tumults enfued. 
Cortez difplayed' amazing general fhip, and 
feme millions of thofe, who in enumerating 
to the Spaniards the greatnefs of Montezu- 
ma, boafted that his yearly facrifices con* 

fumti 20,000 men, were now Sacrificed to 
the difeafe of Cortez's heart. Pxzarro, how- 
ever, in the barbarity of his foul, hf exceed- 
ed him. There is a verv bright fide of the 
chara&er of Cortez. If we rorget that his 
avarice was the caufe of a mod unjufl and 
moft bloody war, in every other refped he 
wilt appear as one of the greateft of neroes^ 
But Pizarro is a charafler completely de- 
teAable, deftitnte of every f^k of gene- 
rofity. He mafTacred the Peruvians, he 
faid, becaufe they were barbarians, and he 
himfelf could not read. Atabalipa, amazed 
at the art of reading, got a Spaniard to- 
write the word Dios (the Spanifh for God) 
on his finger. On trying if the Spaniards 
agreed in what it figniiied, he difcovered 
that Pizarro could not read. And Pizarro, 
in revenge of the contempt he perceived in 
the face of Atabalipa, ordered that prince- 
to be tried for his life, for having concu- 
bines, and being an idolater. Atabalipa- 
was condemned to be burned ; but on fub- 
niitting to baptifm, he was only hanged^. 




Gonfalez, Rio del Oro, or the River of Gold. And the iflands 
of Adeget, Arguim, and de las Gargas^ were now difcovered. 

Thefe Guinea blacks, the firft ever feen in Portugal, and the 
gold duft, excited other paflions befide admiration. A comi 
pany was formed at Lagos, under the aufpices of Prince Henry^ 
to carry on a traffic with the new difcovered countries ; and as 
the Poruguefe confidered themfelves in a ftate of continual 
hoftility with the Moors, about two hundred of thefe people, 
inhabitants of the iflands of Nar and Tider, in 1444, were 
brought priCMiers to Portugal. This was foon revenged. 
Gonzalo xk Cintra was the next year attacked by the Moors, 
fourteen leagues beyond Rio del Oro, where with feven of his 
men he was killed. 

Thefe hoftile proceedings difpleafed Prince Henry, and in 
1446 Anthony Gonfalez and two other captains were fent to 
enter into a treaty of peace and traffic with the natives of Rio 
del Oro, and alfo to attempt their converfion. But thefe pro- 
pofals were reje6led by the barbarians, one of whom, however, 
came voluntarily to Portugal \ and Juan Fernandez remained 
with the natives, to obferve their manners and the produfts of 
the country. In the year following Fernandez was found in 
good health, and brought home to Portugal. The account he 
gave of the country and people affords a ftriking inftance of 
the mifery of barbarians. The land, an open, barren, fandy 
-plain, where the wandering natives were guided in their jour-^ 
neys by the ftars and flights of birds ; their food, milk, lizards, 
locufts, and fuch herbs as the foil produced without culture % 
and their only defence from the fcorching heat of the fun 
fome miferable tents which they pitched, as occafion required, 
on the burning fands. 

In 1447 upwards of thirty fliips followed the route of traffic 
which was now opened 5 and John de Cafl:illa obtained the in- 
famy to fl:and the firft on the lift of thofe names whofe vil- 
lainies have dilgraced the fpirit of commerce, and afforded the 
loudeft complaints againft the progrefs of navigation. Difla- 
tisfied with the value of his cargo, he ungratefully feized 


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twenty of the natives of Gomera, (one of the Canaries) wha 
had affifted him, and with whom he was in friendly ^ihance, 
and brought them as flaves to Portugal. But Prince Henry 
refented this outrage, and having given them fome valuable 
prefents of clothes^ reiloired the captives to freedom and their 
native country. 

The converfion and reduftion of the Canaries was alfo this 
year attempted ; but Spain having claimed a right to thefe 
iflands*, the expedition was difcontinued. In the Canary 
iflands was found a feodal cuftom ; the chief man or governor 
was gratified with the firft night of every bride in his diftrift* 

In 1448 Fernando Alonzo was fent ambaflador to the King 
of Cabo Verde with a treaty of trade and converfion, which 
was defeated at that time by the treachery of the natives. In 
1449 ^he Azores were difcovered by Gonfalo Velio, and the 
coaft fixty leagues beyond Cape Verde was vifited by the fleets 
of Henry. It is alfo certain that fome of his commanders 
paiied the equinodial line. It was the cuftom of his failors to 
leave his motto. Talent ©e Bien Faire, wherever they camef 
and in 1525 Loaya, a Spanifh captain, found that device carved 
oh the bark of a tree in the ifle of St. Matthew, in the fecond 
degree of fouth latitude* 

Prince Henry had now with the moft inflexible perfeveranc^ 
proiecuted his difcoveries for upwards of forty years. His 
father, John I. concurred with him in his views, and gave 
him every afliftance } his brother, King Edward^ during his 
fliort reign, was the (ame as his father had been 3 nor was the 
eleven years regency of his brother Don Pedro lefs aufpiciou? 
to him §. But the mifunderftanding between Pedro and his 
nephew Alonzo V. who took upon him the reins of govern- 
ment in his feventeenth year, retarded the defigns of Henry, 

* Somettme before thU period, Jotm it S ^^^ diiEcQides lie ftmnovnted, and the 

titaMiour, a Fienchmany under iht king of affiftanioe he received, are inconteftible 

Caftik, had made a iectlement in the Caaa- pioofs, that an adventmer of infinior birth 

lies, which had been difcovered, it it fidd, conU never have carried hit defiso^^ ^^ 

About 1340, by fomefiilcaynecrt. execution^ 

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and gave him much unhaj^inefs j:. At his town of Sagrez^ 
from whence he had not moved for many years^ except when 
called to court on fome emergency of ftate, Don Henry, now 
in his fixty-feventh year,' yielded to the flroke of fate, in the 
year of our Lord 1463, gratified with the certain profpeft, that 
the route to the eaftern world would one day crown the enter* 
prizes to which he had given birth. He had the happinefs to 
fee the naval fuperiority of his country over the Moors efta-' 
blifhed on the moft folid bafis, its trade greatly upon the in« 
creafe, and what he efteemed his greateft happinefs, he flattered 
himfelf that he had given a nK>rtal wound to Mohammedifm, 
and had opened the door to an univerfal propagation of ChHf^ 
tianity and the civilization of mankind. And to him, as to , 
their primary author, are due all the ineftimable advantages 
which ever have flowed, or will flow from the difcovery of the 
greateft part of Africa, of the Eaft and Weft Indies. Every 
improvement in the ftate and manners of thefe countries, or 
whatever country may be yet difcovered, is ftriftly due to 
him J nor is the difference between the prefent ftate of Europe 
and the monkifti age in which he was born, lefs the refult of 
his genius and toils. What is an Alexander || crowned with 
trophies at the head of his army, compared with a Henry con- 
templating the ocean from his window on the rock of Sagrez ! 
The one fuggefts the idea of the evil daemon, the other of a 
tijtelary angel. 

From the year 1448, when Alonzo V. aflumed the power of 
government, till the end of his reign in 1471, little progrefs 
was made in maritime affairs, and Cape Catharine was only 

t Don Pedro was villainoafly accofed of that the conqoefb of Alexander were in* 

freacheroas deitj;ns by his baftard brother, tended to civilize, and unite the world in 

the firfl duke of firaganza. Henry left his one grand intereft; and that for this great 

town of Sa^ez, to defend his brother at purpefe he built cities and eftabliflied colo- 

court, but in vain. Pedro, finding the nies in Afia. Thofe, however, who have 

young king in the power of Bragaitza, fled, ftudied the true diaradter of that vain-glo* 

and loon after was killed in defending him- lious conqueror, the wild delirium of his am- 

felf againfl a party who were fent to feize bition, and his as wild fondnefs of Afiatic 

him. His innocence, after his death, wai manners, wil 1 allow this refinement of deiigA 

fully proved, and his nephew Alonaso V. to hold no place in the motives of the pre* 

gave htm an honourable burial. tended fon of Jupiter. 

it It has been faid by fome French writers, 


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added to the former difcoveries. But under his fon John II« 
the defigns of Prince Henry were profecuted with renewed 
vigour. In 14S1 the Portugueie built a fort on the Golden 
Coaft, and the King of Portugal took the title of Lord of 
Guinea. Bartholomew Diaz, in i486, reached the river, which 
he named dell Infante, on the eaftern fide of Africa i but de^ 
terred by the ftorms of that region from proceeding farther, 
on his return he had the happinefs to be the Difcoverer of the 
Promontory, unknown for many ages, which bounds the 
fouth of Afric. This, from the ftorms he there encountered^ 
he named the Cafe of Temfe^s ; but John, elated with the pro* 
mife of India, which this difcovery, as he juftly deemed, in-, 
eluded, gave it the name of the Cape of Good Hope. The arts 
and valour of the Portuguefe had now made a great impref- 
fion on the minds of the Africans. The King of Congo, a 
dominion of great extent, fent the fons of fome of his prin- 
cipal officers to be inftru6ted in arts and religion ; and am* 
baifadors from the King of Benin requefted teachers to be fent 
to his kingdom* On the return of thefe his fubjefts, the King 
and Queen of Congo, with 100,000 of their people, were 
baptized* An ambaflador alfo arrived from the Chriftian 
Emperor of Abyffinia, and Pedro de Covillam and Alonzo 
de Payva were fent by land to penetrate into the Eaft, that 
they might acquire whatever intelligence might facilitate the 
defired navigation to India. Covillam and Payva parted at 
Tbro in Arabia, and took different routs. The former 
having vifited Conanor, Calicut, and Goa in India, returned to 
Grand Cairo, where he heard of the death of his companion* 
Here alfo he met the Rabbi Abraham of Beja, who was em^ 
ployed for the fame purpofe by king John. Covillam fent the 
Rabbi home with an account of what countries he had feen, 
and he himfelf proceeded to Ormuz and Ethiopia, but as 
Camoens ezpreiTes it : 

I- ' to his native Hiore, 

Enriched with knowledge, be returned no more. 

g Men. 

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Men, whofe genius led them to maritime, affairs, began 
now to be poffeffed by an ardent ambition to diftinguifh 
themfelves ; and the famous Columbus offered his fervice to 
the King of Portugal. Every one knowsf the difcoveries of 
this great adventurer, but his hiftory is generally mifunder- 
flood *• It is by fbme believed, that his ideas of the fphere of 
the earth gave birth to his opinion, that there muft be an iiu- 
menfe unknown continent in the wefl J, fuch as America is now 

* Greatly mlfuntkrftoody even by the 
ingenious author of the Account of the Eu- 
ropean Setiiements in America. Having 
mentioned the barbarous ftate of Europe ; 
** Mathematical learning, fays he, was Mttle 
** valued or cultivated. The true fyftem of 
•* the heavens was not dreamed of. There 
" was no knowledge at ail of the rea) form 
^ of the earth» and in general the ideas of 
** mankind were not extended beyond their 
** ienfible horizon. In this date of affairs 
** Chriflopher Columbosy anativeofGenoa, 
" undertook to extend the boundaries which 
*' ignorance had given to the world. This 
** man's defign aroCe from the juH idea he 
•* had formed of the figure of the earth***— 
But this is all a miftake. Nor is. the authov 
of the Hiftoire Pbih>/ophique^ &c. lefs un- 
happy. Milled by the common opinion of 
Columbus, he has thus pompouOy cloatKed 
it in the drefs of imagination — Un bomme 
oh/cur^ iays he, plus avarice que fin Jiecle^ 
iiec.— thus literally, ** An obTcure man* 
" more advanced than his cotemporaries in 
^ the knowledge o^ agronomy and navi^a* 
<' tion, proposed to Spain, happy in her m- 
'< ternal dominion, to aggrandiie herielf 
*' abroad* ChFiiV>pher Colnmbos feh, as 
*' if by inAindi, thax there muft be another 
'* continent, and that he was to difcover it. 
^ The Jlntipodes, treated by reafon itfetf 
** as a chimera, and byfuperliition as error 
•* and impiety, were in the eyes of this, maa 
'< of genius an inconteftibJe truth. Full of 
*' this idea, one of the grandeft which could 
'' enter the human mind, he proposed, &c. 
u . The miniflcrs of this Princefs 

'* (Ifabel of Spain) efleemed as a vifio* 
^* nary, a man who pretended to difcover a 
<< world——*" But this dream of difco- 

vertng a world never entered the head of 
Columbus. And be it our*s to reflore his 
doe honours to the Prince of Portugal. B/ 
the mofl: indubitable and concurrent tcfti- 
mony of all the Portuguefe Hiibrians of this 
period, Henry had undertaken «» extend the 
ooundaries which ignorance had given to 
the world, and had extended them much 
beyond the fenfible horizon, kmg ere. Co- 
himbus appeared. Colunibus indeed taught 
the- Spaniards the ufe of longitude and lati>> 
tude m navigation, but he himfelf learned 
thefe among the Portuguefe. Every altera- 
tion here a&ribed to Columbus, had almoft 
fifty years before been effedied by Henry. 
Even Henry's deAen of failing to India was 
adopted bv Columous. It was every where 
his propoiaL When he arrived in the Weft 
Indies, he thought he had found die Ophir 
of Solomon*, and dience thefe iilands 
received their general name. And on his 
retusn he told John !!• that he had beeh 
at the iflands. o£ India.. When he landed 
in Cuba, he enquired for Ctpaogo, the 
name of Japan, according ta Marco- PaoFo, 
and by the miftake oi the natives, who 
thought he faid Cibao, he was informed •f 
the ncheft mines of Hifpaniola. And even 
on his fourth and laft voyage in 1 502, three 
years after Gama*s return, he promised the 
king of Spain to find India by a weftward 
pailage^ J^ut though great difcoveries re- 
warded his toils, his ^'k and laft purpofe 
he never oompleated* It was referved foa^ 
Maealhaens to difcover the weftward coute 
te^ the EaAern World. 

X Gomara, and other Spanifh writers le- 
late, that while Columbus lived in Madeira, 
a pilot, the only fnrviver of a (hip's crew, 
died at his^ hoiife.. This pilot, they fay» 

* Peter Martyr, (who lired at that time at the Cooit of Spain) Dec. X. L. Z. 


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known to be ; and that his propofals were to go in fearch of it. 
But the fimple truth is, Columbus, who, as we have certain 
evidence, acquired his (kill in navigation among thePortuguefe, 
could be no ftranger to the defign long meditated in that king- 
dom, of difcovering a naval route to India, which they endea-r 
voured to find by compafling the coaft of Africa, According 
to ancient geographers and die opinion of that. age, India was 
fuppofed to be the next, land to the wefl: of Spain. And the 
idea of difcovering a weftern paifage to the Eaft, is due to the 
genius of Columbus i but no more : To difcover India and the 
adjacent iflands of fpices, already famous over all Europe, was 
every where the avowed and fole idea of Columbus *. A pro^ 
pofal of this kind to the king of Portugal, whofe fleets had 
already pafTed the Cape of Good Hope, and who efleemed the 
route to India as almofl difcovered, and in the power of hi« 
own fubjefts, could at the court of Lilbon expeft no fuccefs# 
And the offered fervices of the foreigner were reje6ted» even 
with fome degree of contempt. Columbus, however, met 9 
more favourable reception from Ferdinand and Ifabelia, the 
king and queen of Caftile. To interfere with the route or 
difcoveries, opened and enjoyed by another po'wer. Was at this 
time cfteemed contrary to the laws of nations. Columbus, 
therefore, though the objeft was one, propofed, as Magalhaens 
afterwards did for the fame reafon, to fteer the wefl ward 
courfe, and having in 1492 difcovered fome weflern iflands, in 
1493, ^^ ^^^ return -to Spain, he put into the Tagus with 
great tokens of the riches of his difcovery. Some of the Por- 
tuguefe courtiers, the fame ungenerous minds perhaps who 
advifed the rejeftion of Columbus becaufe he was a foreigner, 
propofed the afTaffination of that great man, thereby to con- 

had been driven to the Weft Ifidies or Ame- 
rica hy tempeft, and on his death-bed com- 
municated the joivnal of his voyage to 
Columbus. But this ftory, as it Itands at 
large, is involved in c«mtradidion without 
pioof, and is every wher^ efteemed a fable 
pf malice. ' 

* And A deeply had ancient geography 

Axed this idea* that Sebaftian Cabot's pro- 
pofal to Henry VII. 1497, Was to difcoveir 
Cath»r, and thence India, by the north-weA. 
See Hakluit, torn. 3. p. 7. And ^amufius, 
Prefat. torn. 3. ^- Columbus endeavoured* 
firft, to difcover India diredly by the weft, 
and afterwapdi by the fouth-weft. 



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ceal from Spain the advantages of his navigation. But John, 
though Columbus rather roughly upbraided him> looked upon 
him now with a generous regret, and difmifled him with ho* 
nour. The king of Portugal, however, was alarmed, left the 
difcoveries of Columbus fliould interfere with thole of his 
crown^ and gave orders to equip a war fleet to prote£t his 
rights. But matters were adjufted by embaffies, and that ce^ 
kbrated tr^ty by which Spain and Portugal divided the 
Weftern and Eaftern Worlds between themfelves* The eaftern 
half of the world was allotted for the Portuguefe, and the 
weftern for the Spanifh navigation. A line from pole to pole, 
drawn an hundred leagues to the weft of the Azores, was 
their boundary : and thus eiach nation had one hundred and 
eighty degrees, within which they might eftablifh fettlements 
and extend their difcoveries* And a Papal Bull, which, for 
obvious reafons, prohibited the propagation of the gofpel in 
tliefe bounds by the fub)e6ts of any other ftate, confirmed this 
amicable and extraordinary treaty. 

Soon after this, while the thoughts of king John were intent 
on the difcovery of India, his preparations were interrupted by 
his death. But his earneft defires and great defigns were in« 
hefited, together with his crown, by his coufin Emmanuel. 
And in 1497, the year before Columbus made the voyage 
ivhich difcover6d the mouth of the river Oronoko, Vafco dc 
Gama failed from the Tagus on the difcovery of India. 

Of this voyage, the fubje6l: of the Luflad, many particulars 
are neceffarily mentioned in the notes ; we ihall therefore only 
allude to thefe, but be more explicit on the others, which are 
omitted by Camoens, in obedience to the rules of the Epopceia. 
- Notwithftanding the full torrent of popular clamour againft 
the undertaking, Emmanuel was determined to profecute the 
views of Prince Henry and John II. Three floops of war and 
a ftore (hip manned with only 160 men were fitted out ; for 
hoftility was not the purpofe of this humane expedition. 
Vafco de Gama, a gentleman of good family, who, in a war 
with the French^ had given iignal proofs of his naval £kill, 


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wa3 commilfioned admiral and general, and his brother Paul, 
for whom he bore the fincereft affedion, with his friend Ni* 
chohs Coello^ were at his requeft appointed to command 
under him. All the enthufiafm <^ defire toaccomplifli his end^ 
joined with the greatefi heroifm, the <piickeft penetration^ and 
cooleft prudence, imited to form the charader of Gama. Ort 
his appointment to the command, he declared to the king, 
that his mind had long afpired to this eiepedition. The king, 
exprefled great confidence in his prudence and honour, and 
gave him, with his own h&nd, the colours which he was to 
carry. On this banner, which bore the crofs of the militarf 
order of Chrift^ Oama, with great enthufiafm to merit th^ 
honours bellowed upon him> todc the oath of fidelity. 

About four miles from Liibon' there is a chapel on the {ea> 
fide. To this, the day before their departure, Gama conduced 
the companions of his expeditioti. He was to encounter an 
ocean untried, and dreaded as unnavigable > and he knew tbtr 
force of the ties of religion on minds which are not inclined^ 
to difputc its authority. The whole night was ^nt in the 
chapel, in prayers for fuceefs, and in the rites of their devo^ 
tion. On the next day, when the adventurers marched to ther 
fliips, the ihore of Belem * prefented one of the moft folemn* 
zAd affeftittg fccnes perhaps recorded in hiftory. The beach, 
was covered with the inhabitants of Liibon,. A numerous 
proceffion of priefts in their robes iung anthems and c^red 
up invc^cations to heaven. Every one beheld the adventurer* 
as brave innocent men going to a dreadful execution, as ruih-^ 
ing upon certain death ; and the vaft multitude caught the 
fire of devotion, and joined aloud in the prayers for fuccefo. 
The relations, friends, and acquaintance of the voyagers 
wept; all were affected; the figh was general $ Gama himfelf 
filed fome manly tears on parting with his friends ; but he 
hurried over the tender fcene, and haflened aboard with alL 
the alacrity of hope. Immmediately he ga*e bis fails to the 
wind, and ia much affe8led werethb m^itf thoufands who be^^^ 

* Or Befhithmr io named ftondft chtpel. 


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held his departure, that they. remained immoveable on the 
fhore til! the fleet, un^der full fail, evanifhed from their fight. 

It was on the 8th of July when Gama. left the Tagus. The , 
flag fliip was commanded ?by himfelf, thfe fecond by his brothec,. 
the thirxiby Coello, and tbe,.ftore fliip hy Gonf^lo Nunio.- 
Se^'ieral interpreters, Ikilled in the Ethiopian, Arabic, and other' 
oriental languages; went^ along with them. ^ Tea malefafltora, 
men of abilities, whofe fentences of death were reverfed, on 
condition of their, obodience to Gama in whatever embaffies or 
dangers among the barbarians he^ might think proper to em- 
ploy them, were alfo on board* The fleet, favoured by the 
weather, palled the Canary aod Cape de Verde iflands; but had. 
now to encounter other fortune. Sometimes flopped by dead 
calms, but for the moft part toft by tempefts, which increafed 
their violence and horrors a3 they proceeded to the fouth. 
Thus driven far to fea, they, laboured thrpugh that wide ocean, 
which furrounds St. Helena, in Teas, fay^ Faria, unknown to 
the Portuguefe difcoverers, none of whom had failed fo far to 
the v\reft. From the 28th of July^ the. day they pafled the ifle 
of St; Janies, they had foen no Ihore ; and npw on November 
the 4th they were happily relieved by the fight of land. The 
fleet anchored in a large bay *, and Coello was fent in fearch 
of a river, where they might take in wood and frefti water. 
Having found one convenient for their purpofe, the fleet made 
toward it, and Gama, whofe orders were to acquaint himfelf. 
with the manners of the people wher^^ver he touched, ordered 
a party of his men to bring him fome of the natives by force 
or ftratagem. One they caught as he wa« gathering honey on 
the fide of a mountain, and brought him to the fhips. He 
exprefled the greateft indifference for the gold and fine clothes 
which they (hewed him, but was greatly delighted with fome. 
glafles and little brafs bells. Thefe with great joy he accepted, 
and was fet on ftiore ; and foon after njany of the blacks came 
for, and were gratified with the like trifles ; and for which in 
jetum th^ gave great plenty,of their beft provifions. None 0/ 

^ .Ijow oiled St. Hden'9i I 


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0«na'$ interpreters, however, could underftand a word of 
their language, pr receive any information of India. And the 
friendly intercourfe between the fleet and the natives was foon 
interrupted by the imprudence of Velofo*, a young Portuguefe, 
which occafioned a fcuffle, wherein Gama's life was endan-^ 
gered. Gama and fome others were on fhore taking the altir 
tude of the fun, when in confequence of Vclofo's rafhnefs they 
were attacked by the blacks with great fory, Gama defended 
himfelf with an oar, and received a dart in his foot. Several 
others were likewife wounded, ai\d they found their fafety in 
retreat.. The (hot from the (hips facilitated their efcape, and 
Gama efteeming it imprudent to wafte his ftrength in at- 
temjpty entirely foreign ta the defign of his voyage, weighed 
anchor, and fleered in fearch of the extremity of Afric 

In this part of the voyage, fays Oforius, the heroifm of 
Gama was greatly difplayed. The waves fwelled like moun- 
tains in height, the fhips feemed now heaved up to the clouds, 
and now appeared as precipitated by gulphy whirlpools to the 
bed of the ocean. The winds were piercing cold, and fo 
boifterous that the pilot's voice could (eldom be heard, and a 
difnaal, almoft continual darknefs, which at that tempeftuous* 
feafon involves thefe feas, added all its horrors. Sometimes* 
the ftorm drove them fbuthward, at other times they were 
obliged to ftand on the tack, and yield to its fury, prew 
ferving wliat they had gained with tlw greateft difficulty. 

With fuch mad feas the dariiig Gama fought 

For many a day, and many a dreadful nighty 

Inceflant labouring round the flormy Cape, 

By bold ambition led — ^ Thomson. 

During any gloomy interval of the fform, the failors, wearied 
out with fatigue^ and abandoned to defpair, furrounded Gama, 
and implored Jiim not to . fufFer himfelf, and thofe com- 
mitted to his care, to perifh by fo dreadful a death. The 
impoffibility that men fo weakened ihould ftand it much 

* See the note, p. 195, 


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longer, and the opiiuon f hat this ooeaii was torn by <ftemil 

tempefts, and therefore had hitherto been^ and was ini^ 
pafiable, were urged. But Gama's reibhition to pa'oceed was 
unalterable. A formidable confptracy wa^ then formed againft 
his life i but his .brother diicovered k^ and the courage and 
prudenx^e of Gama defeated its defign*. He put the chief 

'^ The y^fafit of Gama has been called 
sierely a coafhng one, and therefore much 
lefe dongtrous And hcroicsd tiian that of Co- 
liufihoa, or of Magalhaens. But this^ it is 
^prefumedy is one of the opinioBs baflily 
jttikca up, and ^nded on igiioranoe. Co^ 
lumboa and Magalhacns andertook to navi- 
gate unknown oceans, and fp did Gam^ ; 
nidi tfab differenct, ikwt die Doeon arauid 
the Cape of Good Hope, which Gana 
.was to ericountet, wai beficved to be, and 
.Ind been avoided bf. I>ia2^ as impafiable. 
Prince Henry /oggefted that the current of 
CftperBojadorm^ht beavoiddl byAandtne 
to tea, and thus that Cape was Mt pafie£ 
Gama for this reafon did not coaft, but 
Aood tt> feasor umwards of throe montlift of 
tiempeftuous weather. The tempefts which 
zttiQcd ^CoKunbus and Maealhaens, are by 
nlieir difereDt hilioriani deiaibed widi cir- 
cuinlknees of lefs horror and danger than 
-thofe which attacked Gama. All the 
zdiree coamaiiders .were endangered by 
mutiny; but none of their crews, fave 
•Gama's, could orge the opinion of ago, 
and the example ot a living captain, that 
/die dreadful ocean which they attempted was 
4innavigable. Cokunbos and Magalhaens 
always found means, after detecting a con- 
£>iracy, to keep the reft in hope; bat 
Gama's men, when he put the pilole in 
irons, continued in the utmoft defpair. Co- 
iumbus was indeed ill obeyed ; Magalfaaena 
fometimes little better: but nothing* fave 
^he wonderful asthorit^ of Gama's oom- 
inand, could have led his crew throng^ the 
«tempeft which he farmonated ere he doubled 
jthe C^ of Good Hope* Columbus, with 
Us crew, muft have returned. Tlie expe- 
dients with which he nfed to ibodie them* 
i«roald« under hii authority, have had no 
avail in the tempeft whidi Gama rode 
fthroagfa* Erom every circmdtance it is 
evident that Gama hii determined not to 
jotiim> jinleis he found India. Nodiiag 

lefs than iudi refidution to periih or attsun 
his poipt could have led him on. But Co- 
iumbns^iillob^ed indeed, ratumed fitmi 
the mo)ith of the river Oronoko, before he 
had made a certain difcovery whether the 
tuidwas iile or continent. When Gama 
met a ilrong current off Ethiopia, he bore 
t)n, though driven from his coorfe. Co- 
Iambus Peering fouthward in (earch of con- 
tinent, met great currents. He imagined 
they were the rifing of the fca towards the 
canopy of heaven, which for aug^ht he 
knew, fay the Authors of the Univerfid 
HiAory, tliev might touch towards dM 
ANith. He therefore turned his cottrie, and 
fleered to the well. The paiHw of the 
ffaidts of Magdlan, however hazardous, waa 
not attended with fuch danger as Gama ex* 
perienced at the Cape. The attempt to 
croTs the Pacific was gready daring, bat hb 
voyage in that fea was faam>y. The navi- 
ration of the (baits of Magellan and the 
Padfic avein this country little known ; bat 
the courfe of Gama is at this day infinitely 
more hazardous than that of Columbus. If 
Columbus found no pilots to conduct him^ 
hut encountered his greatefl dangers in 
femding his courfe among the nnmeroos 
weflem ifUnds, 'Gama, though in the In* 
dian ocean aflifted by pibts, had as great 
trials of his valour, and much greater ones 
of his prudence. The warlike ftrengthy 
and deep tivadierous arts of the Moors, were 
not ibund in the weil. All was ftmplidt/ 
among the natives there. The pudence 
and mefight of Gama and Columbus were 
of the highefl rate ; Magdhaens was in tfaefis 
fometimes rather inferior. He lofl his own, 
and the lives of the greatefl part of his 
crew, by haaardins a land cn^igement at 
the advice of a jocucial aflrologer. Spe the 
note on dtis line ; 

Ti matcb tfy Jiidi Jkdl MagMMnt mj^hi. 

LusiAD X. 


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tK>nfpirators and all the pilots in irons, and he himfelf, his 
brother, Coello, and fome others, llood night and day to the 
helms, and dire6ted the conrfe. At laft» after having many 
days, with unconquered mind, withftood the temped and an 
enraged mutiny, (molem perfidia) the ftorm Aiddenly ceaied» 
and they beheld the Cape of Good Hope. 

On November the ^oth all the fleet doubled that promon* 
tory, and fleering northward, coafted along a rich and beautiful 
ihore, adoraed with large forefts and numberlefs herds of cattle^ 
All was now alacrity j the hope that they had furmounted every 
danger revived their fpirits, and the admiral was beloved and 
admired. Here, and at the bay, which they named St. Rlas^ 
they took in provifions, and beheld thofe beautiful rural fcenes, 
defcribed by Camoens. And here the ftore iloop, now of no 
ferther fervice, was burnt by order of the admiral. On De- 
cember the 8 th a violent ftorm lirove the fleet from the fight 
ef land, and carried them to that dreadful current * which 
made the Moors deem it impo0ible to double the Cape. 
Gama, however, though unhappy in the time of navigating 
thefe feas, was fafely carried over the current by the violence 
•of a tempeft ; and having recovered the fight of land, as his 
fafeft courfe, he fteered northward along the coaft. On the 
loth of January they defcried, about 230 miles from their laft 
watering place, fome beautiful iflands, with herds of <:attle 
frifking in the meadows. It was a profound calm, and Gama 
flood near to land. The natives of this place, which he 
named Terra de Natal, were better drefled and more civilized 
than tboie they had hitherto feen. An eicchange of prefents 
was made, and the black king was fo pleafed with the polite- 
nefs of Gama, that he came aboard his (hip to fee him. On 
the r5th of January, in the dufk of the evening, they came to 
the mouth of a large river, whofe banks were (haded with 
trees loaded with frurt. On the return of day they faw feve- 

^ This current runs betwepn the Cape from thence named Comcntcs, ind the fottth-vftfc 
extremity of Madagafcar. 

h ^^ 

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ral liltlc boats with palm-tree leaves milking' towards then), 
and the natives came aboard without hefita^tion or fear. Gama 
received theiri kindly^ gave them an entertainment, and fome. 
filken garments, which they received with vifible joy. Only 
Qhc..o£ them however could fpeak a little broken Arabic. 
From him Fernan Martinho learned, that not far diftant was 
a country where fhips, in fhape and fize like Gama's, fre- 
quently ceforted. Hitherto Gama had found only the rudeft 
barbarians on the coafts of Africa, alike ignorant of India and 
c^ the. naval art. The information he here' received, that he, 
was drawing near to civiliaed countries, gave the adventurers 
great fpirits, and the admiral named this place The Riv^r of 
Qood Signs, 

Here, while Gamia careened and refitted his fliips, the crew? 
w^re attacked with a violent fgurvy, which carried oiF feveral 
of his men. Having taken in frefti provifions, on th? 24th 
of February he fet fail, and on the firft of March they defcried 
four iflands on the coaft of Mozambic. From one of thefe 
they perceived feven vfeflels in full fail bearing toward them. 
Thefe knew Gaina's (hip by the admirars enfign,, and made up 
to her, faluting her with loud huzzas and their inftruments of 
miific. Gama received them aboard, and entertained them 
with great kindnefs. The interpreters talked with them m 
Arabic. The ifland, in which was the principal harbour and 
trading town, they faid, was governed by a deputy of the king 
of Quiloa ; and many Saracen merchants,, thjcy added* were 
fettled here, who traded with Arabia, India, and other parts of 
the world. Gama was overjoyed, ajid the crew with uplifted, 
hands returned thanks to heaven. 

Pleafed with the prefents which Gama fent him, and inia- 
gining that the Portuguefe were Mohammedans from Morocco^ 
Zacocia the governor, dreffed in rich embroidery, came to con- 
gratulate the admiral on his arrival in tbQ.Eaft, As he ap- 
proached the fhips in great pomp, Gama removed the fick out 
of fight, and ordered all thofe in health to attend above deck, 
armed in the Portuguefe manners for he foreiaw, what^v^rould 


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happen when the Mohammedans (hould difcover their mis- 
take. During the entertainment provided for him, Zacocift 
feemed highly pleafed, and afked fevcral queftions about the 
arms and religion of the Grangers. Gama (hewed them his 
arms, and explained the force of his cannon,, but he did not 
afFeft to know much about religion ; however he frankly pro* 
mifed to fhew him his books of devotion whenever a few 
days refrefhment (hould give him a more convenient time. 
In the meanwhile he intreated Zacocia to fend him fome pilots 
who might conduft him to India. Two pilots were next day 
brought by the governor, a treaty of peace was folemnly con- 
cluded, and every office of mutual friend(hip feemcd to pro* 
mile a lading harmony. But it was foon interrupted, Zacocia^ 
as foon as he found the Portuguefe were Chriftians, ufed everf 
endeavour to deftroy them. The life of Gama was at- 
tempted. One of the Mdorifh pilots deferted, and fome of 
the Portuguefe, who were on (hore to get fre(h water, were 
attacked by feven barks of the natives, but were refcued by a 
timely alfiftance from the (hips. 

Befides the hatred of the Chriftian name, infpired by their 
religion, thefe Mohammedan Arabs had other reafons to wifli 
the deftruftion of Gama. Before this period, they were almofl 
the only merchants of the Eaft. Though without any empire 
in a mother countiy, they were bound together by language 
and religion, and like the modern Jews, were united together, 
though fcattered over various countries. Though they «<• 
fteemed the current off Cape Corrientes, and the tempeftuous 
feas around the Cape of Good Hope, as impaffable, they were 
the fole mafters of the Ethiopian, Arabian, and Indian feas j 
and had colonies in every place convenient for trade on the(e 
coafts. This crafty mercantile people clearly forefaw the con- 
fequences of the arrival of Europeans, and every art was fooA 
exerted to prevent fuch formidable rivals from efFefting any 
(ettlement in the Eaft. To thefe Mohammedan traders, the 
Portuguefe, on account of their religion, gaVe the name 
of Moors. ^ , - 

h a- Immediately 

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: Immediately after the fkirmifh at the watering-place, Gama, 
having one Moorifh pilot, fet fail, but was foon driven back 
to the fame ifland by tempeftuous weather. He now refolved 
to take in frelli water by force. The Moors perceived his in- 
tention, about two thoufand of wliom rifing frpm j^mbufh;, 
attacked the Portuguefe detachment. But the prudence of 
Gama had not been afleep. His fhips were ftationed with art, 
and his artillery not only difperfed the hoftile Moors, but re- 
duced, their town, which was built of wood, into a heap of 
afties. Among fome priibners taken by Paulus de Gama- was a 
pilot, and Zacocia begging forgivenefs for his treachery, fent 
another, wkofe (kill in navigation he greatly commended. 

A war with the Moors was now begun. Gama perceived 
that their j^aloufy of Europeaa riyals gave him nothing to 
expeft but fecret treachery and open hoftility ; and he knew 
what numerous colonies they had oa every trading coaft of the 
Eaft. . To imprefs them therefore with, the terror of his arms 
on their firft aft of treachery was worthy of a great com- 
mander. Nor was he remifs in his attention to the chief pi- 
]lot, who had been laft fent. He perceived in him a kind of 
anxious endeavour to bear near fome little iflands, and fuf- 
pefting there were unfeen rocks in that courfe, he confidently 
charged the pilot with guilt, and ordered him to be feverely 
whipped. The punifhment produced a confeffion, and pro- 
mifes of fidelity. And he now advifed Gama to ftarid for 
.Quiloa, which he affured him was. inhabited by Chriftians. 
Three Ethiopian Chriftians had come aboard while at Zacocia's 
ifland, and the current opinions of Preftor John's country in- 
clined Gama to try if he could find a port, where he might 
«xpe£l the affiftance of a people of his own religion. A vio- 
lent ftorm, however> drove the fleet from Quiloa, and being 
now near Mombaze, the pilot advifed him to enter that har- 
bour, where, he faid, there were alfo many Chriftians. 

The city of Mombaza is agreeably fituated on aa ifland, 
formed by a river which empties itfelf into the fea by two 
mouths. The buildings are lofty and of fixm ftone, and the 


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country abounds with fruit trees and cattle. Gama, happy ta 
find a harbour where eTcry thing wore the appearance of civi- 
lization, ordered the ftiips to caft anchor, * which was fcarcely 
done> when a galley in which were loo men in TurJdfh 
habits armed with bucklers and fabres, rowed up to the flag 
ihip. All of thefe feemed defirous to come aboard, but only 
four, who by their drefe feemed oificers, were admitted ; nor 
were thefe allowed, till ftript of their arms* As foon as oa 
boards they extolled the prudence of Gama in refufing admit- 
tance to armed ftrangers ; and by their behariour feemed defiroua 
to gain the goojl opinion of the adventurers. Their country,, 
they boafted, contained all the riches of India, and their king, 
they profeffed, w;as ambitious of entering into a friendly treaty 
with the Portuguefe, with whofe renO;Wn he was well ac- 
quainted. And that a conferencef with his majefty and the. 
offices of friendfhip might be rendered more convenient, Gama 
was rcquefted and advifed to enter the harbour. As no place, 
could be more commodious for the recovery of the fick, and 
the w:hole fleet was fickly, Gama refolved to enter the port j 
and in the meanwhile fent two- <^ the pardoned criminals as* 
an embafly to the king. Thefe the king treated with the 
greateft kindnefs, ordered his officers to fhew them the ftrength: 
and opulence of his city ; and on their return to the navy, he. 
fent a prefent to Gama of the moft valuable fpiccs,.of which 
he bpafted fuch abundance, that the Pprtuguefe, he faid, if 
they regarded their own intereftj, would feek for. no other. 

To. make treaties of commerce was the bufinefs of Gama ^ 
one fo advantageous, and fo defired by the natives, was there- 
fore not to be refufed. Fully fatisfied by the report of his. 
ipies, he ordered to weigh anchor, and enter the harbour. 
His own fliip led the way, when a fudden violence of the tide, 
made Gama apprehenlive of running aground. He therefore- 
ordered his fails to be furled and the anchors to be dropt, and 
gave a fignal for the others to follow his example. This 
manauVre,. and the cries of the failors in executing it„ 


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alarmed the Mozambic pilots. Confcious of their treachery, 
they thought their defign was difcovered, and leapt into the 
fea. Some boats of Mombaza took them up, and refufing to 
put them on board, fet them fafely on fliore, though the ad- 
miral repeatedly demanded the reftoration of the pilots. Thefo 
circumftances, evident proofs of treachery, were farther con- 
firmed by the behaviour of the king of Mombaza. In the 
middle of the night Gama thought he heard fome noife, and 
on examination, found his ftiips furrounded by a great number 
of Moors, who, in the utmofi privacy, endeavoured to cut hU 
cables. But their fchemc was defeated 5 and Ibme Arabs, who 
remained on board confeffed that no Chriftians were refident 
cither at Quiloa or Mombaza. The ftorm which drove them 
from the one place, and their late efcape at the other, were 
now beheld as manifeftations of the Divine favour ; and 
Gama, holding up his hands to heaven, afcribed his fafety to 
the care of Providence *• Two days, however, elapfed, beforcf 
they could get clear of the rocky bay of Mombaze, • and 
having now ventured to hoift their fails, they fleered for Me- 
linda, a port, they had been told, where many merchants frbfti 
India reforted. In their way thither they took a Moorifti vef- 
fel, out of which Gama felefled fourteen prifoners, one of 
whom he perceived by his mien to be a perfon of diftinftion. 
By this Saracen Gama was informed, that he was near Me- 
linda, that the king was hofpitable, and celebrated for his 
faith, and that four fhips from India, commanded by Chriftian; 
mailers, were in that harbour. The Saracen alfo offered to ^ 
go as Gama*s meffenger to the king, and promifed to procure 
him an able pilot to conduft him to Calicut, the chief port 
of India. 

As the coaft of Melinda appeared to be dangerous, Gama 
anchored at fome diftance from the city, and unwilling to 
hazard any of his men, he landed the Saracen on an ifland op- 

* U afterwards appeared, that the Moorilh king of Mombassa had. been informed of 
wh«l happeaed at Mozambict and intended to revenge it by the total deftruaion of 

At fleet!* ' ** . ' "HI 


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pofite to the to^n. * This was obfervct^, and* the ftranger was 
brought before the king, to whom he gave fo favourable an 
account of the politencfe and humanity of Gama, that a pre- 
fent of fcveral Iheep, and fruits of all forts, was fent by his ma- 
jefty to the admiral, who had the happinefs^ to find the truth of 
what bis prifoner had told him, confirmed by the mafters of 
the four Ihips from India. Thcfe were Chriftians from Cam- 
baya. They were tranfported with joy on the arrival of the 
Portuguefe, and gave feveral ufeful infl:ru6lions to the admiraU 
The city of Melinda was fituated in a fertile, plain, fur- 
rounded with gardens ^nd groves of orange-trees, whofe 
flowers, diflfufed a mpft grateful odour* The paflures were 
covered with herds, and the houies built of fquare ftoncs, were 
both elegant and magnificent. Dcfiroua to make an alliance 
with fuch a ftate, Qama requited the civility of the king with 
the moft grateful acknowledgpients. He drew nearer the 
fliore, and urged his inflrudioiW^s apology for not landing to 
wait upon his majefty in perfon- The apology was accepted ^ 
and the king, whofe age and infirmities prevented himfelf, 
fent his fon to congratulate Gama, and enter into a treaty 
of friendfhip.. The prince, w1k> had fbmetime governed under 
the direftion of his father, came in great pomp. His drefs 
was royally magnificent, the nobles who attended him dis- 
played all the riches of filk and embroidery, and the mufic of 
Melinda refounded all over the b^y* Gama, to exprefs his re- 
gard, met him in the admiral's barge. The prince, as foon as 
he came up, leapt into it, and diftihguifhing the admiral by 
his habit, embraced him with all the intimacy of old friend-* 
fhip. In their converfation, which was long and fprightly, he 
difcovered nothing of the barbarian, fays Oforius, but in 
every thing fliewed an intelligence and politenefs worthy of 
his high rank. He accepted the fourteen Mpors, whom Gama 
gave to him, with great pleaftire; . He feeraed to view Gama 
with enthufiafm, and confeffed that the make of the Portu- 
guefe fhips, fo much fuperior to what he had feen, convinced 
him of the greatnefs of that people. He gav^ Gama an abje 


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pilot, named Melemo Cana, to condu6l him to Calicut; and 
requefted, that on his return to Europe, he would carry an 
ambaffador with him to the court of Lifbon. During the 
few days the fleet flayed at Melinda, the mutual friendfliip 
ixicreafed, and a treaty of alliance was concluded. And 
now, on April 22, refigning the helm to his fkilful and 
honefl: pilot, Gama hoifted fail and fleered to the north. In 
a few days they paffed the line, and the Portuguefe with 
cxtacy beheld the appearance of their native Iky. Orion, 
Urfa major and minor, and the other flars about the 
northern pole, were now a more joyful difcovery than the 
ibuth * pole had formerly been to them. Having pafTed the 
meridian, the pilot now flood direftly to the eafl, through the 
Indian -ocean ; and after failing about three weeks, he had the 
happinefe to <:ongratulate Gama on the view of the mountains 
of India. Gama, tranfported with extacy, returned thanks to 
heaven, and ordered all his prifoners to be fet at liberty, that 
every heart might tafle of the joy of his fucccfsful voyage. 

About two leagues from Calicut Gama ordered the fhips to 
.anchor, and was foon furraunded by a number of boats. By 
one of tliefe he fent one of the pardoned criminals to the city. 
The appearance of unknown vefTels on their coafl brought 
hnmenfe crowds around the flranger, who no fboner entered 
Calicut, than he was lifted from his feet and carried hither 
and thither by the concourfe. Though the populace and the 

^ • A circamfbnce in the letters of Ame- to mark them out. — All this is truly cu- 
rlgo Vefpucd deferves remark. Defcribing rioas> and affords a good comment on the 
his voyage xo America, having paft the temper of the man rnio had the art to de- 
line, fays he, "^ came defiderofo dUJfir$ fraud Colam bus, by giving his own jiame 

Autore che/egnaJHilaftella deiirous to be to America, of whidi he challetij^ed the 

the namer and difcoverer of the pole ftar of difcovery. Near fifty years befwe the 

the other hemifphere, I loft my fleep many voyage of Amerigo Vefpucd the Portvgiiefe 

nights in contemplating the ftars of the other had croiTed the line; and Diaz fourteen, 

pole." He then laments* that as his in- and Gama near three years before, had 

ftruments could not difcover any ilar of lefs doubled the Cape of Good Hope, had dif- 

motion than ten degrees, he had not the covered ieven ftars in the conflellatiop of 

fatisfadiion to give a name to any one. . But the fouth pole, and from the appearance of 

as he obferved four flars, in form of an al- the four moft luminous » had given it the 

mond, which had but little motion, he name of T/t^ Cre/J, a figure which it better 

hoped in his next voyage be ihould be able refembles than that of an almond. . 


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ftranger were alike eameft to be underftood, their language 
was unintelligible to each other» till^ happy for Gama in the 
event, aMoorifh merchant accofted his melfenger in the^paniih 
tongue. The next day this Moor, 'who was named Monzaidsr; 
waited upon Gama on board his ihip. He was a native of 
Tunis, and the chief perfon, he faid, with whom John II. had 
at that port contracted for military ftores. He was a man of 
abilities and great intelligence of the world, and an admirer of 
the Portuguefe valour and honour. The engaging behaviour 
of Gama heightened his efteem into the (incereft attachment. 
He offered to be interpreter for the admiral, and to ferve him 
in whatever befides he could poffibly befriend him* And thus, 
by one of thofe unforefeen circumftances which often decide 
the greateft events^ Gama received a friencL who foon rendered 
him the moft critical and important fervie^. 

At the firft interview, Monzaida gave Gama the filled: m« 
formation of the clime, extent, cuftoms, religions, «ek1 various^ 
riches of India, the commerce of the Moors, and the charaCler 
of the fovereign. Calicut was not only the imperial city» but 
the greateft port. The king or Zamorim^ who reiided here^ 
was acknowledged as emperor by the neighbouring princes i 
and as his revenue confifted chidly of duties on mer<;handire» 
he had always encouraged the refort of foreigners to his 

Plea&d with this promiiing proipe^, Gama lent two of hia 
officers wkh Monzaida to wait on the Zamorii» ^t hlA j^ce 
of Pandarene, a few miles from the «ty. Thcy were admitted 
to the royal apartment, and delivered their embaffy 5 to which 
the Zamorim replied, that the arrival of the admiral of fo^ 
great a prince as Emmanuel, gave him inexprejSlhle pleafure» 
and that he would willingly embcace the offered alliance. In 
the meanwhile, as their prefent ftation was extreamly dan^ 
gerous, he advifed them to bring the (hips nearer to Panda-* 
rene, and for this purpofe he fent a pilot to the fteet. 

A few days after, the Zamorim fent hia firit mioifter, or 
Catual, attended by feveral of the Nayrcs, or nihility, to jcon- 

i duft 

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duft Gama to the royal palace. As an interview with the Zar^ 
morim was abfolutcly neceffary to compleat the purpofb of 
his voyage, Gama immediately agreed to it, though the trea- 
tdiery he had already experienced, fmce his arrival in the eaftern 
feas, die wed him the perfonal danger which he thus hazarded. 
He gave the command of the fhips during his ahfence to his 
brother Paulus and his friend Coello -, and in the orders he 
left them he difplaydd a heroilm, fuperior to that of Alexander 
when he croffed the Granicus, That of the Macedonian was. 
ferocious and frantic, the offspring of vicious ambition -, that 
of Gama was ihe child of the ftrongeft reafbn, and the moft 
valorous mental dignity: It was the high pride of honour, a. 
pride, which the man, who in the fury of battle may be able: 
to rufh on to the mouth of a cannon, may be utterly inca- 
pable of, even in idea. 

The revenue of the Zamorim arofe chiefly from the traffur 
of the Moors 5 the various colonies of thefe people were com- 
bined in one intereft, and the jealoufy and conilernation. which, 
his arrival in the eaftern feas had fpread among them,: were 
circumftances well known to Gama: And he^fcncw alfo what 
he had to cxpeft both from their force and their fraud. But 
duty and honour required him to compleat the purpole of his 
voyage. He left peremptory conunand, that if he was de- 
tained a prifoner, or any attempt made upon his life, they, 
fliould take no ftep to fave him, to give ear tana meffage: 
which might come in his name for fuch purpole, and to enter 
into no negotiation on his behalf. Though they were to keep 
fomc boats near the Ihore, to favour his efcape if he perceived 
treachery ere detained by force 5 yet the moment that forcer 
rendered his efcape impracticable, they were to fet fail, and ta 
carry the tidings of the difcovery of India to the king, of Por- 
tugal. For as this was his oftly concern, he would fuffer no 
rifls: that might lofe a man, or endanger the homeward vayage. 
Having left thefe unalterable orders, he went afliore with the 
Catual, attended only by twelve of his own men, for he would 
not weaken the naval force, though he knew that the pomp 


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of attendance would have been greatly in his favour at the 
court of India. 

As foon as landed, he and the Catual were carried in great 
pomp, in fbfas, upon mens ihoulders, to the chief temple ; and 
from thence, amid immenfe crouds, to the. royal palace. The 
apartment and drefs of the Zamorim were (uch as might be 
expe£led from the luxury and wealth of India* The emperor 
lay reclined on a magnificent couch, furrounded with his no- 
bility and minifters of ftate. Gama was introduced to him 
by a venerable old man, the chief Bramin. His majefty, by a 
gentle nod, appointed the Admiral to fit on one of the fteps 
of his ibfa, and then demanded his embalTy. It was againft 
the cuftom of his country, Gama replied,. to deliver his in« 
ftrudions in a public aflembly, he therefore defired that the 
king and a few of his minifters would, grant him a private 
audience. This was complied with, and Gama, in' a manly 
fpeech, fet forth the greatnefs of his ibvereign Emmanuel, the 
fame he had heard of the Zamorim, and the defire he had to 
enter into an alliance with fo great a prince i nor were the 
mutual advantage& of fuch a treaty, omitted by the Admiral. 
The Zamorim, in reply, profefTed great efteem for the friend- 
ihip of the king of Portugal, and declared his readinefs to en«- 
ter into a friendly alliance. He then ordered the Catual fo 
provide proper apartments for Gama in his houfe ; and having 
promifed another conference, hedifmiiTed the Admiral with all 
the appearance pf . fincerity. 

The chara£ter of this monarch is ftrongly. marked in the 
hiftory of Portuguefe Afia. Avarice was his ruling paffioil ; 
he was h^uightyor.mean^ bold or timorous, as his intereft rofe 
or fell in the balance of his. judgment; wavering and irreib<* 
lute whenever the fcales feemed doubtful which to preponde- 
\|rate. He was pleafed with the profpe£t of bringing the com- 
' merce. of Europe to his harbours, but he was aUb influenced 
by the threats of the Moors. 

Three days elapfed. ere Gama was again permitted to fee 
the Zamorim. At this fccond audience he prefented the letter 

i 2 and 

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and prefents of Emmanocl^ The letter was received witfa 
politenefs, but the prefents were viewed with an eye of ccm- 
teznpt. Gama bcfadd it, and fiiid he only came to difcover 
the route to India, and therefcMre was not charged with va-^ 
luable gifts, ere the friendfhip of the ftatc> where they might 
chufe to traffic, was known. Yet that indeed he brought the 
moft valuable of all gifts, the oflSbr of the friendihip of his 
ibvereign^ and the commerce of his country. He then en*-' 
treated the king not to reveal the contents of Emmanuel's let-^ 
ter to the Moors^ and the king with great feeming friendihip 
defined Gama to guard againft the perfidy of that people. And 
at this time, it is highly probable^ the Zamorim was fincere. 

Every hour £iice the anival of Gama, the Moors had 
held focret ccmferences. That one man might not return 
was their purpofe^ and every method to accomplifh this was 
meditatod^ To influence the king againft the Portugoefe, to 
aiTaffinate Gama, to raiCe a general infurre6tion, to deftroy the 
foreign navy, and to bribe the Catual, were determined. And 
the CatoaU the mafter of the houfe where Gama lodged, ac-^ 
cepted the bribe, and entered into their intereft. Gama, how-* 
ever, was apprifed of ail thefe drcumfkances, by his faithful 
interpreter Monzaida, whofe affe^on to the foreign Admiral 
the Moors tutherto had not fufpe&ed. Thus informed, and 
having obtained the ^th of an alfiance from the fovereign of 
the firft port of India, Gama reiblved to elude die plots of 
the Moors; and accordingly, before the dawn, he fet out for 
the fea fliore, in hope to efcape by fome of the boats which he 
had ordered to hover about the coaft. 

But the Moors were vigilant. His abfence was immediatdy 
known ; and the Catual, by the king's order, purfued and 
brought him back by fwce. The Cati^ however, for it was 
neceflary for thdr fchemes to have the (hips in their power^ 
behaved with great politenefs to the Admiral, though now 
detained as a prifoner, and ftill continued his Qpedous pro-^^ 
mifes to ufe all his intereft in his behalf » 


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The eagernef* of the Moors now contributed to the fafety, 
of Gama. Their principal merchants were admitted to a 
formal audience, when one of their orators accufed the Portu- 
guefe 4M a nation of faithlefs plunderers : Gama» he £»id, was . 
an exiled pirate, who had marked his courfe with depredation 
and blood. If he were not a pirate, ftill there was no excufe 
for giving fuch warlike foreigners any footing in a country 
already fupplied with all that mature and commerce could give. 
He expatiated on the great fervices which the Mooriih traders 
had rendered to Calicut, or wherever they fettled j and ended, 
with a threat, that all the Moors would leave the Zamorim's 
ports, and find fome other fettlement, if he permitted thefe 
foreigners to have any (hare in the commerce of his dominions.,. 

However ftaggered with thefe arguments and threats, the . 
Zamorim was not blind to the felf-intereft and malice of the. 
Moors. He therefore ordered, that the Admiral ihould once 
more be brought before him. In the meanwhile the Catual. 
tried many ftratagnns to get the fhips into the harbour } and, 
at laft, in the name of his mafter, made an abfolute demand 
that the fails and rudders fhould be delivered up^ as the pledge 
of Gama's honefty. But thefe demands were as abfolutely re- 
fused by Gama, who fent a letter to his brother by Mon^aida, 
enforcing his former orders in the ftrongeft manner, declaring, 
that his fate gave him no concern, that he was only unhappy^^ 
left the fruits of all their labours and dangers ihotild be loft. 
After two days fpent in vain altercation with the Catual, 
Gama was brought as a prifoner before the king. The king 
repeated his accufatioii, upbraided him with non-compliance 
to the requefts of his minifter; yet urged him, if he were an 
exile or pirate, to confefs freely, in which cafe he promifed to 
take him into his fervice, and highly promote him on account 
of his abilities. But Gama, who with great fpirit had baffled 
all the ftratagems of the Catual, behaved with the fame un- 
daunted bravery before the king. He aiTerted his innocence, 
pointed out the malice of the Moors, and the improbability 


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of his piracy; boafted of the fafefy of his fleet, offered his 
life rather than his fails and rudders^ and concluded with 
threats in the name of his fovereign. The Zamorim, during 
the whole conference, eyed Gama with the keenefi attention, 
and clearly perceived in his unfaultering mien the dignity of 
truth, and the confcioufnefs that he was the Admiral of a great 
Monarch. In their late addrefs, the Moors had treated the 
Zamorim as fomewhat dependant upon them, and he faw that 
a commerce with other nations would certainly leffen their 
dangerous importance. His avarice ftrongly defired the com- 
merce of Portugal ; and his pride was flattered in humbling 
the Moors. After many propofals, it was at laft agreed, that 
of Gama's twelve attendants, he fhould leave feven as hoftages ; 
that what goods were aboard his vefTels (hould be landed, and 
that Gama (hould be fafely condu6led to his fhip ; after which 
the treaty of commerce and alliance was to be finally fettled. 
And thus, when the ai&ffination of Gama feemed inevitable, 
the Zamorim fuddenly dropt the demand of the fails and the 
rudders, refcued him from his determined enemies, and re^ 
ftored him to liberty and the command of his (hips. 

As foon as he was aboard ^ the goods were landed, accom- 
panied by a . letter from Gama to the Zamorim, wherein he 
boldly complained of the treachery of the CatuaU The Za- 
morim, in anfwer, promifed to make enquiry, and to puni(h 
him if guilty s but did nothing in the affair. Gama, who had 
now anchored nearer to the city, every day fent two or three 
different perfons on fome bu(ine& to Calicut, that as many of 
his men as poflible might be able to give fome account of 
India. The Moors; in the meanwhile, every day a(raulted the 
cars of the king, who now began to waver; when Gama, who 
had given every proof of his defire of peace and frienddiip, 
fent another letter, in which he requefted the Zamorim to per- 
mit him to leave a conful at Qalicut, to nianage the affairs of 
king Emmanuel. But to this requeft, the moft reafonable re« 

• Faria y Sooia. 


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fiilt of a commercial treaty, the Zamorim teturned a refufal 
full of rage and indignation. Gama^ now fully mailer of the 
character of the Zamorim> refolved to treat a man of fuch an 
inconflant ctiihonourable difpofition with a contemptuous fi- 
lence. This contempt was felt by the king, who yielding to 
the advice of the Catual and the entreaties of the Moors, 
feized the Portuguefe goods, and ordered two of the feven 
hoftages, the two who had the charge of the cargo, to be put 
ih irons. The Admiral remonflrated by the means of Mon- 
zaida, but the king ftilt periifted in his treacherous breach of 
royal faith. Repeated folicitations made him more haughty ; 
and it was now the duty and intereft of Gama to ufe force. 
He took a veffel in which were fix Nayres or noblemen, and 
nineteen of their fervants. The fervaiits he fet afhore to re- 
late the tidings, the noblemen be detained. As foon as the 
news had time to fpread through the city, he hoifled his fails, 
and though with a flow motion, feemed to proceed on his 
homeward voyage. The city was now in an uproar y the 
friends of the captive noblemen furrounded the palace^ dnd 
loudly accufed the policy of the Moors. The king, in all the 
perplexed diftrefs of a haughty, avaritious, weak prince, fent 
after Gama, delivered up all the hoftages, and fi^bmitted to* 
his propofals ; nay, even folicited that an agent fliould^be left, 
and even defcended to the meannefs of a palpaMe lie^ The 
two faftors, he faid,- he had put in irons,, only ta detain them 
till he might write letters to his brother Emmanuel,, arid the 
goods he had kept on fliore that an agent might be fent to 
difpofe of them. Gama, however, perceived a myfterious 
trifling, and, previous to any treaty, infifted upon the rcftora- 
tion of the goods. 

The day after this altercation, Monzaida came aboard the 
Admiral's Ihip in great perturbation.. The Moors, he faid» 
had raifed great commotions, and had enraged the kingagainft 
the Portuguefe, The king's fliips were getting ready, and a 
numerous Moorifti fleet from Mecca was daily expefted. To 
delay Gama till this force arrived, was the purpofe of the: 


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court and of the Moors, who were now confident of fuccefs. 
To this information Monzaida added, that the Moors, fufpef):* 
ing his attachment to Gama, had determined to afTaffinate him. 
That he had tiarrowly efcaped from them ; that it was impof^ 
iible for him to recover his efFe£ts, and that his only hope was 
in the protection of Gama. Gama rewarded him with the 
friendfhip he merited, took him with him. as he defired, to 
Lifbmi, and procured him a recompence for his fervices. 

Almoft immediately after Monzaida, feven boats arrived, 
loaded with the goods, and demanded the reiloration of the 
captive noblemen. Gama took the goods on board, but re-*' 
fufed to examine if they were entire, and alfo refufed to deliver 
thd prifoners. He hsid been promifed an iambafTador to his 
fovereign, he faid, but had been to often deluded, he could truft 
fuch a faithlefs people no longer, and would therefore carry the 
captives in his power, to convince the king of Portugal what 
infiilts and injvftice his Ambaflkdor and Admiral had fufS^ed 
from the ^amorim of Calicut. Having thus difmifled the 
Indians, he fired his cannon and hoifted hip fails. A calm^ 
ho^eirer, detained him on the coaft Tome days, and the Zamo* 
rim feizing the opportunity, fent what veflels he could fit out» 
twenty of a larger flzq, fixty in all, full of armed men, to at- 
tack him. Though Gama's cannon were well played, confident 
of their numbers, they preflfed on to board him, when a ftidden 
tempeft, which Gama's (hips rode out in fafety, miferably dif- 
peifed the Indian fleet, and compleated their ruin. 

After this viftory, the Admiral made a halt at a little ifland 
near the (hore, where he erefted a crofs *, bearing the name 
and arms of his Portuguefe majefty. And from this place, by 
the hand of Monzaida, he wrote a letter to the Zamorim, 
wherein he gave a full and circumftantial account of all the 
plots of the Catual and the Moors. Still, however, he pro- 

* Itms Ae CQAom of the $rft difcoveren one to St. George, at Moztmkic, one to 

tpereacaofletonplactsremarlubkintheir St. Stephen, at Melindii, one to St. Gar 

voyafie. Gama eieaed fix; one» dedicated briel, at Calicut, and one to St. Mary, at 

CO St. Rqphaelt at the dver of Good Signs, the ifland thoice named, near Anchediva. 


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feflfed his defire of a commercial treaty^ and promifed to re- 
prefent the Zamorim in the beft light to Emmanuel.. The 
prifbners, he faid, fhould be kindly ufed, were only kept as - 
ambafiadors to his fovereign, and fhould be returned to India 
when they were enabled from experience to give an account of 
Portugal. The letter he fent by one of the captives, who by 
this means obtained his liberty. 

" The fame of Gama had now f^cad over the Indian feas, and 
the Moors were every where intent on his deftru6t:ion. As he 
was near the Ihore of Anchcdiva, he behdd the appearance of 
a floating ifle, covered with trees, advance towards him. But 
his prudence was not to be thus deceived. A bold pirate, 
named Timoja, by linking together eight veiFels full of men, 
and coveced with green boughs, thought to board him by fur*. 
pri2e. But Gama's cannon made feven of them fly ; the eighth, 
loaded with fruits and proviflons, he took; The beautiful 
ifland of Anchcdiva now ofiered a convenient place to careen 
his fliips and refrefh his men. While he (laid here, the firfl: 
mimfler of Zabajo king of Goa, one of the moA pQweif ul 
princesvof India, came on bpard, and in the name of his maf^ 
ter, congratulated the Admifal in the Italian tongue. Provi* 
ficKtf , arms, and money were offered to Gama, and he was en<- 
treated to accept the fricndfliip of Zabajo. The Admiral was 
ftruck with admirat^, the addrefs and abilities of .the minifier 
appeared fo confpicuouB. He faid he was an Italian by birth, 
but in failing, to Greece, ' had been taken by pirates, and after 
various misfortunes, had been neceflitated to enter into the 
fcrvice of a Mohammedan prince, the noblenefs of whofe dit- 
pofition he commended in the highefl: terms. Yet, with all his 
abilities, Gama perceived an artful inquilitivenefs, that name-* 
lefs ibmething which does not accompany fimple .honeffyii. 
After a long .conference, Gama abruptly upbraided bim^ as a 
fpy, and ordered him to be put to the torture— And thi? fQoa 
brought a confeflion, that he was, a Polonian Jew by birth, 
and was fent to examitte.the ftrerigtii of the Portuguefe by 
Zabajo, who was muftering /all. his power tPftttacVt *^«^n^ 

.. I . k G^rna 

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Oama on this immediately fet (ail, and took the fyy aloh^ With 
him, who fo<»i after was baptized, and named Jafper de Gama» 
the Admiral bdng his godfather. He afterwards became o^ 
great fervice to Emmanuel. 

Gama now ftood weftward through the Indian ocean, and 
after bang long delayed by calms, arrived off Magadoxa^ on 
the coaft of Africa. This place was a principal port of the 
Moors J he therrfore Icvellecf the walls of the city with his 
canncm> and burned and deftroyed all the ihips in the har- 
bour. Soon s^er this he defcried eight Moorifh veiTels bearing 
down upon him ; his artillery, however, ibon made them u£c 
their oars in flight, nor could Gama overtake any c^ them foe; 
want of v^nd. He now reached the ho^able harbour of Me* 
Itnda. His men, almoft worn out with fatigue and ficikoefs, here, 
received, a (econd time, every afiiftance wfcuch an acoomplxihecl 
atid generous prince could beftow. And hainng taken an am* 
baflkdor on board, he again gave his ikils to the wind, in trail that " 
he might pafs the Cape of Good Hope while the favourable, 
weadier continued, for his acquaintance with the eaftern ifeas 
itow fuggefted to him, that the tempeftuous ifeaibn waspe^ 
nodical. Soon after he fet iail, his brother's fhip ftradc on « 
iaiid bank, and was burnt by order of the adniral. His faro-^ 
^ler and part of the crew he took into his own fhip> the re£b 
he fent on board of Coello ^ nor were iflbre hands now alive 

. than were neceflary to man the two veifels which remained* 
Having taken in provifions at the ifland of Zanzibar, where 
they were kindly entertained by a Mohammedan prince of the 
iame {t& with the king of Melinda^ they iafely doubled the 
Ckpe of Good Hope on April a6, 1499, ^^^ continued till 
tiiey reached the ifland of St. lago in favourable weather. But 
H tempeft here feparated the two flnps, and gave Gama and 
C6ello an opportunity to ihew the goadnefs of their hearts, ia 
a manner which does honour to human nature. 

The Admiral was now near the Azores, when Paulus de 

^^ma, long wom with fatigue and ficknefs, was unable to eo« 
dttre the mo^oa of the; ihip. Vafco» therefor^, put into the 


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iflandof Teroaoi, in liopeof hia farodicr*s recqrerf. Aaii fiicfi 
was his affection, that rather than leave him, he gave the com-^ 
mand of his ihip to one of his officers. But the hope of re- 
toyerj was taih« John de Sa proceeded (e Lifbon with the 
flag dup» while, the admiral remained hchind to fbothe the 
death bed of his brother, . and perforqi his funeral rites^ 
CoellO) in the mean white, landed at liibon, and hearing that 
Gama was not aniired^ imagined he might either be ihipwrockedi 
or beating about in diflrefs. Without feeing one of his fa- 
mily, he immediately fet fail, on purpofe to bring relief to his 
friend and admiral. But this generous defign, more the eSkQ: 
of friendihip than of juft confideration, was prevented by an 
order from the king, ere his (hip got out of the Tagus. 

The particulars of the voyage were now diffufed by Coello, 
and the joy of the king was only equalled by the admiration of 
the people. Yet while all the nation was fired with zeal to ex« 
prefs their elleem of the happy Admiral, he himfelf, the man 
who was fuch an enthufiaft to the fuccefs of his voyage, that 
he would willingly have iacrificed his life in India to fecure that 
fuccefs, was now, in the completion of it, a dejeAed moumen 
The compliments of the court and the fhouts of the ftreet 
were irkfome to him, for his brother, the companion of his 
toils and dangers, was not there to (hare the joy. As foon as 
he had waited on the king, he fhut himfelf up in a lonely 
houfe near the fea fide at Bethlehem, from whence it was 
ibmetime ere he was drawn to mingle in public life. 

During this important expedition, two years and almoft 
two months elapfed. Of i6o men who went out, only 55 re* 
turned. ^Thefe were all rewarded by the king. Coello was 
penfion^ with 100 ducats a year, and made a fidalgo, or 
gentleman of the king's houfhold, a degree of nobility in 
Portugal. The title of Don was annex^ to the family of 
Vafco de Gama ; he was appointed* admiral of the eaftern Teas, 
with an annual falary of 3000 ducats, and a part of the 
king's arms was added to his« Public thankfgivings to heaven 
were celebrated throughout tlie churches of the kingdoni, and 
Z : -- ;.' k ^ fcafts. 

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feafts, interlades^ and chivalrous entertainments, tBe tafte of 
that age, demonftrated the joy of Portugal. 

As the prophetic Song in the tenth Luiiad requires a com^^ 
xnentary, we fhall now proceed to a compendious hiftory of 
the negociations and w^rs' of the Portuguefe in India ; a 
hiftory, though very little known, yet of the utmoft impor-* 
tance to every commercial ftate, particularly to that nation 
which now commands the trade of the Eaftem World. 


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( Ixix. ) 

H I S T O R Y 

O F T H £ 


O P T H E 


THE power, intereft, and difpofition of the Moors, the 
mafters of the eaftern feas, pointed out to Emmanuel 
what courfe he ought to follow, if he intended to reap either 
honour or advantage from the difcovery of India. The ac- 
cumulated treachery of the Moors had kindled a war 3 force 
was now neceffary ; a fleet therefore of thirteen fail and 1500 
men was fitted out for India, and the command of it given to 
an experienced officer, Pedro Alvarez de Cabral. 

The chief inftru6lions of Cabral, were to enter into a treaty 
of friendftiip with the Zamorim, and to obtain leave to build 
a fort and faftory near Calicut. But if he found that prince 
ftill perfidious, and averfe to an alliance, he was to proceed to 
hoftilities on the firft inftance of treachery. 

Cabral, in this voyage, was driven to America by a tempefl:, 
and was the firft who difcovered the Brazils. As he doubled 
the fouth of Africa, he encountered a moft dreadful ftorm 1 
the heavens were covered with pitchy darknefs for many days> 
and the waves and winds vied with each other in noife and 
fury. Four fhips were loft, and all their crews perifliedj 
among whom was the celebrated Bartholomew Diaz, the dif- 
coverer of the Cape of Good Hope, which, as if prophetic of 
his fate, he had named the Cape of Tempefts. 

' When 

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Ixx P O R T U U fe S 5 ASIA. 

: When Cabml reached th« coaft of Zofala^ he had only fix 
ihips. Here he engaged and took two Moorifh veiTels, Udcn 
moftly with gold diLft. But finding they belonged to the 
Xeque Foteyma, an uncle of the king of Melinda, he not only 
reftoYed the ^zes, bat treated the Xeque with the greateft 
courtefy. At Mozambique he agreed with a pilbt to coinduf): 
him to Quiloa. The king of this place and the admiral had 
a pompous interview* An alliance was folemnly concluded. 
But Homeris^ brother to. the king of Melinda, was at Quiloa^ 
and by him Cabral was informed of a treacherous preparation 
to attack him. As his deftination was for Calicut, he delayed 
reve.T^e^ aad proceeded to Melinda. . Here he landed the Me- 
lindian ambafTador, who had been fent to Portugal ; and here 
his generous treatment of Foteyma ftrengthened the friend* 
i!hip and good offices which had begun with Gama* 
; When he arrived at Calicut, whither he was conducted by 
two Melindian pilots, he fent Ayres Correa on ftiore to iettlc 
tlie manner how the Zamorim and the admiral were to meet. 
Six principal Bramins, whofe names were brought from Por- 
tugal by the advice of Monzaida, were given as hoftages for 
the fafety of the admiral i and the Indian noblemen, who had 
been carried away by Gama, were returned. After much de« 
lay with the wavering Zamorim, a commercial alliance, by 
which the Portuguefe vcffels were to receive their ladiiig be- 
fore thofe of any other nation, was folemnly confirmed by 
oathj and a houfe was appointed as a faftory for the Portu- 
guefe. Of this,. Correa, with fevcnty men under his com-^ 
Itaand, in the name of the king his mafter, took immediate 

If the fmalleft circumftances in the hiltory of an infant co- 
lony are not attended to, the fecret ^ings and principles of 
aSlion efcape us, and we are fure to be led into error. Cabral'^ 
fleet was to be laded with fpicery ; but the Moorifh merchants, 
ftin intent on the ruin of their rivals the Portuguefe, did every 
ihing in their power to retand it, in hope of another rupture. 
While promifes toti^abtal trifled away the time, the Zamorim 


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defired kis afltftance to take a large (hip belonging to the 
Id^g of Cochin* who not only intended to invade his donu- 
nions, he raid* but had alfo refttied to fell him an elephant, 
which was now aboard that (hip. There were two Moorl0i 
agents with whom Cabral was obliged to traniaA bufineTs, 
One of thefe named Cemireci* pretencUng great friendfhip to 
the admiral, adviied him by all means to gratify the Zamorim 
by taking the (hip of Cochin. This v^el was large and fuU 
of fddierS) but Cabial appointed one of his finalleft, com- 
manded by Pedro Ataide, not- a fixth part d her fize, to attadc 
her. Whtai Ataide firft made towards the enemy, the Indian 
infulted him with every fign of reproach i but the Portuguefe 
cannon drove her into the port of Cananor, a {rface forty 
miles to the north of Calient. Here ihe lay all the nig$it» 
white Atude watched the mouth of the harbour; and fearing 
to be burnt in the port, in the morning ihe again took to 
fea. But Ataide foon came up with her, and by the dexterous 
u& of his artillery made her fteer what courfe be pleafed, 
and at laft drove her in triumph before him into the harbour 
of Calicut. 

This encounter was of great conleqaence to the Portn* 
guefe. It not <mly raifed a high idea of tbdr valour and art 
of war, but it difcovered a ferae of treachery, and gave them 
a moil beneficial -opportunity to difplay their integrity and 
honour. When Cabral convofed with l^e captives, he found 
that the ftory of the el^hant and the invafion were falfe, and 
that they had been warned by Cemireci, that the Portuguefe, 
a fet of lawlefs pirates, intended to attack them. On this^ 
Cabral not only reftored the fhip to the king of Codun, but 
paid for what damage fhe had fufhuned, and affiired him he 
had been abufed by the villuny of the Moors. 

The Zamorim profefied the greateil admiration of the Por- 
tuguefe valonr, yet white he pretended to value thor friend- 
ihip at the higheil- rate, he xksd e v ery art to delay the lading 
of their fhips. Twenty days was the time ftipulated for tht» 
purpofe ; but three months wqre now dapfed,. an4 nothingi 


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done. Cabral feveral times complained to the Zamorim of 
the infringement of treaty, that many Moorifh veffels had 
been fufFered to lade, while he could obtain no cargo. The 
Zamorim complained of the arts of the Moors, and gave Ca- 
bral an order, on paying for the goods, to unlade whatever 
Moorifh veffels he pleafed, and to fupply his own. Cabral, 
however, was apprehehfive of fome deep defign, and delayed 
to put this order in execution. Correa, upon this, feverely 
upbraided him with neglect of duty, and he at laft feized a 
veffel which happened to belong to one of the richeft of the 
Moors. A tumult was immediately raifed, the Portuguefe 
fa6lory was fuddenly befet by four thoufand of that people, 
and before any affiftance could come from the (hips, Correa, 
and the greateft part of his companions, were maffacred. 
Cabral, though greatly enraged, waited fufficient time to hear 
the excufe of the Zamorim ; btit he waited in vain. Ten 
large Moorifh veffels burnt in the harbour, the city of Cali- 
cut bombarded one day, and 600 of its inhabitants flain^ re- 
venged the death of Correa. . ' 
The king of Cochin^ when Cabral returned the fhip which 
he had taken, highly pleafed with * his honour, invited him 
to traffic in his port. Cabral now failed thither, and was 
treated in the moft friendly manner. A ftrong houfe was 
appointed for a faftory, and a treaty of commerce folemnly 
concluded. Ambaffadors alfo arrived from the kings of Ca- 
nanor, Caulan, and other places, intreating the alliance of the 
Portuguefe, whom they invited to their harbours. 

About eight hundred years before this period, according to 
tradition, Perimal, the fovercign of India, having embraced 
the religion of Mohammed, in which he had been inflrufted 
by fome Arabian merchants, refolvcd to end his days as a her- 
mit at Mecca. He therefore divided his empire into different 
fovereigntics, but rendered them all tributary to the Zamorim* 
of Calicut. From this port Perimal fet fail, and the Arab 
merchants conceived liich a fuperflitious affeftion for this har- 
bour, though not fo commodious as many others around, thatJ 


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on the arrival of Gama it was the great centre of theMoorifli 
commerce in India. A defire to throyr oflF their dependence 
on thq Zamorim, without doubt Jiad its influence in prompt- 
ing the tributary kings to invite the Portuguefe to their har- 
. bpurs. But it was impoffible they ftiould have fo aflcd, unlefs 
they had conceived a high idea of the Portuguefe virtue and 
valour, which was thus rewarded by the friendfhip of fome 
powerful princes, who ever after remained true to the caufe 
of Emmanuel. 

When Cabr^l was about to fgil from Cochin, he received 
information from the king, that the. Zamorim, with a large 
fleet, containing 15,000 fokiiers, intended to attack him. Ca- 
bral prepared for battle, and the Indian fleet fled. He after- 
wards touched at Cananor, where he entered into a friendly 
alliance. The king, ftifpefting from the fmall quantity of 
fpicery which he bpught, that the Admiral was in want of 
money, intreated him to give a mark of his friendfhip by ac- 
cepting, upon credit, of what goods he pleafed. But Cabral 
(hewed a confiderable quantity of gold to the king's meflen- 
gers, politely thanked him, and faid he was already fufiiciently 
loaded. Having left faftors on (hore, and received ambafla- 
4ors on board, he proceeded on his homeward voyage. Near 
Melinda he took a large fhip, but finding fhe belonged to a 
merchant of Cananor, he fet her at liberty, and told the com- 
mander, ** that the Portuguefe monarch was only at war with 
the Zamorim and the Moors of Mecca, from whom he had 
received the greateft injuries and indignities." The king of 
Melinda, and other Mohammedan princes, who had entered 
into alliances with Gama and Cabral, were not of the tribe or 
confederacy of thofc who had in different parts attempted the 
ruin of the Portuguefe. That people were now diftinguifhed 
by the name of the Moors of Mecca, their principal harbour ; 
and therefore to dift:refs that port became now^ a principal 
objcft of the Portuguefe. 

' Emmanuel, now fully informed by Cabral of the fl:ates and 
traffic of the Indian fcas, perceivihg that the reinforcement of 

I three 

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three veffels, whkh he had feni under Jcdift de Nova*, could 
little avail, fitted out twenty Ihips, the command of which 
warlike fleet was given to the celebrated Vafco de Gama* At 
the fame time the Pope iiTudd a BulU ift which he ftyled Em*^ 
manuel, Lord of the Navigation, Conquefts and Trade, of 
iBthiopia, Arabia, Perfia, and India. 

Gama, having doubled the Cape of Good Hope, touched at 
Sofala, and made a trfeaty With the Mflhttmttiedaft fdVereign of 
that rich country. Mozambic was now governed by a new' 
monarch, who entreated aft alUaftCe with the Portuguefe^ 
Which Wa^ granted 3 and the illt where Gama had the battle 
with the Moors J, became, for long after^ a moft convenient 
watering-place for the Portuguefe navies* In retenge of the^ 
j^Iots againft himfelf, and the in)uri&$ received by Cabral, he 
battered the city of Quiloa with his cannon, and made the^ 
king fuhiaaSLto pay tribute to Emmanuel. Ad he proceeded 
for Calicut, he met a forge fhlp of Mecca, which, with many 
people of diftin^ion who were going on a pilgrimage to the 
tomb of their prophet^ had lately left that harbour. This 
veffe^, after an obftihate ftruggle, in which 300 Moors were: 
killed *f, he took and burnt* And from fome vefl^ls of Cali^ 
cut; as he approached that port, he tbck about thirty pri-^ 
fonersw As foon as he anchored near the city, the Zamorim 
fent a meftage to offer terms of friendihip, to e^ufe the maf^ 
ftcre of the Portuguefe Under Correa, ai th6 fole aAion of ttn 
miraged populace, with which government had no concern^- 
and added, that the fete of the ftiip of Mecca he hoped woulA 
fiifllce for revenge. Gama,,: previous to any new treaty, de- 

* This^Aser dtftatcdft hrge fleet^dle p]«iitfed^ tenAemi tbit iOe an ufeifal {dm^ 

Zamorim, but ccmld nd be fiippofed to cf- of watering and rendosvooo^ De vas:^> 

k€t any thing of permanency. On his re- named Fernando Lopez, 
turn to Eu90pe, JNbva diiboTexed the ifle of } S^ ^ lift Lofiad. 

St. Helena. A Portuguefe,. who in India fTwcity children were iaved. Theft 

had embraced Mohammedifm, in contrition. were fort to LiAen, where they weit bap-» 

for his apofiacv became its firii inhabitant. tized, and educated ia the fenrice of Emma- 

i)e defired to be left aihore to do penance nneL The Portuguefe writers mendon 

for hia crime. Here he continaed four yearsy their capture, and the cate taken .ef them» 

aftd by his knowledge of the fprin^ and as the happieft fortimc which could poffibly^ 
thft vegetables, and fruit-trees whidv. he, . 3uveatt6naed them* 


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Xftwdtd a reltimi^a of i^ goods of vfUvk the pQiitugueje 
SfStaey had been plundered, and threatened to put his pii- 
ibucrs to death and batter the city in cafe of refufal. After 
ir^tiag ibme time in Viun fctir an anfwer, Gama ordered his 
thirty prifoners to be hinged, and d^ir bodies to be fent 
Afliore, together with a letlier* decUring war agtdnd: the Za«- 
iBoiidt, in the nanpife of the Igjctg of Portugal. And next day, 
JMfving for feveral hours. played his cannon upon the city, he 
ibeesed his eourft for the xnore friendly port of Cochin. 

Bsrc the iadtors who had been leiit t^ Cabral gave Gama 
tiie Jbigbeft ^haraftsr of the faith of the king, and hia earn«ft 
deAfe to culthrate the friendihip'oi the Portugnefei and the 
Ibrnusr alliance was mutnally confirmed by tijc king and the 
Admiral. TheZamonm, who with rage and regret beheld the 
/sommerce of Europe earned to other harbours, ient a Bramin 
to Oaiaa, while he was lading at Cochin, intreating an obli«- 
vioa of paft injuries, and a renewed of the league of amity« 
TJie Admiral, ftill defiroue to cultivate frjendlhdp, gave the 
iCootmand of the fleet to his couiin Stephen de Gama, and 
with two (hips only, in ocder to try the Zamorim's fincerity, 
^ed lor Calicut ; yet, 1^ treaehe^ fiiould be intended, he 
orderol Vincent Sodre with £ve fliips to follow bjim. On his 
iiurnval at the city, he found that diffimulation was ftiU the 
character of the fovereign. Four and thirty veifels, full of 
armed men, attacked Guna's ihip with great fury } for the 
other vef&l he had fent to haften the fquadron of Sodre. In 
jlAiia Ittuation nothing but a briflc wind could poilibly have 
&yed Gama) and a briik gale in this elxtremity aroie and car* 
ried him beyond the reach of the fleet of Calicut. But having 
met the reinforcMient of Sodre, he immediately returned, and 
lotaUy deftroyed thrikiet of the enemy. 

Di&ppointed in war,^the 2aaoaorim now by intreaties and 
j^ireats endeavoured to bnftg the king of Cocbist into his in* 
tfreft. But that prince, with the gseateft honour, refufed to 
betray the Portuguefe^ and Gama having promiilbd to leave a 
^^adroo to proteft bis horbonr,: £»kd with thirteen loaded 

1 z fliips. 

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fhips for the port of Canahor. On^ hid way Either, : at he paftr 
within a ftw miles of Calicut, he was again vigdroufly attack- 
ed by twenty-nine veffets, fitted out by the Zamorim, on pun- 
pofe to intercept him. Gama i^dered three fliips, which had 
the lead loading, to be^in the engagement; and viftoryifooft 
declared in his favour/ He then proceeded t*Canan6r/- where 
he entered into a treaty With the fovtreigti/ who bound him- 
felf never to make war on the king of Cochin^ or to afiift the 
Zamorim. And Gama, having left fix ihipsunder the conw 
tnand of Sodre, for the prateftion of Cochin and Canahor, 
foiled for Portugal, where, after a profperous voyage,, he^r^ 
rived with twelve fhips, loaded with the* riches of the Eafti> 

As foon as Gatna's departure was known, the Zamorim 
made great preparations to attack Cochin; It wasthepur- 
pofe of Emmanuel, that Sodre fiiouldbe left with a fquadroa 
to cruife about the mouth of the Red'^ea,^!^ annoy the<M6or^ 
of Mecca ; but Gama, whofe power wasrdifcretibnary, ordered 
him not td leave Cochin, unlefs every thing bore the appear- 
ance of peace with the Zamorim* < Sodre, however, though 
hoftility was every day expeftedi prepared to departs IKegO' 
Correa, the Portuguefe agent left at Cothin; urged him in the 
ftrongfeft manner to do his^ duty and continue at that port ^ 
but in vain. While the' king of Cochin refolutely reftifed, 
though advifed by many of his council, to deliver up the Por^ 
tiiguefe refidents to the Zamorim, Sodre, contrary* to the or-* 
ders of Gama, failed for the Red^ Sea, i» hope of the rich 
prizes of M&cca; and thus bafelydeferted his countrymen^ 
and a prince, whofe faith to the Portuguefe had involved him 
in a war which threatened deftruQrion to his kingdom. 

The city of Cochin is fituated on an ifland, divided from 
the continent by an arm of the fea, one part of which, at low 
water, is fordable. At this pafs« the Zamorim began the war^ 
and met fome defeats. At laft, by the force of numbers and 
the power of bribery, he took the city, and the king of Cochin^ 
fled to the ifland of Viopia. Yet, though ftript of his domi- 
nions^ he ftiU retained his faith to the Portuguefe. He to^k 


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them with him' to this place, where a few men 'could defend 
. themfelves ; and though the Zamorim offered to reftore him 
to his throne if he would deliver them up, he replied, flwf bis 
enefriy might firip him of his Jlminions and his lifiy 'but it nib as not it% 
his power to ideprive him of bis Jiddity. 

While Trimuropara,. king of Cochin^ was thua fhut up ovk 
a little rock, Sodre fuffered a punifhment worthy of his perfi-^ 
dy. . His (hip was beaten to pieces by a tempeft, and he and 
his brother loft their lives. The other commanders coniidered 
thi» as ihe judgment of heaven, and haftcned back to the re- 
lief of Cochin : by ftrefs of weather, however,, they were 
obliged to put into one of the Anchidivian iflands. • Here they 
were joined by Francis Albuquerque^ who> on heanng/the 
fate of Cochin, though in the r^our of this tempeftudus fea-r 
Ion, immediately ftt ^il for that' port./ When the ;fleet ap- 
peared in fight of Viopia, Trimumpara exclaiming. Pflr/i(gw4 
Portugal^ ran in an* extacy to the Portugtiefe ; and they, in i:er 
turn, with ihouts of triumph, announced the. reftoration o£ 
]&is crown. The garrifon left in Cochin by the Zamorinv 
immediately fled. Trimumpara was reftored to his throng 
without a bacttej and Albuquerque gave an inftance of his* 
mafterly policy. Together with the affurahces of the friend-* 
ihip of Emmanuel, he made the king of Cochin a prefent o£ 
10,000 ducats. An a£l which wonderfully exfited the.admi* 
Nation of the princes of India, and was afevere wound ;to the 

Francis and Afon^o Albuquerque and Duarte Pachcco were 
now at Cochin. The princes, tributary to Trimumpara, who 
had deferted to the Zamorim, were feverely punifhed by the 
t-roops of Cochin^ headed by the Portuguefe, and their depre- 
dations were carried into the Zamorim's owu dominions. A 
treaty of peace was at laft concluded, on ternis greatly advan* 
tageous to the Portuguefe commerce. But that. honour which 
had been of the greateft benefit to their affairs, was now^ 
ftained. A fhip of Calicut was unjufty ieized by the Portu- 
guefe agent at Cochin j nor would Francis Albuquerque make 


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raftittttioiiy though xequirecl 1>y the Zamonm. 9ooa afiter 
this, Francis failed £cm: £iiropc> hut gave another inftance of 
his infamy ece he left India. The Zamorun had again declared 
«rar againft the king of Cochia, and Franos Albuquerque left 
only one ihip, thr^e barges, and about ^ite hundred and fifty 
men, for the defence af Tjdmumpara ; hut this imaU body 
was commanded hy Padbeod. Francis Albuquerque^ and Ni- 
cholas Coello celebrated in the Lufiad^ iailed for Europe, but 
were^heard of no more. 

Anthony Saldanna and Roderic Ravafeo were at this :tkme Ssat 
from X^^b^ui on irarpofe to cntife about the mouth of the Red 
:Sea. The king of Melinda was engaged in a dangerous waf 
with the king ^ MombaiEi, and Saldanna procured him an ho^ 
itocirable peace. Sxit SLavafco aft-ed «5 a lawlefs pirate on the 
coaft of Zanzibar^ Though the innocent inhabitants were id 
a treaty^ peace with Gama, he took many of theij: (hips^ 
for which he distorted large ranfoms, and compelled the priiKf 
^f Zanaibar to pay an annual tribute and own htmielf the 
vaffal of EmmamieL The Pope's Bull, whkh gave all the Eaft 
to the 'king of Portugal, bc^an now to operate* The Poi^u^^ 
guefeefteemed it as a ikcred charter ; the natives of the Eaft felt 
the confequence of it, and conceived a fecret jealoufy and dif** 
like of their new mafters. The exalted policy and honour of 
many of the Fortuguefe governors delayed the evil operation 
iof this jealoufy, but the remedy was only temporary. The; 
Fortuguefe believed they had a right to demand the yafiallage 
af the princes of the Eaft, and to prohibit them the nw^iga- 
tion of their awn feas. When the ufurpatioQ of dominion 
proceeds from a fixed principle, the wifdpm of the ableft Go-* 
vemep can only (km over the mortal wound ; for even tho 
gFofTeil barbarians are mdk acutely fenfible of injuftice, and 
carefully remember the breaches of honour. 

Along wi4sh thefe ideas of their right to claim dominium and 
ta<?enquer, the Portugueie brought to India an images of the 
degenerated conftitution of Liiboa. The Governor a6ted 
ni^er a few general inftru£)Mms^ wJiich contained rather ad-^ 


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ynctn * than orders, againft what countries he fliould direft the 
force of his arms« And in the executive power he was ar« 
bitrary. The revenue and regulations of conlmerce were alfo 
left to his difcretion } fuch was. the in&cure and capridous plaa 
of the Portuguefe commercial eftablifhment in India. It was 
(of all, the moft liable to abufe) the worft of all MonopolieSj^ 
a Rfgal oNEi. Every ihip which failed from Portugal to India 
was the king's property. Their Indian cargoes were depofited 
in the cuftom^houie c^ Liibon, and managed, for the ufe o£ 
the crown^ by the revenue officers*. The tribute paid by the 
vafial princes of Afia was the king's; and the fa&ories and 
forts were built and fupported at his charge :):. In; a word, » 
military government was eftabliihed in India, and it was the 
duty of the Governor to fiiperintend his majefty's revenues 
and commercial monopoly. 

The Zamorim had now collefbsd a formidable power for the 
deftruftion of- Cochin. But before we mention the wonder-- 
ful vi&ories of Pacheco» it will be necefiary tO'give fome ac-< 
count of the land and maritime forces of the Eaft. And here: 
it is to be lamented, that the Portuguefe authors have giveiL 
us but very imperfect accounts of the military arts of India;. 
Yet it is tabe gathered from them^ that though fire arms were 
not unknown, they were but very little ufed before the arrival 
of the Portuguefe. Two natives of Milan, who were brought 
tx> India by Gama on* hii fecond voyage, deferted to the Zamo-^ 
rim, and were of great fervice to him in making of powder 
and cafting of cannon* The Perfiana de4>ifed the uic of fire' 
arms, as unmanly ; and the ufe of artillery on board of a fteet 
is (everal times mentioned as peculiar to tihe Moors of Mecca*- 
The veflels of the Zamorim were large barges rowed with oars, 
and crouded with men, who fought with darts and othec-miflile 
weapons^. We are told by Oforius^ that the pilot of Meliada, 

* See tie CoaimHBcm of fte Portogoefe Vicerm and the HoHcim, in dte Ap^dur. See* 
tUb dM kttein of 'Aeklngy queen, and prince of Fomgal to John drCaflro, in Andrada^r 

t See Oforios, Faria, Bimos, Caftanneda; Coi&mqitarici mitten bjf Alhnqoer^r fbn^ 
Andrada'a life of John de Cafbo, Uc ftc. f^^ M J9b>. 


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whorcoridii6i:ed Gadia to Calicut, iddfpired the Aftrolabe, as if 
ufed4;o fuperior inftruments. We doubt, however, of his fu- 
perior knowledge, for we know that he coafted northward to 
a iparticular limit, and then Hood direflly for the rifing fun. 
We are alfo told bythe Jefuits of the perfection of the Chi- 
pefe navigation, and that they have had the ufe of the com- 
pafs for 3000 years ; but this is alfo doubtful. Some have even 
fuppofed, that Marco Paolo, or fome of the earlieft mercantile 
piJgrims, carried the loadftone to China tvc its u& in navi- 
gation, was fully known in Europe* Certain it is, that at 
this day.theChinefe cannot arm. the needle with the virtues of 
the loadilone, and of confequence have the compafs in great 
imperfeflion. In place of hanging the needle, they lay the 
loadftone upon cork, and fwim it in water. Vertomannus re- 
lates, that travelling to Mecca, he faw the Arabs ufe the com- 
pafs to direft them through' the fandy defarts of Arabia. ^ But 
of this alfo we doubt ; for there is not a name in any eaftern 
language, except the Chinefc, for that inftrument -, nor do the 
Arabs know how to make one. They purchafe them of Eu- 
ropeans, and the Italian word Bujolals the name of the com- 
pafs among ihe Tu rks, and all the natives of the Eaft, on this 
fide of China^ 

While the Zamorim was preparing his formidable armament 
againft Cochin, the fecurity which appeareid on the mien of 
Pachcco, prompted Trimumpara to fufpeft fome fraud : and 
he entreated, that captain to confefs what he intended. Pa- 
checo felt all the refentmcnt of honour, and affured him of 
viftory. He called a meeting of the principal inhabitants, 
and uttered the fevereft threats againft any pcrfon who fhould 
dare to defert to the Zamorim, or to leave the ifland ♦. Every 

• * Soon after thk orderg two fifhermen*' ^ he fent the twe fi/hermea to the king's pa- 

^ere brought before him, who had been lace, where he 4eiired they might be cou- 

following their employment beyond the li- cealed with the ereatefrfecreiyi^ fe- 

ipits iie had prefcribed. Pachjcco ordered verity of their nite was publickly believed, 

them to be hanged in pifon. The king Such was the humanity and fttift 'discipline 

plended for their liveji, but Pacheco in pul^ of this bnve i)fficer* 

lie was inexorable. In the nightj however, ... 


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precaution, by which the pafTage to the ifland of Cochin might 
be fecured, was taken by Pacheco. The Portugucfe took the 
ikcrament, and devoted themfelves to death. The king of 
Cochin's troops amounted only to 5000 ; the fleet and army 
of the Zamorim confifted of 57,000 men. Yet this |;reat 
army, though provided with brafs cannon; and otherwife af- 
fifted by the two Milanefe engineers, was defeated by Pacheco. 
Seven times the Zamorim raifed new armies, fome of them 
more numerous than the firfl:, but all of them were defeated 
at the fords of Cochin, by the (Iratagems and intrepidity of 
Pacheco. Though the Zamorim in the latter battles expofed 
his own perfon to the greateft danger, and was fometimes 
fprinkled with the blood of his attendants ; though he had re- 
courfc to poifon and every art of fraud, all his attempts, open 
and private, were baffled. At laft, in defpair of revenge, he 
refigned his crown, and ftiut himfelf up for the remainder of 
his days in one of his idol temples. Soon after the kingdom of 
Cochin was thus reftored to profperity, Pacheco was recalled 
to Europe. The king of Portugal paid the higheft coqipli- 
ments to his valour; and as he had acquired no fortune in 
India, in reward of his fervices he gave him a lucrative go- 
vernment in Africa. But merit always has enemies. Pacheco 
was accufed, and by the king*s order brought to Lifbon in 
irons : and thofe hands which preferved the interefl: of Portu- 
gal in India, were in Portugal chained in a dungeon a confi- 
derable time, ere a legal trial determined the iuftice of this 
feverity. He was at laft tried, and honourably acquitted ; but 
his merit was thought of no more, and he died in an alms- 
houle. Merit thus repaid, is a fevere wound to an empire* 
The generous ardour of military fpirit cannot receive a colder 
check, than fuch examples are fureto give it. 

Before the departure of Pacheco, a fleet of thirteen fliips, 
commanded by Lopez Soarez, arrived in India. The new Za-^ 
morim beheld with regret the ruined condition of his king- 
dom, his tributary princes not only now independent, but 
poflefled of the commerce which formerly enriched Calicut, 

m the 

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Ixxitf P O R t U G U E S E ' AS I A. 

the fatal cdnfecjuence of his uncle and pr^deceflbr's obfHnacy* 
Taught by tjicfe examples, he defired a peace with the Portu- 
guefe ; but Soarez would hear notl^ng till the two Milanefe 
defeiters were delivered iip.' This the Zamorim refdliitely r^- 
fuled. And Soarez, regardlefs of the fkte of Ibme Portiiguefe 
who had been left at Calicut by Cabral, battcried the city two' 
days, in ^lace of grantirtg an honourable and commercial 
peace. Nor was this his only political error, fey ftiewing fuch 
eagernefs to fccure the Milanefe engineers,, he told thb Zamo- 
rim the value of theft European artifts. And that prince fboa 
after applied to the Sdldiari of Egypt, who fent him four Ve- 
netians, able engineers, and maftets of the srt of the foundery* 
of cannon. 

In the ftately fpirit cJf cbnqueft Soarez traVerfed the Indian 
feas, dcftroyed many Calicutian. and MOorifti Veflels, and made 
various princes pay tribute and cbiifefs themfelves the vaflkls. 
oIF Emmanikl. But the Soldan oJF Egypt began now to threaten 
hoftilities, and a ftronger force of the Portuguefe Was neceffary.. 
Francifco d'Almeyda, an officer of diftingoilhed merit, wis 
therefore appointed Viceroy of India, and was feht Mth two 
and twenty fhips to affert hii; jurifdi^ion. And accohlittg td 
the uncommercial ideas of Gothic conqoeft with which he fet 
oiit, he continued to aft.. On his arrival at (^loa, a 'meeting; 
Between him and the king was appointed, Almeyda attended,, 
but the jkirig did not, for a black cat, as lie fet out, happened 
to crofs his way, and intimidated by this evil omen, he de- 
dined the interview. On this, Alrtifiyda levelled his city with - 
the ground, and appointed another king, tributary to Emma- 
nuel. Some late treacheries of Mombaffa were alfo revenged 
by the de'ftruftion of that city and the vaffallage of its mo- 
narch. When the Viceroy arrived in India, he defeated the 
king of Onor, built forts arid left garrifons in various places, 
^rimumpara, king of Cochin, had now retired to fpend the 
evening of his life in a Brahmin temple, and his nephew, who. 
with great pomp was crowned by Almeyda, acknov^edged. 
himfelf the tributary of the king of Poftugal. 


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The Soldan of Egypt was at this time one of the greatefj: 
princes of the world. Much of the lucrative commerce of 
the Eaft had long flowed to the Weft through his dominions. 
His fleets and his armies wore thus rendered numerous and 
ppwerful, and bound by their political religion, every Moham- 
.medan prince, in a War with the Chriftians, was his ally. A 
heavy revenge of the Crufades was in meditation, and Europe 
miferahly divided in itfelf, invited its own ruin ; when, as it is 
exprefled .by the Abbe Reynal, the liberties of mankind were 
faved by the voyage of Vafco de Gama. The arrival of the 
Portuguefe in the eaftern feas entirely unhinged the ftrongefl: 
fences of the Moliammedan pow^er j and the linews of the 
.Egyptian and Turjcifli ftrength were cut afunder by that de- 
.ftrudtion of their commerce which followed the prefence of 
the Europeans. And thus alfo Europe is taught the means 
vi^hich will for ever ifecure her agdnft the ravages of the Sara- 
cens, and other eaftern barbarians, whom fhe has already ex- 
perienced as more cruel invaders, and whom Greece ftill feels 
as more dreadful tyrants, than the Goths and the Vandals ♦. . 

Enraged with the interruption which his trade had alrcadv 
received, the Soldan refolved to prevent its utter ruin. He 

.* A view of the commerce of theEaflera 
world, and the channels in which it flowed, 
before the arrival of the Portngoefe, is thus 
accuratehr given by Faria y Sou/a. " Be- 
fore thefe oar difcoveries, the ipicery and 
riches of the Eaftern world were drought to 
Europe with great charge and immenfe 
trouble. The merchandife of the clove of 
Malucca, the mace and nutmeg of Banda, 
the Sandai-wood of Timor, the camiire of 
Borneo, the gold and iilver of Lucoiiia, the 
fpices, dni^s, dyes and perfumes, and all 
the various riches of China, Java, Siam, and 
the adjacent kingdoms, centeited In the city 
of Malaca, in the golden Cheribnefus. 
Hither all the traders of the couhtiies~as far 
well as Ethiopia and the Red Sea, refortcd, 
. and bartered their own commodities for 
thofe they received; for filver and gold 
were elleemed as the leail valuable articles. 
By this trade the great cities of CalicQ(, 
Cambaya,Ormuz, and Aden, were enriched; 

nor was Malaca the only fonrce of their 
wealth. The weilern regions of Aiia had 
full pofl«ffion of the commerce of the rubies 
of PegUf the filks of Bengal, the pearls of 
Calicare, the diamonds of Nariinga, the 
dnnamon and rubies of Ceylon, the pepper 
and every fpicery of Malabar, and where- 
ever in the eaftern iflands and ftiaret'Natufe 
had latiftied her various riches. Of the 
more weftern commerce Ormuz was the 
great mart, for from thence the eaftern 
commodities were conveyed up the Perfian 
gulph to Baftbra on the mooth of the Eu- 
phrates, and.from' thence diftributed in ^ca- 
ravans to Armenia, Trebiibnd, Tartary, 
Aleppo, Damafcus, and the port of Bailit 
on the Mediterranean. Suez on the Red 
Sea was alfo a moft imjportant mart. Here 
the caravans loaded and proceeded to Graad 
Cairo, from whence the r^ile conveyed die^r 
riches to Alexandria ; at which city and ft 
^Barut fome Europeans^ (he Venetuin^ ^ 
ma ' ^ " particttlaTy 

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threatened the extirpation of all the Chriftians in his domi- 
nions, if the court of Rome would not order the king of 
Portugal to withdraw his fleets for ever from the eaftern 
feas. One Maurus, a monk, v/as his ambaflador to Rome and 
Lifbon, but in place of promifes of compliance, he returned 
with the feverer threats of Emmanuel. War was now deter- 
mined by the Soldan, and a mofl: formidable fleet, fixty vcffels 
of which were larger than the Portuguefe, manned with 
Turks experienced in war, were fent to the afliftance of the 
Zamorim.^ But by the fuperior naval fkill and romantic 
bravery of Almeyda and his fon Lorenzo,, this mighty arma- 
ment was defeated. 

At this time Triftan de Cugna, and the celebrated Alplionfo 
Albuquerque^ arrived in the Eaft, and carried war and viftory 
from Sofala to India. Allured by the honour and com- 
mercial treaties af Gama and Cabral, fcveral princes of India 
invited thefe ftrangers to their harbours. But the alteration 
of the behaviour and claims of the Portuguefe, had altered the. 
fentiments of the natives. Almofl: every port now oppofed 
the entrance of the Portuguefe,. and the cargo of almoft every 
ihip they loaded was purchafed with blood. At the faek of 
the city of Lamo, fome of the foldiers under Cugna cut off 
the hands and ears of the women, to get their bracelets and 
ear-rings with more expedition. But though thefe mifcreants, 
by overloading their boat with their plunder, were all drowned, 
• this ftain on the Portuguefe charafter made deftrudive war 
againft the Portuguefe name and intereft. When Albuquerque 
arrived before Orrauz, he fummoned the king to become the 
vaflal of Emmanuel, and to be happy under the proteflion of 
to great a prince. The king of Ormuz, who expefled fuch a 
Yifit, had provided an army of 33,000 men, 6000 of whom 
were expert archers,, auxiliaries of Perfia. Yet thefe were de-^ 

]^aTticuIkr» loaded theif Ytfftth with the kingdoms were wonderfully ftrengthened 

nches of the eaftern world, which at im* and enriched by it. By the arrival of the 

xnenfe prices they diftribated throoghoat Portueuefe every thing was reverfed, and 

Europe,'' While the - eadem commerce the fmty of Europe fecuredr 

:|owed through theie channel! >. the eaftem 


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feated by 460 difciplined men, well played cannon, and the 
dauntlefs valour of Albuquerque. And the king of Ormuz 
fubmitted to vaflalage. Lords of the feas alfo, the Portuguefe 
permitted no 'fhip to fail without a Portuguefe paffport. Nor 
was this regarded, when avarice prompted that the paffport was 
forged*. A rich fhip of Cananor was on this pretence taken 
and plundered, and the unhappy crew, to conceal the villainy, 
were fewed up in the fail cloths and drowned. Vaz, it is true, 
the commander of this horrid deed, was broken. But the hoo- 
dies of the Moors were thrown on fhore by the tide, and the 
king of Cananor, the valuable ally of Portugal, in revenge of 
this treachery, joined- the Zamorim, and declared war againft 
the Portuguefe. Another powerful armament, commanded by 
Mir Hocero, ^ chief of great valour, was fent by the Soldan. 
Perfia alfo affifbcd. And even the mountains of Dalmatia J, 
by^ the connivance of Venice, were robbed of their forefls, to 
build navies in Arabia to militate againfl the Portuguefe. 

Almeyda fent his brave fon Lorenzo to give battle to Mir 
Hocem, but Lorenzo fell the vi6lim of his romantic bravery^ 
While the father prepared to revenge the death of his fbn, his 
recall, and the appointment of Albuquerqxie to fucceed him, 
arrived from Europe j but Almeyda refufed to refign till he 
had revenged his fon's defeat. On this, a difpute between the 
two governors arofe, of fatal confequence to the Portuguefe 
interefk in Afia. Albuquerque was imprifoned, and future 
governors often urged this example on both fides of the qucfT 
tion, both to protraft the continuance, andprefs the inftant 
furrender of office. Almeyda, having defeated the Zamorim- 
and his Egyptian allies, failed for Europe ||, crowned with mi* 
Hilary laurels. But though thus plumed in the vulgar eye, 
his eflablifhm'ents were contrary to the fpirit of commerce* 

^ Sometimes, in place of a paTs, the Mooriih vefTels carried their own letters of coop - 
dcfflnation. As thas» T6e o<wner of this Jhip is a 'uery avicieJ Moor, I defire the fir ft Por^ 
tugue/e Captain to 'whom this is may make prize of her, Vid. Faria. 

t.Tke timber was brought through. the Mediterranean to Cairo, and- from thence was 
carried by camels to the port of Suez. 

(Sec w fate, p. 202. 


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ixxxTi PORT U G U E S E ASIA. 

He fought, indeed, and conquered i but he left more enemies 
of the Portuguefe in the Eaft than he found there. The ho- 
nours he attained were like his^ who having extingui(hed a 
flew houfes on 'fire, marches out of a dty in triumph, forget- 
ful of the glowing embers left iw every corner, xts^y to burU 
forth in a general :flame. It was left for the great Albu- 
querque to eftablifh the Portuguefe empire in Afia on a furer 
bails, on a6ls of mutual benefit to the foreign colonifts and 
native princes. 

Albuquerque, as foon as he entered upon his government, 
turned his thoughts to the folk! eftablilhment of the Portu- 
guefe empire- To extinguifh the power of Calicut, and to 
ercft a fortified capital for the feat of government, were his 
firft defigns ; and inthefe he was greatly ^flifted, both by the 
arms and the counfel of Timoja the pirate, who, very much 
injured by the Indian princes, w^s gUd to enter into alliance 
with the Portuguefe. Don Fernando Coutinho, previous to 
the advancement of Albuquerque, had arrived in India, vefted 
with a difcretionary power independent of the will of the go- 
vernor. The natural confequences of this extraordinary por 
Ucy foon appeared. With thirty veflels and 2400 men, Albu- 
querque and Coutinho failed from Cochin to befiege Calicut* 
It was agreed, that the troops under Coutinho fhould have the 
honour to land firft. Thofe under Albuquerque, however, 
galled by the enemy, leapt firft afhore. Coutinho, on this, 
roughly upbraided him : TJ? conquer the feeble Indians^ he faid, 
nvas no fucb honour as fame boajled. And I will tell the king of 
Portugalj he added, that I entered the palace of the Zamorim with 
only my cane in my band. Albuquerque remonftrated the danger 
€>i raftinefs in vain. Coutinho ordered J.afper de Gama, the 
Polonian Jew, ,to conduit him to the psilace ; to which, with 
800 men, he marched in confufed fpeed. Albuquerque, whofe 
magnanimity could revenge no infult when his country's inte- 
reft was at ftake in the hour of battle, followed in good or- 
der with 600 men, and left others properly ftationed, to fecure 
a retreat ; for he forefaw deftruftion. Coutinho,. after. fcveral 


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PdRtU6UEJS£ ASIA. Ixxxvii 

attacl^s, at laft, with the lofs of many men, entered the palace, 
ami gave his foldiers liberty to plunder. All was now diforder 
among them. And AlbuquerqCie, who perceived it, entreated 
Goutinho, by meffagej to beware of a fiercer attacks He was 
. aiifwered, He might take care of the troops under bis own command. 
After two hours fpeht in plufadering the palace, Coutinho fet 
fire to it, dhd marched out. But ere he could join Albu- 
querque, both parties were furrounded by enraged multitudes. 
Goutinho and his braveft officers fellj Albuquerque wa* 
wounded by arrows in the neck and left arm. At laft, ftruck 
oh the breaft by a large (lone, he dropped down, to appearance 
dead. On his (hield he was carried off with great difficulty. 
All was cotifufion in the tetrcat, till the body of referve, placed' 
by Albuquerque, catoe up, and repulfed the enemy. Albu- 
querque was carried on board without hope of recovery. His- 
health, however, was reftofed at Cochin, and the Zamorim aU 
lowed a fort to be built hear Calicut, and fubmitted to the 
terms of peace propofed by the PortugueTe governor. 

The ifland of Goa^ on the coaft of Decan, a m.oft commo- 
dious fituation for thfe feat of empire, and whofe prince had 
been treacherous to Gama^ after various defperate engage- 
tiients, was iat laft yielded td Albuquerque. According to his 
defigh, he fortified it iti the beft manner, and rendered it of 
the utmoft confequehce to the prefervation of the Portuguefe 
power. He now turned his thoughts to Malaca, the great 
mart 6f the eafterti half of the oriental world. Under the 
government of Alraeyda, Scqueira had failed thither, and while 
about fettling a treaty with the natives, narrowly efcaped ^ 
treacherous maffacre, in which feveral of his men were flain^ 
Albuquerque offered peace and commerce, but demanded a- 
tonement for this injury. His terms were rejefled, and this 
important place, won by moft aftoniOiing viftories, was now 
added to the Portuguefe dominion. 

Albuquerque now devoted his attention to the grand objeft 
of his wifhcs, the permanent eftablifhment of the Portuguefe 
dominion in Afia. His id»s were great and comprehenfive ; 
f * and 

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and his plan, perhaps, the bed ever produced under an arfci- 
trary government. His predeceffor Almeyda had the fame ob- 
je6t jn view, but he thought the conqueft and fettkment of 
cities woqld weaken and divide the Portuguefe ftrength. Su- 
periority at fea he efteemed as the fureft method to command 
all India; and one fafe flation, where the fhips. might winter, 
was all the eftabliihment he deilred. Albuquerque, on the 
contrary, deemed the pofTcflion of many harbours, and adjoin- 
ing territory, as the only effedual means to enfure the conti- 
nuance of the nayal fuperiority. He efteemed the fupply of 
the regal monopoly,»fays Oforuis, as an inferior confideration*; 
to enlarge and render permanent the revenues of fovereignty 
was his grand defign. As one tempeft might deftroy the 
ftrength.of their navy, while there was only one harbour to 
afford fefuge, he confidered the Portuguefe dominion not only 
as very infecure, but alfo as extremely precarious, while they 
depended upon military and naval fupplies from Lifbon, To 
prevent and remedy thefe apparent evils was therefore his am- 
bition ; and for thefe purpofes he extended his fettlements from 
Ormuz in Perfia to the Chinefe fea. He eftabliftied cuftom- 
houfes in every port, to receive the king's duties on merchan- 
dife ; and the vaft revenue which arofe from thefe and the 
tribute of the vaflal princes, gave a fanftion to his fyftem. At 
Goa, the capital of this new empire, he coined money, infti- 
tuted a council chamber for the government of the city, and 
here and at all his fettlements he creQed courts of juftice*, 
and gave new regulations to fuch as had been formerly efta- 
bliftied. And that this empire might be able to levy armies 
3nd build fleets in its own defence, he encouraged the mar- 
riage of the Portuguefe with the natives J. His female cap- 

. • Vtinutsirajab, % native of Java, and one 
of the greateil men of Malaca» wai, toge* 
ther with hie fon, and fon^in-law, dcteded 
in a confpiracy againfl the Portuguefe. For 
this they were publickly tried in the court 
eftabliihed hy Albuaaerque ; were con. 
demned, and publickly executed. This is 
ibe ^rft lAllaace of the execotioD of natives 

under the authority of Emx»ean courts* 
X The defcendants of thefe marriages 
people the coafb of the Baft at this day« 
They are called Mefticos or Meftixes^ are 
become favages, fpeak a broken Portugucie, 
called lingua Fj^anca by Jthe failors. Maay 
of the black fervants brought to Europe ane 
.of this race* 


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lives he treated with the utmoft kindnefs, and having married 
them to his foldiers, gave them fettlements in the ifland of 
Goa. And hence, during the regency of John de Caftro, little 
more than thirty years after, the ifland of Goa itfelf was able 
to build the fleets and to levy the armies, which, by faving the 
important fort and city of Dio, preferved the Portuguefe inte- 
reft in India. 

In confequence of his plan of empire, Albuquerque confti- 
tuted Malaca the capital of the eaftern part of the Portuguefe 
dominion. Here, as at Goa, he coined money, and by his 
juftice, and aflable, generous manner, won the afFcftion and 
efl:eem of the people whom he had conquered. He received 
from, and fent ambaflfadors to the king of Siam and other, 
princes, to whom he offered the trade of Malaca on more advan-> 
tageous conditions than it had hitherto been. And an immenfe 
commerce from China and all the adjacent regions foon filled 
that harbour. For here, as at Ormuz and Goa, the reduftion 
which he made in the cuftoms, gave an increafe of trade which 
almoft doubled the revenue of the king of Portugal. When 
Albuquerque returned to Goa, he was received, fays Faria, as 
a father by his family. The ifland was at this time befieged 
by 20,000 of Hydai Can, the lord of Decants troops, yet vic- 
tory declared for Albuquerque. But to difplay the terror of 
the Portuguefe arms was only the fecond motive of this great 
man. To convince the Indian princes of the value of hii 
friendftiip was his firft care, and treaties of commerce were 
with mutual fatisfa6lion concluded with the king of Bifnagar, 
the king of Narfinga, and other powerful princes. The city 
of Aden, near the mouth of the Red Sea, was of great impor- 
tance to the fleets of the Sold^n. Albuquerque twice attacked 
this place, but could not carry it for want of military ftores. 
By the veflels, however, which he kept on thefe coafl:s, he gave 
a fevere wound to the Egyptian and Moorifh commerce j and 
by the eftablifliments which he made in India, entirely ruined 
it. Mahomet, the expelled tyrant of Malaca, aflifted by 20,000 
Javans, attempted to recover his throne; but the wifli of tha 

n people 

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people was fulfilled, and Albuquerque, who failed to its relief]; was 
again viftoiious. The Perfians, to whom Ormur had been tri- 
butary, endeavoured to bring it again under their yoke* ; butAl- 
buquerque haftened from Malaca, ^nd totally defeated them, to 
the finccre joy of the inhabitants. Here he fell fick, and being 
advifed by his phyficians to go to India for the recovery of hi& 
health, the king of Oi muz, who called him his father, parted froia 
him with tears. On his way to India he received intelligence, that 
a fleet, arrived from Portugal, had brought his recall ; that Lopez. 
Soartz was appointed to fucceed him, and that lago Mendez was 
>come to be governor of Cochin. When he heard this, he ex-^^ 
claimed, Aretbefe whom I fent prifoners toPortugal for heinous crimes^ 
are thefe returned to be governors ! Old man^ Oby for thy grave ! ^thott 
baft incurred the king's difpleafure for the fake of the fabje^Sy and 
the fabjeSls for the fake of the king ! Old man^ fly to tby grave^^ 
and retain that honour thou hajl ever preferred I A profound mc-- 
lancholy now feized him j but finding the certain approaches 
•f death, he recovered his chearfulnefs, and with great fervor 
gave thanks to God, that a new governor was ready to fucceed. 
him. On the bar of Goa, in the fixty- third year o£ his age^ 
he breathed his laft ||, after a regency of little more than five 
years. Yet, in this (hort fpace> he not only opened all the 
caftern world to the commerce of Portugal, but by the regu-i 

• When die Perfians fent a demand of 
|ribate» Albaqaerqne faid it ibQuId be paid ; 
and a large mver bafon, under cover, was 
prefented to the amba/Taiilor. When unco* 
vered, leaden bullets and points of fpearsap-^ 
peared. There> faid Albuquerque, is the 
tribute which. the kiugs^ of Portugal pay* 
Admiration of the virtues of their enemies 
was the ancient character of the Peafians. 
Ifmael the Sophi from whop Oraiuz was 
renty foon after profeiTed th^ higbeft idea, of 
the valour of Albuquerque. He courted, 
his friendihip^ and fent ambafIador»to Euvr 
manuel. In this correfpondence the pro- 
crefs of £re*arms in the Bail may be traced, 
in ip5. he folicited that Porturuefe artiils 
might be fent to teach his fubjedb the art 
9f csafltsg caoactfu Vid» Qfpi. 1« x. 

II A little before h^ died Ke wrote thfA^. 
manly letter tp the king of Porjtugal. '< U,n* 
der the pangs of death, in the difficult breathing 
of the laft hour^ j write th^s my hft leHir t9 
your Highnefs \ the laft ofnuMy I have mtfritteti 
to you full of life^ for I nuat then employed 
in your fernizce* I ha*ve a fon^ Bias de Albtt'^ 
querque t I entreat your Highnefs to make him, 
as great as my fer*viees deferve. The affairs 
ff India nuill arf<w€r for themfelves, and fi9 
'ms.'* Oforius fays, the latter part of th^ 
Gofpel of John was, at bis defire, repeat- 
edly read to him ; and he expired with the 
freateft compofure. Long after his death 
is bcnes were brought to Portugal ; but it 
was with great di Acuity, and after lon^ 
delays, ere the . inhabitants of Goa would' 
c^^C to pact wtA bi^ JTm4ns- 


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lations of his humane and exalted polic]r, by the ftrifl: diftri^ 
bution of juftice which he eftabliOied, fecured its power on a 
bails, which nothing but the difcontinuance of his meafures 
could fubvert. Under Albuquerque the proud boafl o£ the 
hiflorian Faria was juftified. I'be trophies of our viSt&rmy fays 
he, are not bruifed helmet s and ^warlike engines bung on the trees of 
the mountaim ; but cities^ ijlands^ and kir^doms, firfi humbled under 
our feet ^ and then joyfully n»orJhipping our government. The princes 
of India, who vie wedAlbuquerque as their father,, clothed them* 
felves in mourning on his death, for they had experienced the 
happinefs and protection which his friendfhip . gave them* 
And the fincerity of their grief fhewed Emmanuel what a 
fubjedl he had loft. He was buried at Goa, and it becamt 
cuftomary for the Mohammedan and Gentoo inhabitants of 
that city, when injured by the Portuguefe, to come and weep 
at his tomb, utter their complaints to his manes^ and call upQH 
his God to revenge their wrongs. 

Accuftomed to the affable manners of Albuquerque, the re« 
ferved haughty dignity alTumed by Soarez gave the Indian aU 
lies of Portugal the firft proof that the mourning which they 
wore for his predeceiTor was not without caufe. Now, fay the 
Portuguefe authors, commenced the period when the foldier no 
more followed the didlates of honour^ when thofe who had 
been captains became traders, and rapacious plunderers of the 
innocent natives. Hitherto the loading of the king's veffels 
had been the principal mercantile bufinefs of the Portuguefe* 
They now more particularly interfered with the commerce of 
the Moors and Indians. Many quitted the military fervice, 
and became private adventurers ; and many who yearly arrived 
from Portugal, in place of entering into the king's fervice, 
followed this example. But their commerce was entirely con-^ 
fined to the harbours of the Eaft, for it was the fole' preroga- 
tive of the king to fend cargoes to Europe. This coafting 
trade in the hands of the Portuguefe increafed the revenue erf 
the royal cuftom-houfes. But the fudden riches which it pro- 
mifed, drew Into it many more adventurers than, it was feared, the 

n a military 

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military government of India could afFord to lofe. And thence 
the difcouragement of this trade was efteemed the duty^ and 
became a principal objeft of the Portugufc viceroys. And in- 
deed in its heft ftate it was only worthy of tranfported felons. 
It was governed by no certain laws. The courts eftablilhed 
by Albuquerque were either corrupted or without power, and 
the petty governor of every petty fort was arbitrary in his 
harbour. Under thefe difadvantages, fo inaufpicious to honeft 
induftry, the Portuguefe adventurers in this coafting trade be- 
came mere pyrates, and it was ufual for them to procure the 
loading of their ftiips, fays Faria, in the military way, as if 
upon the forage in an enemy's country. Nor was this coafting 
trade folely in the hands of private adventurers. The king 
had a large fhare in it, and undoubtedly the moft advan- 
tageous. This is confirmed by Faria (fub. ann. 1 540 and 1541) 
who mentions his majefty's goods as carried from port to port, 
and committed from one officer to the charge of another. 
Such was the miferable ftate of the free trade of the Portu- 
guefe in India, a trade, whofe fuperior advantages, (for fuperior 
advantages muft be implied in the argument) have lately been 
held forth * as an example and proof of the expediency of de- 
priving the Englifti Eaft India Company of their charter* In 
the conclufion we fhall cite the words of the philofopher to 
whom we allude. And an attention to the fafts of this hifto- 
ry will prepare the reader for a difcuflion of that important 

Where there are no fixed laws of.fupremc authority, imme- 
diate confufion muft follow the removal of the beft governor. 
Such confufion conftituted the political character of the re- 
gency of Soarez. His militaiy expeditions do him as little 
honour. Having performed the parade of a new governor, in 
vifiting the forts, and in breaking and raifing officers, Soarez 
prepared, according to his orders, to reduce the coafts of the 
Red Sea to the obedience of Portugal. Another great Bgyp* 

* In Smitk'5 I^uiry into the Naturt imdCaufii oftbt JVealii rfNathtu* 


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tian fleet, commanded by a Turk, named Raez Solyman, had 
failed from Sue:^ ; and Soarez, with twenty-feven fhips, fet fail 
in fearch of it. When he came before Aden, he found that 
ftrong city defencelefs. The governor had offended the court 
of Egypt, and Solyman, by order of the Soldan, had levelled a 
part of the wall. The governor of Aden, thus at his mercy, 
artfully offered the keys to Soarez, and intreated his friend- 
fhip. Secure of the Moor's honeily, Soarez delayed to take 
poffeifion, till he had given battle to the Soldan's fleet. This 
he found ia the port of Gidda or Jodda, under protedlion of 
the cannon of the walls. He therefore did not engage it ; 
and after burning a few d^ncelefs towns, he returned to 
Aden. But the breaches of the foct were now repaired, and 
his own force, which had fuffered greatly by tempcftuous 
weather in the Red Sea,. vras>. he deemed, unable to take that 
city, which now refufed to furrender. While Soaiez was em- 
ployed in this inglorious expedition, Goa was reduced to the 
greateft danger. A quarrel about a Portuguefe deferter had 
kindled a war> and Hydal Can, with an army of 30,000 men^ 
laid fiege to that important city. But the arrival of three 
Portuguefe fhips raifed the fiege, at a time when famine had 
almoft brought the garrifon to defpair. Nor was Malaca hap* 
pier than Goa. The uncurbed tyranny of the Portuguefe had. 
almoft driven trade from that harbour, and the dethroned king 
once more invaded the ifland with a great army. But Alexis 
de Menezes, appointed governor of that place, arrived, in the- 
moft critical time, with 300 men, and faved Malaca. The 
trade with China after this greatly increafed, and the king, 
of Ceylon^ with whom Albuquerque had eftablifhed a valuable, 
commerce, was compelled by Soarez to pay tribute to the king, 
of Portugal. A furveyor of the king's revenue about this, 
time arrived in India, vefted with a power, which interfered 
with, and leffcned that of the governor. Hence complaints 
and appeals were by every fleet carried to Europe, and by every 
fleet that returned the removal of officers was brought. In.- 
tegrity now afforded no protection) and to amafs wealth witb 


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the utmeyft expedition, was now the beft way to feoire its pot 
feflion. Rapacity prevailed among the Portuguefe, and all was 
difc©atent among the natives, when in 151 8, after a regency 
of about three years, Soarez was recalled, and in power and 
title of governor fuccecded by lago Lopes dc Sequeyra* Albu^ 
<qucrque left Portuguefe Afia in the mod douri(hing condition. 
Soarez left every thing embarrafled, and in the decline. Albu- 
-querque was dreadful to his enemies in war, and to his foldiers 
on the lead appearance of difobedience : but at other times, 
his engaging manners won the hearts of all. And his know- 
ledge of human nature, which formed his political condudV, 
was of the firft rate. Soarez, on the contrary, the man who 
refufed an equitable treaty offered by the Zamorim, and was 
for fuch afts of incapacity fent prifoner to Lifbon by Albu* 
qucrque, betrayed in all his tranfa6tions the meaneft abilities. 
All his capacity feemed to reach no farther than to prefervc that 
folemn face of dignity, that haughty referved importance with 
which men of flender abilities tranfaft the moft trifling affairs ; 
a folemnity of which heavy intelledls are extremely jealous 
and careful, which the ignorant revere, and which the intelli^ 
gent defpife. 

Sequeyra, the difcoverer of Malaca, began his regency with 
the relief of that important mart 3 and the king of Bintam, 
the befiegcr, after feveral attempts, was compelled to fubmit 
to a treaty dictated by the Portuguefe, Forty-eight fhips, 
under the command of the govenor, failed to reduce the ftrong 
fort and harbour of Diu or Dio, on the coaft of Cambaya, an 
objeft of great importance to the Portuguefe, but nothing was 
attempted. Continual Skirmifhes, however, dyed every fhore 
with Hood, while no method of cultivating the friendihip of 
the hoftile natives was even in view. Every thing on the 
contrary tended to inflame them. John dc Borba, ftiipwrecked 
on the coaft of Achem, was generoufly relieved by the fove- 
reign. George de Brito arrived foon after, and Borba informed 
him, that in the fepukhres of the kings were immenfe trea- 
furcs of gold 3 and that the prefent king, his benefador, had 


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formerly robbed fome Portuguefc veffels. Brito, at the head 
of 200 men» immediately began hoftilities, but was defeated 
and killed, and the kings of Achem became the inveterate ene^ 
mies of the Portugucfe, and often gave them infinite troubloi 
TheMalucco iflands were now difcovered. The kings of thefe, 
at ftrife with each other, were each earneft for the alliance of 
the Portuguefe. But they, led by their ufual ideas, foon in- 
volved themfelves in war and flaughter. Ormuz, where Albu- 
querque was beloved as a father, was now unable to bear the 
Portuguefe yoke. The tribute was raifed, and the king com- 
plained that his revenues could not afford to pay it. Sequeyra 
on this fent Portugucfe officers to impofe and collet the king*s 
cuftoms. This impolitical ftep was foon followed by its na^ 
tural confequence. The infolence and oppreiiion of the offi^ 
cers produced a revolt. Sequeyra, however, defeated the people 
of Ormuz, and almoft doubled the tribute which befofe they 
were unable to pay. It is truly ailoniniing how men {houl«l 
€xpe6l that dominion thus fupported {hould continue long; 
that they could not fee that fuch vidlories both fowed ani 
nouriftied the feeds of future war. Even the Portugue^ 
hiftorians adopted the impolitical uncommercial ideas of their 
governors. Faria y Soufa makes an apology for mentioning 
the fate of the firft Portuguefe who traded to China, call* 
it a matter of commerce, a fubjeft unworthy of grave hiftory. 
The political philofopher,. however, will efteem it of more im- 
portance, and will draw the heft of precepts from it. Thf 
king of Portugal defirous of the trade of China, fent an am- 
baifador and one of his captains tx> propofe a commercial tl- 
Kance, The ambaffador was gladly received, and fent by land 
to Nankin, and the honourable behaviour of Pedro de Andrade 
gained the important traffic of the harbour of Canton. On 
this officer's return to India, Sequeyra the governor fent Simon 
de Andrade, brother to Pedro, with five fhips to China; andi> 
whatever were his inftruftions, the abfurdity of his actions 
was only equalled by his gvofs infolence. As if he had arrived 
among beings of an inferior ordei^, he aflfumed an authority 


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like that which is claimed by man over the brute creation. He 
feized the ifland of Tamou, oppofite to Canton. Here he 
^refted a fort and a gallows^ and while he plundered the 
merchants, the wives and daughters of the principal inhabi- 
tants were dragged from their friends to his garrifon, and the 
gibbet punilhed refiftaiKe. Nor did he flop even here. The 
Portuguefe in India wanted flaves, and Andrade thought he 
had found the proper nurfery. He publilhed his defign to buy 
the youth of both fexes, and in this inhuman trafEc he was 
fupplied by the moft profligate of the natives. Thefe pro- 
ceedings, however, were foon known to the emperor of China, 
and the Portugufe ambaflador and his retinue died the death 
of fpies. Andrade was attacked by the Chinefe Itao, or ad- 
miral, and efcaped with much lofs, by the favour of a tempeft, 
after being forty days harrafled by a fleet greatly fuperior to his 
own. Next year, Alonzo de Melo, ignorant of thefe tranfaflions, 
entered the harbour of Canton with four veflels. But his 
fhips were infl:antly feized, and the crews maffacred, as fpies 
and robbers, by the enraged Chinefe. And though the Portu- 
guefe afterwards were permitted to fomc trade with China, tt 
was upon very reftrifted and difgraceful * conditions, condi- 
tions w'hicfh treated them as a nation of pyrates, as men who 
were not to be trufted unlefs fettered and watched. 

While Sequeyra was engaged in a fecond attempt upon Dio, 
Duartede Menezes arrived in India, and fucceeded him in of- 
fice. Unmeaning flaughter on the <:oa(ls of Madagafcar, the 

t TheChinde had too much Dutch po* .bud fiege to Canton kfelf. In this cHiit of 

Uqr on^ly to expel any merchandize mm diftrefs the Chinefe implorf d the affiftance 

their harfaloart. A few years after this, die of the Portuguefe, whom they had lately 

fortngnde who brought gold from Africa expelled as the worft of mankind. Two or 

tad fpicerv from India were allowed to ^ur- three Portuguefe floops efie£bd what the 

chafe the nlks, porcelab, and tea of China, potent empire of China could not do, and 

SC the poft ^ Sanciam. ^ And an Went, the ifland «of Macao was ^ven them by the 

iriiich refutes all the Jefuitical accounts of emperor, in reward of this eminent fervice. 

Ae greatnefs of the power and perfe^on The porcelain of China is not fo brittle, 

•f cEe Chinefe govammentj loon gave them nor the figures upon it more awkward, 

a better fettlement. A nirate; named than the Chinefe ilrength and policy muft 

Tchane^fi-lao, made himfeir mailer Af the Jfpear in the light which this event throws 

Kftde iilaad of Macao. Here he bnik iketa upon them, 
which blocked up the porti of CUna, «nd 


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Red Sea, India, and the Maluco iilands, comprife the whole 
hiftory of his regency. 

About this time died Emmanuel, king of Portugal. If ^his 
hiftory feem to arraign his government, it will alfo prove how 
dij£<;ultit is forthemoft vigilant prince always to receive juft 
intelligence. For Emmanuel was both a great and a good 
king. Of great vigilance in council, of great magnanimity in 
the execution of all his enterprizes : Of great capacity in dif^ 
tinguifhing the abilities of men, and naturally liberal in the 
reward of merit. If fuch a prince as Emmanuel erred, if his 
adminiftration of Indian affairs in any inftance arraign his 
policy, let it thence be inferred, what exaftitude of intelli- 
gence is neceffary to the happy government of a diftant colony. 

The maladminiftration of Indian affairs was now the po- 
pular complaint at the court of Lilboii. The. traffic of India, 
which had raifed the Caliphs of Egypt to the height of their 
formidable power, and which had enriched Venice, was now 
found fcarcely fufficient to fupport the military method of 
i;ommanding it, pra£lifed by the Portuguefe. A General of the 
firft abilities was wanted, and the celebrated Vafco de Gama» 
old as he now was, honoured with the title pf Count de Vi- 
digueyra^ was appointed Viceroy by John. III. In 1524, Gama 
arrived the third time in India. Cochin, the faithful ally and 
'Chief trading port of the Portuguefe, was threatened by a 
powerful army of the Zamorim, and the Indian feas were in- 
fefted by numberlefs fleets of the Moors, whom their enemies 
trailed pirates. To fupprefs thefc Gama. fent different fqua- 
^rons, which were fuccefsful in executing his orders. But while 
he meditated far greater defigns, defigns of the fame exalted 
:and liberal policy which had been begun by Wmfelf, and fo 
^lorioufly profecuted by Albuquerque, death, at the end of 
three months, clofed the regency of Gama. k was the cuftom 
cflFthe kings of Portugal to fend commiflions, or writs of fuc- 
^ceffion, fealed up, to India, with orders, which (hould be iirft 
opened when a fucceffor to government was wanted. Gama, 
who brought with him three of thefe, finding the approach of 

^ diffolution. 

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xcviii PORTUGUESE A51A. 

diflblution, opened the firft writ of fucceffion. And as Henry dc 
Menezes, therein named, was at Goa, he appointed Lopez Vaz 
de ^mpayo, a man of great abilities, to take the command 
till Menezes arrived. When Menezes arrived at Cochin, he 
prohibited the ufual marks of public joy on his elevation, and 
faidj it was more necejfary to mourn for the lofs of their late Viceroy • 
Nor did the public condufl of the new governor, the firft,, 
lays Faria, who honoured the memory of his predeceflbr, de- 
viate from this generous principle. A Portuguefe veflel at this^ 
time committed feveral depredations on ftates at peate with* 
Portugal. This (hip, by order of Menezes, was takeni. and* 
the crew were impaled. A noble inftancc (rf juftice', of- more: 
political fervice than all the viftories of a Soared. The dan- 
ger of Cochin required war, and Moacze^ carried ^ it into the 
territories of the Zamorim, whom he feverely humbled* The 
Portuguefe arms cleared the feas of pirates^ took the ftrong 
city of Dofar, and reduced fome valuable iflands on the Red- 
Sea. Great preparations were alfo made for the redu6lion of 
Dio, when Menezes, after a regency of thirteen months, died* 
of a mortification in his leg. That he left the military power 
of the Portuguefe much more formidable than he found it, is^^ 
the leaft of his praife. Every where, at Ormuz in particular, 
lie curbed the infolencc and rapacity of his countrymen, and 
proved that time was only wanting for him to have reftored 
the fituation of India as left by Albuquerque. He convinced 
the Indian princes that rapacity was not the charafter of all 
the Portuguefe, for* he accepted of no prefent, though many, 
as the cuftom of the country, were offered to him. At his 
death, which happened in his thirtieth year, thirteen reals amt 
an half, not a crown in the whole, was all the private property- 
found in the poffeflion of this young governor. 

Other tranfadion^ now fucceed. The fecond and third- 
commiffions, brought by Gama, were unopened, and left he 
who was. firft named (Iwuld be diftant, Menezes^ on his death- 
bed, appointed Francis de Sa to aflume the command till the 
Arrival of the proper gavemor. . Qn opening the fecond com- 


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miflion, Pedro de Mafcarenhas was found named. As this 
officer was at Malaca, a council was held, wherein it was re- 
folved to fet afide Francis de Sa, and open the third commif^ 
iion. Sampayo^.who in this was appointed, took an oath to 
refign on the arrival of Mafcarene, and immediately he af- 
fumed the power of government. Mafcarene about this time 
performed fome a£Vions of great military fplendor in defence 
of Malaca. The king of Bintam, with feveral auxiliary 
princes, who with numerous armies threatened deftrudion to 
the Portuguefe fettlement, were defeated by this brave officer. 
The Spaniards about this time took pofTeffion of fome of the Ma- 
luco iflands, where the treachery of the Portuguefe had made 
their name odious. Don George de Menezes and Don Garcia 
Enriquez, two captains on this ftation, put one another alter- 
nately in irons. They at laft came to a civil war, wherein 
Oarcia was wprfted ; and Menezes was defeated by the Spani- 
.4u:d5, who publickly executed fome of his officers, as traitors 
to Charles V. to whom they owed no allegiance. OpprefTed by 
the tyranny of the Moors, the king of Sunda implored the 
proteftion of the Portuguefe, offered to pay a confiderable tri* 
bute, and entreated them to build a fort in his dominions. Yet 
it was not in the power of Sampayo to reftore the tranquillity 
of the Malucos, or to improve the offers of Sunda. He had 
engaged in ^4cheme of policy which fettered his operations. 
One villainy muft-be defended by another, and the public in- 
tereft pouft be fecondary in the politics of the moft able Ufurper 
of power. Sampayo was refolved to withhold the regency from 
Mafcarene, and therefore to ftrengthen himfelf at Cochin was 
his firft care. Where his own intereft and that of the public 
were one, Sampayo behaved as a great commander ^ but where 
they were lefs immediately connedted, that of the latter was 
even neceffarily negle6ted, and even fell into ruin. It was his 
intereft to cruih the Zamorim, and he gained confiderable vic- 
tories over Cutial, admiral of the moft formidable fleet which 
had hitherto been fitted out from the ports of Calicut- Sam- 
payo then failed to Goa, where Francis de Sa refufed to ac- 

o z knowledge 

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knowledge him as governor. This difpute was fubmitted ti> 
the council of the city, and the man in power was confirmed.. 
Sa was then fent to build a fort in Sunda» but the politics of 
Sampayo could not fpare a force fufficient to overawe the^ 
Moors, and Francis de Sa was unable to efFcft his defign. 

The artful Sampayo now wrote to the king of Portugal, that 
a moft formidable hoftile alliance was in meditation* The 
northern princes were ready to aflift the king of Cambaya, and: 
Solyman,, the Turkifh admiral, had promifed the Sultan to- 
drive the Portuguefe from India, if he would give him a com- 
petent armament. It was the intereft of Sampayo to make 
every preparation for defence, and every excufe for preparation. 
But he ftill kept near Cochin. The brave Heftor dc Sylveyrti* 
was fent to Dio and other places, and the reputation of the 
afiions he performed ftrengthened th£ authority, of the Ufurper.. 
A fleet of five flups now arrived from Portugaj, and brought 
two new writs of fucceffion. Thdfe,^^^ according to the royal 
authority, ought not to have been opened while an unrecalledi 
^avdrnor was alive. But, confcious undoubtedly of their con-*- 
tents*, thefe, in defiance of the eftablifhed rule,, were opened^ 
by Mexia, infped^or of the revenue, and Lopez Vaz de Sam^- 
payo, contrary to the former commiiEons, was found in thefe: 
new writs prior to Pedro de MafcsMieni?. The fraud of office is^ 
here evident 3 and from the refentment of the king, if we fup- 
pofe he had one idea of juftice, it s^erwards appeared that this 
new commiilion was furreptitioufly obtained. Sampayo, when 
he took the oath, to refign to Mafcanenej difpatched a meffage: 
to Malaca with the tidings. Mafcarene immediately aflumed 
his power there, and Sampayo, who now expelled his arrival,, 
iield a council at Cochin. It isaimoil needlefs to name the. 
refult. He was pfefent, and in power y and it was refolved; 
that Mafcarene ihould not be acknowledged as govemon 
Saimpayo then ittired to Goa, and left Mexia at Cochin to give 

' * Hie hiftorian Faria expreAly fays, that Mexiaopened them on porpofc to kindle ftrife„ 
Mf^ diftvb the poUic tnm^lity. 


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MaCcarene the reception concerted between them^ ImmediMdy 
as^ Mafcarene landed, Mexia's fpear run him thxx)ugh the arm^ 
feveral of his company were wounded by the armed attendants 
of Mexia, and a retreat to the fleet faved the lives of Mafca** 
rene and hie friends. 

When the tidings of this reached Goa, Henry Figuera, lup- 
pofed the friend of the ejefted governor, was difpoffeffed of the 
command of Coukm, and Mexia was by Sampayo appointed ta 
focceed. - Anthony de Sylveyra was fent to take Mafcarene at 
£ba,to put him in irons, and to deliver him priibner to Simon, 
dc Meneizes, commander of Conanop ;. all which was performed- 
This haughty tyranny, however, produced loud complaints^ 
The murmur was general at Goa. Souaui, commander of 
Chaul, reraonftrated) and the brave He£torde Sylveyra boldly^ 
vpbraided Sampayo for his unworthy treatment of Mafcarene,. 
to whom a trial had been refufed J Sampayo, fiei^e^ and refblute 
1K> perfift, He£tor retired, iand fummoned the council of Goa« 
A letter figned by three hundred, who promifed to fupport hint 
as governor, was fent to Mafcarene, It was alfo agreed to* 
fci« Sampayo, but he was no ftranger to this defign, and im- 
prifonment was the fortune of the brave Heftor. Meneees/ 
governor of Cahanor, as foon as he received information from 
Goa of the caufe why Mafcarene was in chains, fet him free, 
and, together with Souza, commandant of Chaul, and Anthony 
de Azevedo, admiral of the Indian feas,. acknowledged him go-> 
vernor. The Portuguefe were now on the eve of a war among 
themfelves, when Azevedo and other leaders ^propofed to ac* 
commodate difputes by arbitration. Sampayo with great ad- 
drefs managed this affair. <He delayed his confent, though on 
the brink of ruin, till he knew who were named as judges, and 
till he had procured a pardon for Alonzo Mexia, his friendj 
who had attempted the life of Mafcarene. Yet, though the 
defenders of this brave officer had influence to remove one of 
Ae appointed judges, and to add five others of their own no- 
mination, the arts of Sampayo prevailed. The chief inhabitantsr 
of <Jochin attended^ and confcious of their former ^^^^ ^^ 


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council againft Mafcarenc, declared, that if his title was pre* 
ferred, ^they virould revolt to the Moors. He who does a man 
an injury, generally becames the rancorous enemy of the in- 
).ured man ; and even the friends of him whofe pow;er is on the 
•decline, cautioufly .withdraw from his intereft. The council 
of <Goa, who^hadpromifed to fupport, now deferted Mafcarene, 
forward te make their peace where they feared to oppofe. 
Sampayo was declared lawful governor, and Mafearene em« 
1>arked for Lifbon, where he was honourably received by the 
king, and 4a reward of his merit, appmnted governor of Aza- 
znor in Africa ; on his return from whence he perifhed at fea« 

Sampayo, now undifturbed by a rival, but confcious of the 
accuiations which Mafcarene would lay againft him, exerted aU 
his abilities to recommend himfelf to his fovereign. ^ But Al- 
ineyda, not Albuquerque, was the pattern he imitated. The 
principal leaders of the Turkifh fleet had been afiaffinated by 
ih^ friends of each other, and their war (hips were fcattered in 
different places. Sampayo fent Azevedo to deftroy all he could 
find, and Alonzo de Melo was difpatched with a proper force 
to ere£l; a fort on the ifland of Sunda. What heavy accufa^ 
tion of his former condud, devoted to his private intereft, 
'^as this late execution of thefe important defigns! Other 
captains were fent upon various expeditions. Hedor de Syl- 
veyra, one of the moft gallant officers ever fent from Portugal 
to India^ greatly diftinguifhed himfelf; John Deza deftroyed 
the remains of the Zamorim's fleets, commanded by Cutiale, a 
Chinefe admiral ; and Sampayo himfelf fpread flaughter and 
devaftation over the feas and (hores of India. Every where, 
ikys Faria, there was fire and fword, ruin and deftruftion. In 
the midft of this bloody career, Nunio de Cunha arrived with 
a commiflion to fucceed Sampayo. Sampayo pleaded to finiih 
what he had begun, to clear the feas of pirates ; and Nunio, 
according to the honour of that age, granted his requeft, that 
it might not be faid he had reaped the laurels already grafped 
by another. Some time after this, Nunio, in his way to Co-» 
chin, put into the harbour of Cananon Sampayo, who hap-* 


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pened to be there, fcnt his brother-in-law, John Deza, to 
Nunio, inviting him to come afliore and receive the refignation 
of the governor. But Nunio perhaps feared a fnare ; he in^ 
fifted that Sampayo Ihould come on board. He came, and 
having refigned with the ufual folemnities, was ordered by 
Nunio to attend him to Gochin, where, by order of the new 
governor, his efFefts were feized, and his perfon imprifoned; 
And foon after^ amid- the infolts of the croud, he was put on 
board a ftiip^ and fent prifoner to Lifbon, where his life* and 
his property were left to the determination of the fovereign^i 
by whom he was condemned, and puniihed for ufurpation. 

The a6Vs and chara6ter of this extraordinary man demand 
the attention of every country pofTefTed of colonies. His abi- 
lities were certainly of the firft rate, but having made one fte'p 
of villainy, the neceffity of felf-defence rendered his talents of 
little benefit, rather of great prejudice to his country. The 
Portugufe writers, indeed, talk in high terms of his eminent 
fervices and military glory. But there is a furer teft than their 
opinion. The Indian princes fincerely mourned over the afhes 
of Albuquerque, whom they^callcd their father; but there was* 
a general joy on the departure of their tyrant Sampayo^ a 'cer- 
tain proof that his conduft was of infinite prejudice to the in- 
tereft of Portugal. However high and dreadful they may feem. 

♦ When Sampayo was arrefled, " Tell 
Nunio , (aid he,./ ha'ug imprifmud otbin^ 
anil am new imprifoned^ and am nvill comg 
t$ mpti/MMmJ*' When thk waftrep6it« 
cd, <« TeU Samfajot faid Nunio, skai I 
dMkht it not ; ^ui then Jball he ibis difference 
hetwetn niwbe defewee imprifenment^ hut I 
Jball net deftrnje it**^ When the ihip which 
carried Sampayo arrived at the ifle oi.Tet^ 
cera, an office, who waited his arrival, 
put him in irons. When he landed at Lif- 
Qon, he was fee upon a male, loaded with 
chains, and amid the infults of the populace, 
carried to the caiUe, and there connned in 
adnn^on, where not even his wife was per- 
mitted to fee him. After two years, the 
Duke of Braganza, who admired his military 
exploits, procured his trial. When he was 
brought before tho king, who was fur- 

roonded^with .hiacoancil and 'jod^, hxr- 
long white beard, which covered his ^ce. 
and the other tokens of his fulFerings, fays" 
Paria, might have moved Mafcarene him- 
felf to forffivenefi. He made a lone maf-. 
terly fpeecn, wherein he enumerated his fer- 
vices, pleaded dienecefities of public a&irs/. 
and urged the examples of others, who had 
been Rewarded. His defence ftaggered'thc* 
kind's refoltttido :agaioft him* but his ufur- 
pation could not be forgiven. He was fen- 
tenced to pav Mafcarene 1 0,000 ducats, to 
forfeit his allowance as governor; and to be 
banifhcd into Africa. But he was after- 
wards allowed to return in a private ftation 
to Portugal. His friend, AlouiX) Mexia* 
the infpe6lor of the revenue^ ^^ alfo fe- 
vercly puniihed, if left than \o- ^^pap^ A^ 
fervcd may be called fcvcrc^ 

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men in his fituation never <lare to punifh without rtfyeSt o( 
the offender's connexions. The tyranny of George de Me- . 
nezes, governor of Maluco^ under Sampayo, disgraces hnmitn 
nature. He openly robbed the houfes of the Moorifh mer-? 
chants, cut off the hands ^yf fome, and looked on, while a ma- 
giftrate, who had dared to complain, was, by his order, devoured 
by dogs*^ If the erabarraffment of Sampayo was the only 
protection of this mifcreant, others^ however, had his fanc« 
tion. -Camoens, that enthufiaft of his nation's honour, in an 
^apoftrophe to Mafdarene, thus charaflerifes the regency of the 
tJfurper^ •* Avarice and ambition now in India fet their face 
openly agsunft God and juftice ; a grief to thee, but not thy 
.ihameJ'' And Camoens is exceeding accurate in the fa<5ls of 
Jiiftory, though with the reft of his countrymen, he admired 
the military renown of Sampayo, But if Sampayo humbled 
the Moors, it (hould alfo be remembered, that, according to 
Faria, thefe people had improved the diviiions made by his po« 
litics, greatly to the hurt of the Portuguefe fettlements. And 
when he did conquer, pufhed on by the rage to do fomething 
eminent, every victory was truly Gothic, and was in its confe- 
<}uence uncommercial. Malaca, while governed by the injured 
Mafcarene, was the only divifion of Portuguefe Afia where 
commerce flourifhed. After his departure, all was wretched- 
nefs J Portuguefe againft Portuguefe, piracy and rapine here 
and at the Malucos. In what condition the reft were left by 
Sampayo will foon appear. 

The king of Cochin, the valuable ally and auxiliary of the 
Portuguefe, was confined by the fmall-pox when Nunio arrived. 
Nunio offered to wait upon him, but the king declined the in- 
terview on account of the infection, though a fight of the new 
governor, he added, he was fure would cure his fever. Nunio 
. waited upon him, and heard a long lift of the injuries and ra- 
pine committed by Sampayo and Mexia.. Thcfe, in true po- 

* This tyrant, on his return to Lifbon, captive. A death proper to awake the re* 

was banifhed to the Brazils, where, in a membrance of his own cnielties. See In« 

. rencoanter with the natives, he was taken trodnftion, p. v. 
jnifoner, and died the death of an American J^^y 

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Key, Nun|o redref&d; and the kiag» ^bo comptoio^ thst 
he had been kept as a flave in his pwn palace, wa» ik>w foade 
happy. Nunio vifited the other princes in aUiance with Por^; 
tugai, and at every court and harbour found ppprefltoft aedi m^ - 
juftice. At Ormuz in particular, tytanny and extpction had . 
defied refiftance« Nunio foodied^ aiid relieved the wrongs pl 
the various princes* Proclamation was every where made, in-^ 
viting the injured Moors and Indians to appear before him, and 
receive redrefs. Many appeared, and to die aftoniflunent of 
all India, juftice was confpicuoufly diftrtbuted. Ram Xarafo, 
the creature of Sampayo, prime minifterj or rather tyrant o£ 
the king of Ormuz, ftood accufed of the moft horrid crimes 
of office. His rapine had heen defended by murder ; and the 
fpirit of induftry, crufhed to the gLonnd, fighed for Support 
amid the defolate ftreets. Innocence, and induftry were now 
protected by Nunio ; and Xarafo, though a native of India» 
was lent in irons to Lifbon to take his trial. Nor was Nunid 
forgetful of the enemies, while thus employed in reftoring 
to profperity the allies of Portugal*. Heftor de Sylveyra^ 
with a large fleet, made a line accofs the gulph at the mouth 
of the Red Sea, and fuffered not a Mooriih or Egyptian veffid 
to efcape. Anthony Gaham, a very enthuiiail in honefty» 
was lent by Nunio to fucceed Ataide, governor of the Malu^ 
cos, a tyrant who trod in the ftepa of Mene3es. All was con^ 
fufion when Galvam arrived ; but he had infinitely more dif^ 
ficulty, fays Faria^ to fupprefs the villainy of the Portugmfe, 
than to quell the holtile natives* By his wifdom, however^ 
refolution, and moft fcrupulous integrity, the Malucos once 
more became a flourifhing fettlement, and the neighbouring 
kings, Kbme of whom he had vanquifhed, entreated his conti«* 
nViance when he received his recall. Anthony de Sylveyra 
fpread the terror of his arms along the ho^Ule coaft pf 

* Before his arrival, Nmuo greatly diC Meliadar a»d ZansiiMr to mat diftitft. 

tiAguiihed himfelf on the Ethiopian ooaft. Nunio laid Moa»baM in a&es, and left 

The kiMr of Mombaza, in hatred to the a garri(bp. at Mcliada, which afteirwaffda 

PortugucTe, had again redvficd th^ kiogs of re&d«ic4Qpnfidcffablc fcrvkt lo that cUy* 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 



Cambaya, and from thence to 'Bengal. Stephen de Gam^, 
fon of the great Vafco, was fent to Malaca, which he effeo 
tually fecured, by the repeated defeats of the neighbouring 
princes in hoftility; and the governor himfelf attempted Dioi 
But while he was employed in the reduflion of the ftrongly * 
fortified ifland of Beth, where the brave He6tor de Sylveyra- 
fell, a great reinforcement, commanded by Muftapha, a Turk,' 
entered Dio, and enabled that city to hold out agaihft all the 
vigorous attacks of Nunio*. / - 

While the' governor was ^ thus employed in reftoring the 
ftrength of the Portuguefe fettlements,' fcenes, new to the Por- 
tuguefe, opened, and demanded the exertion of all his wifdom 
and abilities. One of thofe brutal wars, during which the 
eaftern princes defolateHtingdoms and ihed the blood of mil- 
lions^ now broke forth.' Badur, king of Guzarat or Cambaya, 
<me of thofe horrid characters common in oriental hiftory, 
afcended the throne, through the blood of his father and elder 
brothers. Innumerable other murders, a£ts of perfidy, and 
unjufl: invafion of his neighbours, increafed his territories. . 
The Mogul, or >king of .Pelhi, fent' a demand of homage and . 
tribute ; but Badur flayed the ^unbafladors alive, and hoafted 
that thus he would always pay his tribute and homage. Ar- 
mies of about 200,000 men were raifed on each fide, and al- 
ternately deilroyed, fomeidmes by the fword, fometimes by. 
famine. New armies were repeatedly muftered, inferior king«^ 
doms were deiblated as they nsarched fdong, and Badur was at 
laft reduced to the loweft extremity . In his diftrefs he implored^ 
the afiMbmce of the Portuguefe, and the Mogul had alio made 
large c^eris to the governor 4 .but Badur's. terms were accepted.; 

* Daring tfaia lege Nunio diieovered the 
greaJtell peHbnal bravery. Che day, in at- 
tempting a teoftdtfperate landing; at his 
boat haSened from pUce to place, ' he was 
known by the enemy, for he was doathed^ 
in red, and' fto6d vp in the poftore of *com- 
mand. All their arallenp was now dircQed 
s^ainfthim, and D. Valeo de Limli's head 
was levered from his flioalden by a- oanocn- 
ball. A gentlpman who had catreaned to 

accompany him». (hocked with fuch danger,., 
exclaimeat' JIas t nuas it for tbit I camt 
^>Air •««««-. ' To whom,, and the others,,^ 
Nonio replied, with a fmife of unconcern, 
Himilitate capita <v^ra.— This allofion to ^ 
a part of the Romiih fervice, amid fiich im- 
minent danger, wu a handfome rebake of '^^ 
their fears, and in- the tme high militaiy 
fpirit of Lafian herafim 


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His territory lay neareft to Goa, ^nd He noji only yielded l^^, 
a city among almoft inacceffible rocks, the great objed of 
the Portnguefe plan of empire, but gave permiffion to Nunio 
to fortify it as he jdeafed*. And the king of Delhi's artof 
foon after withdrew* from Cambaya. The, king of Decan» 
entitled Hydal Can, 4iad about this time, laid fiege toGoIconda 
with an army of near half a miljion, but Cotamaluco, the 
prince whom he befieged, found means to defeat him by | fa- 
mine. The Hydal Can died fuddtnly, and Abraham, his foa 
by a ilave, one of his principal officers, uAirpod the throne, 
and thraft out the eyes of his legitimate fon Mulacham, or 
Mealecan, who was yet in his nonage. Abraham conitinue^ 
the war, and Azadacam, an expert Mohammedan, at the 
head of a large ^rmy, endeayoured^ to revenge Mulacham. 
when the people of Decan^ df folate by thefe brutal wars« en- 
treated Nunio to take the doininion of their country, and:de- 
liver them from utter ruin. As the JDecan forms the continent 
oppofite to Goa, the offer was accepted, and ratified by the 
confent of Azadacam. Azadacam now fled to the king of 
Bifnagar, the old enemy of the Pecan, and Abraham, no^ 
affifted byCotamaluco, the prince who had been befieged inGol- 
conda, invaded Bifnagar with an army of 400,000 men and 
700 elephants. . But while human blood flowed 4n rivulets, 
Azadacam made his peace with Abraham, and Cotamalucc^ 
in difguft of the favour (hewn to his ^nerny^ joined the 

* One lagb Botello performed tlie moft lulled. Botello, however, proceeded, bxA 

Wimderfml voyage, Mrhapi, upon reco^ arrived ftt LUboa, where his pardon wia tl 

on ihis occafion. He was an exile in India, his leward, thongh in confequence of hit 

and as he knew how eameftly the king of intelligence/ a Heet was immediately fitted 

Portugal defired the pofleffion of Din» be oot, to foppljr the new acquired gamfon. 

hoped, that to be the meflenger of the Hts veifel, by die Ipne's order, was im- 

a^reeabfte tidings wonld procure hb pardon. mediately burned, that lach evidence of the 

Having got adranght of the fart, an4 a iafetyandeafeof the^fi)yageioIiidi|i«ugl4 

tpopy of the treaty witli Bador, he fet fail not nematn. • . ^ . 
on pretence' for Camh.iva, in a vefifel oiily ' t '^he Afiatic armies^ though inmenfeik 

fixteen feet and an half long, nine broaci, number, very feldom come to a genend ae* 

and four and ^ half deep. Three Form- tion. To cut off the enemy's proviiions. 
gliefe, his ftmntsr and (ome Indian fiaves, • which produces famine and pelBlence amoni - 

wpre his cre«(« When out at fcs he^difco* iiich enormoas armies,' b one of the j^reaO^ 

vered %is true pnrpofe:' this produced a fbokcs^of Indian generatlhip. 
onutiny, ia which aU that were lailors were '^ ^"' ' ^ * 

p 8 king 

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Jung of Biihagar. Badur, who owed the poiTeflion of hts 
crown to the Portugueiej now meditating their riiin, enter- 
ed into a league with ^ Hydal Can. And Azadacam, 
who had ratified the treaty, by^luch the miferable inhabit 
tanta of Decan put themfeivea under tlie protection of the 
l*ortugue(e doBumon, nOff, ad>^ied his mafter to recover his 
territory by forte of arm«« A war enfued, but neither Az^- 
dacam, nor Setyimaft Aga with hU Perfian auxiliaries, could 
«kpel the Portttgoefe. Hydal Can, tir«d by the groans of the 
people, ordered hoMhies tO'«eafe, but was not obeyed by 
Azadacam, whO) to cover his treason, attempted to p(nibn 
Hydal Can. Hi^ treachery wa« diftovered, yet foon after the 
traitor bought his pardon with gold, for gold is omnipotent 
in the kttdid courtft of ^ Saft. Nunio, however, compelled 
Azadacam to a truce, when a new enemy immediately arofe. 
liie ZaoKM'itn, encouraged Ity Badur, raifed an army of about 
50,000 men, but was fix times ddeated by the Portuguelc. 
Badur had now recourie to perfidy. He entreated a conference 
with Nunio at Dio, and with Souza, the governor of the fort» 
with intention to afifaffinate them both. But ere his icheme 
-was dpe, Souza, one day^ in ftepping into Bedur's barge, fell 
into the water. He was ^en up in fafety, but fome Portu-> 
guefe, who at a diftance beheld his danger, rowed up haftily 
to his affiftance, when Badur, troubled with a villain's fears> 
ordered Souza to be killed. Four Portuguefe gentlemen, feeing 
Sou^a attacked, immediately boarded the barge, and rufhed on 
the tyrant. lago de Mefqueta wounded him, but though thefii 
brave men loft th^r lives in the attempt, they forced Badur* to 
leap overboard for fafety. A commotion in the bay enfued, 
ind the kiag, uaable to fwim any longer, declared 4oud who* 
he wae, and begged affiftance. A Portuguefe officer held out 
tfi oar, but as Badur laid hold of it> a common foldier, moved, 
with honeft indignation, ftrock him over the face with a hal- 
bert, and repeating his blows» delivered the world of a tyrant», 
who^ remorfelefs perfidy and cruelty had long difgraced bus- 
man nature^ 


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In tiiiS' abridged view of the dark barbarbuv poHlSts^ uiw 
blufhing perfidy, aad ddblating wars of kiiig Badur^ the kin^. 
of De)hi> and the Hydal Can, we have a complete epitbme xtf 
the hiftory of India. Century after century coataiiis only i. 
re^tition of the fame changes of policy, the iaine defi^tion^. 
and the fame deluges of fpilt bkxxl. And who can tehold C^ 
horrid a pidure, without perceiving the ioeftimafole benefits 
which MAY AB DIFFUSED ovcr the £aft by a potent fettlefaieat 
of Europeans, benefits which true policy, which their own in.^^ 
tereft demand from their hands, wbich have in partbcea giveA^ 
and certainly will one day be largely diffiifbd. Nunio, as much 
aspoflibly he could, improved every opportunity of caovihcing. 
the natives, that the friendfliip of hid countrymen was capabfo 
of affording them the foreft defence. Greatly fuperior to thr 
grofs ideas of Gothic cokiqueft, he addreflfed hifhfelf to the rca^ 
Ion and the interefis of thofe with whom he hegodated. He 
called a meeting of the principal inhabitants and merchants 
of Cambaya, and laid the papers of the dead king before tfaem*. 
By theie, the treacherous defigns of king Badur fully dppeared^. 
and his negociation to engage the Grand Turk to drive the 
PortugUefe from India was dete€ted.' Coje Zofar, one of the 
firft officers of Badur, and who was prefent at his death, witli 
ieveral others, witnefled the manner of it : and Moors and» 
Pagans alike acquitted tbe Portugucfe. Letters to this |nir- 
pofe, in Arabic and Perfic, %tied by Coje Zofarand the chieT 
men of Cambaya, were difperfed by Nunio every wh^e in in«> 
dia and the coafts of Arabia. Nor did this great politician &op< 
here. ' Superior to bigotry, he did not look to the Pope's Bvlt 
£br the foundation of authority. The free exercife of the Mp-*^ 
kammedan and Brahmin rcligikms was permitted ia every Por*^ 
tugueie territory, and not oi^ly the laws, the ofiicers appoints 
ed, but even the penfiorts given by kingBadiu*, were connnue^.. 
The Portuguefe fettlements now enjoyed profperity. A pri- 
vateering war with tiie Moors of Mecca, and fome hoftilities ia 
defence of the princes, his allies, were the fole incumbrances^ 
o£ Nunio,. wbile India was again fteeped in her own bloods 


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C3C P O R T IT G U E $ B; A S I A; 

While this raw king of Cambaya wasclethroned» while Omaam 
king of Delhi loft an army of above 400,000 men in Bengal^ 
and while Xercham, the king of that country^ together with 
his own life, loft almoft as many in the fiege of Calijor, Na« 
nio ^rderved iiis territory in the Decahin a ftate of peacfe and 
iafety, the wonder and envy of the other provinces of Indi^. 
£ut the armament of the Turk, procured by Badur, now ar* 
lived, and threatened the deftniftion of the Portuguefe. Selimj 
Sultan of Conftantinople, a few years before, had defeated 
At Soldan of Egypt, and annexed his dominions tp the Turkifti 
empire. The Mohammedan ftrength was now more coafoli^ 
dated than ever; The Grand Turk was at war, and meditated 
conquefts in Europe. The traffic of India was .the mother and 
nurfe of his naval ftrength, and the preients fent by king Ba« 
4ur gave him the higheft idea of the riches of Indoftan. Se^ 
venty large veflels, well fupjplied with cannon and all military 
ftores, under the command of Solymari, Bafhaw of Cairo, 
iailed from the port of Suez, to extirpate the Portuguefe from 
India. The feamen were of different nations, many of them 
Yenetian ^galley^flaves, taken in war, all of them trained 
iaildrs; and 7000 Janifaries were deftined to a£l on fhore. 
Some. Portuguefe Reiiegados were alfo in the fleet ; and * Coje 
Zofar, who had hitherto been the friend of Nunio, with a 
party of Cambayans, joined Solyman. The hoftile operations 
hegan with the fiege of Dio ; but when Nunio was ready to 
fail to its relief with a fleet of eighty veflels, Garcia de No^ 
conha arrived with a commilfion to fucceed him as governor. 
Nunio immediately refigned, and Noronha, in providing a 
greater force, by a criminal I06 of time, reduced the garrifon 
4)f Dio to the greateft extremity. Here the Portuguefe fliewed 
«lkacles of bravery. Anthony d^ Sylveyra, the con^manderj 
iraa in every place. : Even the women took arms. The ofij- 

. * This QQker was. by biith aa Albanef<?, the Tarki, and carriei^ to Conftantinople^ 

of Catholic parents, and had ierved in die fix>m whence he went toCambaya, where he 

warsJn Italy and Flanden. Having c«m-' embiaoed Mohammedifin* and became the 

iiptced oBcrcbant, he w^ tduca at 6a by prime.ouAUer aod fayonrite of king Badof • 

t ..h ' ' cers 

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cers ladies went from rampart to- ram part, upbraiding the leafb 
appearance of langour. Juan Roderigo, with a barrel of pow-'^ 
der in his arms, pafied his companions $ Make wn^y he cried, L 
carry my own and many a man^sdeatb. His own, however, he 
did not, for.he returned fafe to his ftation: but above a hun*- 
drcd of the enemy were deftroyed by the exploiioli of the» 
powder, which he threw upon one of their batteries. Of 6oa 
men, who at firfl; were in thegarrifon, forty were not novr* 
abk'to bear arms; when Coje Zofar, irritated by the iniblenoe: 
of Solyman, forged a letter to the garrifon, which prdmiied 
the immediate arrival > of' Koronha: This, as he defigned^ fbll 
mto the hands of Solyman, who immediately hoifted his fails/, 
and with the (battered remains of his formidable fleet, fled ta 
Arabia, where, to avoid a: more dreaded iponilhment^ he died 
by hi& own hands. 

But while Nunio thus reftored the affairs of India,. the un- 
commercial principles of the court of Liibon accumulated 
their malignity. He did not amufe the king and nobility with 
the glare of unmeaning G(|thic conquefts, and tl^e wifdom. af> 
his. policy^ wits by them unperceived. Even' their. hiAorians 
fcem inftniibte^'of it> and: even the author of thtiHifioire PbU 
loj^liiquey in his account of Portuguefe India« pays ho atten^ 
tioji to Nunio, though tlve wifdom and humanity of his poli«* 
tics do.hpnour to human nature; though in the arts of peace 
b^ ef&ftdd tnore than- any of the Portuguefe ^ovchioraj ' and 
though lie '^ 'left the nobkft- example for imitation, which 
th^hiftory of Portuguefe Afia "affords. Riecalled from his 
pl-ofperous government by the mandate of a court blind to 
its true intereft, chains in place of rewards were prepared m 
Portugal for this^ great commander ; biit his death at fea, aftec 
a happy regency of about ten years,^ prevented.the.cdmplctioii 
•f his country's ingratitude. 

Noronha, the new 'Viceroy, the third who had been ho^ 
noured with tiiat fuperior tide *, began his gDvernment with 

* Alnq^ and Gall^ j^e tU ^ly tiio 11^ 

an I 

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4h infamous delay of the fuccours deftined by Nunio for Dio, 
Coje Zofar, by the fame fpirlt of delay,, was permitted*, long 
after the departure of Solyman^ to harral^ the Portugueie- of 
diat important place. The Hydal Can, wmiy other prm<;e6» 
3od even die Zamorim himfelf, awed I^ the dignity and juftice 
lOf Nunio's' government, had entreated tlu^ alliance of Portugal, 
and Noronha had the honour to negociate a general peace ; a 
^pea€e> which, on the part of the Zamorim> gave the Pprtu- 
;guefe every oj^ortunity to ftrengthcn their empire, for k con- 
tinued thirty years* 

Thefe tran£idions, the privateering war with the Moors ; 
Xbrne &irmi£hes in Ceylon ; the delign, contrary to the king's 
.commiilion^ to appoint his. fbn to fucceed him; his death, and 
die pablLc joy which itoccaiioaedj comprife ^be biftory of the 
regency of the unworthy fuccefTor of the generous. Nunio. , 

Both ^he Portuguefe and thj} natives gisive unfeigned demon- 
jftrations of joy on the appouUment of Stephen de Gama, the 
ion of the great Vaico. fiy his firft a£t he ordered' his private 
eftate to be publicly valued, and by his fecond be ient a great 
film to the treafuiy, which by Noronha. Was left cxbafufted^ 
He vifited and repaired the forts, and ratted the fleets • in 
QTOj harbour. By his officers he defeated the king of Achem, 
who difturbed Malaca. He reftored tranquility in Cambaya^ 
where the Portuguefe territory was invaded by a very power- 
ful army, led by Bramaluco, a prince who had been dethroned 
hf king Badur ; and his brother ChrtAoval he fent on an ex- 
;pO(lition irita. Ethiopia*. The inodrs of Mecj(», as aljie»dy 
obferved, were the moft formidable enemies the Portuguefe 
lisidl hitherto found in the Eafl:. In naval art they were greatly 
fiiperior to the other nations of Aiia, and from their numerous 
jfteetsi, which poured down the Red Sea, thePortuguefe had often 
experienced the greateft injury ; and a check to their power was 
now wanted. The Governor hirafelf undertook this expedi- 
tion, and failed tor the Red Sea with a fleet equip^d at hisown 

f ^Iiiamelttdiolffttr^ftep. 4^64. *" 


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'j)rivate expcnce. Here he gave a fevere wound to the naval 
ftrength of both the Turks and the Moors:];. But while every 
thing was ip profperity under the brave and generous Stephen^ 
he was- fuddenly fuperceded by the elevation of Martin Alonzo 
de Souza. Though no policy can be more palpably ruinous 
•than that which recals a governor of decided abilities ere h« 
can poffibly. complete any plan of importance, yet fuch re- 
tals, ere now, had been frequently iffued from the court of 
Lifbon^ But none of them, perhaps, gave a deeper wound to 
the Portuguefe intereft than this. Stephen de Gama trod in 
the fteps of his father, of Albuquerque, and of Nunio. Sou- 
fca's aftions were of a different charafter. He began his go- 
vernment with every exertion to procure witneffes to impeach 
his predeceffor; but though he pardoned a murderer* on that 
condition, every accufation was refuted, and Stephen de Gama 
was received with great honour at Lifbon. Having refufed, 
however, to give his hand to a bride, chofen for him by 
John III. he found it convenient to banifti bimfelf from his 
native country, the country which his father had raifed to its 
higheft honours. And he retired to Venice, his eftate 40,000 
crowns lefs than when he entered upon his fhort government 
of two years and one month. 

Wars of a new charafter now took place. By the toleration 
which Nunio gave to the religions of the natives, he rendered 

t Daring this expedition he took the im- fclf. -He ordered his epitaph to confifl of 

portantcityaodfea portof ToroinAr&bia; thefe words, " He that made knights upcm 

after which he inarched to mount Sinai, meuat Sinai ended his courfe here^^ Don 

where he knighted feveral of his officers, a Alvaro, the Ton of the Mat John de 

j'pmantic honour admired by Charles V. Ca^o, was alfo one o£ thefe knights, and 

D. Luii de Ataide, having behaved with his father thought it fo great an honour, 

great courage as a volunteer, at the battle that he took for his crefl the Catharine^ 
where Charles V. defeated the Duke of ^ >yheel, which his familv ftill continue. 

Saxony, was offered knighthood by the There is a chapel dedicated to St. Catharine 

Emperor; but he replied, he had alreac^ on mount Sinai, fatd^ bythe popi(h writers^ 

received that honour upon mount Sinai. to have been built by angols. 
The Emperor, fo far from being offended, • lago Saurez de Melo, who having fled 

lieclared in prefence of his officers, that he from the fentence of death in Portugal, waf 

more envied that honour than rejoiced in his at this time a pirate in the Indian feas, com- 

vifbory. The fame fpirit of romantic gal- mander of two vefTels and 120 men.- Of 

lantry, ariiing from religious veneration, this adventurer afterwards. 

feems to have pofFefled Don Stephen Kim- 


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the Port iigufefe fettleraents happy and flourithing. But gloomy 
fuperftttion now prevailed, and Souza was under the direction 
of prieftS) who efteemed the butcheries of religious perfecution 
as the fcrvice of heaven. The temples of Malabar were laid 
In afhes, and thoufands of the unhappy natives, for the crime 
vi iAolstey^ were flaughtered upon their ruined altars. This 
the lV](rtu^efe iiiftorians mention as the greateft honour of 
the iffety of their -cotlntrymen, ignorant of the deteOration 
iMbkli f«ich <:r€ielty muft certainly bring upon the religion 
Which inlpires it : ignorant too, that true religion, under the 
toleration of aNunio, pofleiTes its beft opportunity to conquer 
the heart by the difplay of its fuperior excellence. Nor was 
Souza's eiyil government of the Portuguefe lefs capricious. 
Highly chagrined to fee the military rank unenvied, and his 
forces weakened by the great numbers who quitted the fervice 
on purpofe to enrich themfelves in the coafting trade, he en- 
deavoured to render commerce both difadvantageous and infa- 
mous. He laid the Cuftom-houles under new regulations. 
He confiderably lowered the duties on the traffic of all Moor- 
ifh and Aiktic merchants, and greatly heightened the rates oa 
the Portnguefe traders. And felons and murderers, bani(hed 
from Li(bon, were by Souza proteded and encouraged to be- 
come merchants, as only proper for fuch employ. Yet while 
he thus laboured to render the military fervice as only worthy 
of Portuguefe ambition, he began his regency with a re- 
dudion of the pay of the military. At the fiege of Batecala, 
the Portuguefe foldiers quarrelled about the booty, and while 
fighting with eacli other, were attacked by the natives, and 
put to flight. Souza commanded them to return to the charge 
and revenge their repulfe. Let tbrfe who are rich reverse i/, ex- 
claimed the foldiers, nve came to mate gooJ by plunder the pay of 
^bicbwe are unjujily deprived.^-^! do wt know youy replied Souza,. 
you are not the fame men I left in India two years ago. To this the 
foldiery loudly returned, Tes, the men are the fome, but the go* 
vernoris not the fame. Finding the mutit^y violent, Souza re- 
tired to the (hips j but the next day he renewed the :fiege,'and 


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the dty was taken, and the ftreets fan with blood : fuph was 
the rage of the army to recompenfe themfelves by plunder. 
The ye^^rly tribute impofed by Albuquerque upon the king pf 
Onnuz was 12,000 ducats. It was now raifed to 100,000, 
and the king, unable to difcharge fuch an enormous burden, 
was 500,000 ducats in ^rear; and a reiignation of all the re- 
venues of his crown was propofed, and accepted by Souza. 
Azadacam, now in open ytzt with his mafter the Hydal Cai^ 
Abraham, drew Souza to his party. The defign was to de* 
throne Abraham, who was then in alliance with the Portu- 

?ief^ and to place Meale Can his brother in his dominiqn;. 
he P(»tugi;efe officers murmured at thb fhamelefs injuilice, 
but only Pe^dro de Faria, trufting tq his venerable years, had 
the courage to remonftrate with the governor. Souza, haughty 
as he was, liftened to the man of fourfcore, and confelfed th^ 
be had £iyed both his li& aiu} his honour. The attempt, 
however, was ^^ly the Hydal Can, whp gatjierei 
fuch a ftorm to crufli the Portuguej(e, tiiat Souza, foreseeing 
the tempeft which was hovering oyer h^n, tbj:e9tene4 to op^ 
^e vfrits <^ fucceffioo, and refign to t^e governor ne^ict named. 
He complained that he could nojt govern vofin who had A^thej: 
truth nor honour : he did not confide^, however, that his un^ 
|uft treatment of $he common f^diers occi^ned their diibrr 
der and difobedience. But while he thus meditated a treache- 
rous and cowardly retreat, treacherous becaufe it was to ddert 
lus poft in the hour of danger, a fleet from Portugal l^rought 
the great John de Cafl^o, the fucceifor of .the embarrafled unr 
.4etermined Soi;iza. 

The naval anf[ military Arength .Qf the PortugueTe in India 
was in a very fickly condition. Great difcontent among the 
few who were honeft j all was villainy and diforder, rapine 
anfl piracy, among the reft. Oh the folicitatipns of Souza, 
Meale Can toqk rqfuge in Qoa. . When 4he ^yd^.Can made 
his formidable preparations for war, he demanded, as the pre- 
vious condition Qf pea<;£, that Me^e (honld .be. delivered up 
to hira. This Souza refufed, but promifed to fend Jliim to 

q 2 Malaca, 

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Malaca, where he fhould remain under guard. Immcdiatety 
on the acceffion of Caftro, the Hydal Gan renewed his propofal 
for the furrender of Meale, who. was yet at Goa; but the new 
governor rejefted this demand with firmnefs. It was deemed: 
good poHey by feveral of the Portuguefe governors to efpoufe 
the caufe of * this injured prince. They cftecmed him as an 
engine, which, under their management, would either over-awe 
the Hydal Can, or dethrone him when they pleafed/ But the 
event did not juftify this theoretical wlfdom. It had been 
pufillanimity in Caftro, had he furrendered a prince who was 
lander protc6tion of the Portuguefe faith ; but* the contrary 
conduft, the confcquence of Souza's policy, produced an in- 
vafion of the Portuguefe <:pntinental territory ; and though 
Caftro was viftorious, the H/dal Can continued ever ready 
for hoftilities, and- occafion was ever at hand. Scarcely 
had Caftro given Hydal Can- the firfi repulfei when Ma-- 
humud, the nephew of king Badur, the heir of his crown 
and fierce difpofition, infligated by Coje Zofer, and- affifted 
by the Hydal Can and about 8000 troops from- Conftan*. 
tinople, among whom were 1000 Janizaries, commenced- ho- 
ftilities, and threatened the total extirpation of the Portuguefe. 
their warlike operations began with the fiege of Dio. '- John 
xle MafcarenCj the^ governor, made a brave defence, and the 
Portuguefe dffplay^d many prodigies of valour; Azadacam-, 
Coje Zofar, and others, of the greateft itiWitary reputation^ di^ 
refted the attacks, and periftied in their attempts. Whenever 
-a breach was made, the Turks and Ihdians preffed on by ten 
thoufands, but were always repulfed. Nor were the ladies of the 
officers lefs adlive and courageous than in the former fiege. 
Various reinforcements were fent by the governor,- one of 

* The PprtQguefe hiftqii^Ds difagree in 
their accounts oT this Hydal Can Abraham. 
Barros fays, he was not of the blood royal. 
But Faria, who feleded his work from Bar- 
roS) and feveral other authors, calls him the 
brother of Meale ; whom he nnjuftly de- 
^hroned» When Souza, on pretence of 
doing juftice» eadeavoured to place Meale 

on the thtone, the Ufurper in an artful epiflte 
a&ed him what right the Portuguefe had to 
dethrone the kings of the £aft» and then 
pretend to do juftice to an exiled prince. 
Pofleifion, he faid, proved the approbation of 
God ; and the Portujg;uefe, he added, had no 
other title to doadnion in A£a. 


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which was commanded by his fon Don Fernando. Unnum-» 
berfed artillery thundered on every fide, and mines were fprung, 
by one of which .Fernando was with his battalion blown up in 
the air.. When Gaftro received the tidings of this difafter, he 
wafr at Goa* He bore it with the greateft compofure, and, 
though it was the tempeftuous feafon, he immediately dif- 
patched his other fon Don Alvaro with another reinforcement, 
to Dio,. After eight months had elapfed in this defperate 
fiege, the governor arrived with a large fleet, and without op- 
pofition entered the fort. From thence he marched out at the 
head of 2500 Portuguefe, and fome auxiliaries of Cochin.. The 
numerous army of Mahumud continued in their trenches^ 
which were defended with ramparts and a profufion of artil- 
lery. But the enemy were. driven. from their works, and pur- 
fi;ed with incredible flaughter through the itreets of the city.. 
Rume Can, the fon^of Zofar, rallied about 8000 of his braveft 
troops^ «id was totally defeated by Caftro *. It was neceflary 
to prpfepute the war; and the governor, in great want of rao-r 
ney to carry it on^ meditated a loan of 20,000 pardaos from, 
the citizens of Goa. He ordered the grave of Don Fernando 
his fon to be opened, on purpofe to fend his* bones as a 
pledge ', but the putrid flate of the carcafe prevented this, and 
he fent a lock of his own muftachcos as a fecurity for the 
loan; a fecurity indeed uncommon, but which included in it 
a fignal pawn of his honour. The pledge was refpe(5tfully re- 
turned; and more money. than he required was fent; and even 
the women ftript themfelves of their bracelets and other jewels 
to fupply his want. The ladies of Chaul followed the exajn- 

• Daring the heat of this engagement. 
Father Cazal, with a crucifix on the point 
of a fpear» greatly animated the Portuguefe. 
Rume Can, notwithfbnding all the efforts 
of Caflro, put his troops at lafl in great 
diforder. But though the General could 
not, the Priefl led them to vidtory. A 
weapon broke off an arm of the crucifix, 
and Cazal exclaiming aloud^ facriledge^ fa* 
criUdge^*\e'vengt the f acr Hedge ^ infpired a 
fijry which dctcnjiincd the battle. In many 

other engagements the leaders, promoted , 
their intereft in this manner. They often . 
faw the fign of the crofs in the air, and at 
different times fome Moorilh prifoners en- 
quired after the beautiful young woman, and . 
venerable old man, who appeared in the 
front of the Pprtuguefe fquadrons. And 
the Portuguefe foldicrs, who faw-no fuch 
perfonagej, were thus taught to believe 
themfelves under the particular care of the 
Virgin and St. Jofeph. 


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pie, and by the hands of their little daughters fent hio^ their 
richeft jewels. The jewels, however, he returned, and having 
with great affiduity improved his naval and military ftrength, 
he and his captains carried fire and fword over the dominions 
of the hoftile princes, while Hydal Can, with an army of 
1 50,000 men, retired before him. The king of Achem was aUb 
deftrated at Malaca, and the ftubbom villainy of the debauched 
Portuguefe foldiers and traders was the only enemy unfubdued. 
7^ prevent the ruin of the Jiate^ fays his hiftorian Andrada, be 
made it anlawful for a foldier to hecfme merchant. But while he 
laboured in this much more arduous war, in corre^ing the 
abuies^of the revenue, and the diilribution of juftice, grief, it 
is &id, impaired Caftro's health, and haftened his end, at a 
time when Hydal Can and all who had been in arms againft 
the Portuguefe were fuing for peace. On the approach of 
death he appointed a council of fele£l peribns to take the 
management of affairs. And f(^ poor was the great Caftro, 
that the iirfl: a£): of this committee was an order to fupply 
the expences of his death-bed from the king's revenue ; for « 
few reals, not half a dozen, was all the property found ia 
his cabinet ♦. 

* Caftro, thoagh he dirdained private 
•molQmenc, was tond of public magnifi- 
cence. A^r his vidories he frequently en- 
tered Goa in the manner of a Roman tri- 
nmph. That, after his happy return fiom 
Dio» was fo remarkably (plendid, that the 
(joeen of Portugal faid, he had conquered 
like a Chriltian, but had triumphal liloB a 
heathen. The gates and houfes were hang 
widi filk and tapeftry. The cannon and 
arms taken from the enemy were carried in 
Che fiont. The officers in armour, with 
plumed helmets, followed : Cafiro, crowned 
with laurel, and with a laurel bough in his 
luind, walked upon filk, while the ladies 
from the windows flioweied flowers and per- 
fumes upon him ; and Cazal|^ with the 
maimed crucifix, walked in his ferplice im- 
mediately before him. Military and church 
mufic by turns refounded. And Juxarcait^ 
the general t)f the Indian horfe, and 600 
prifoners guarded and in chains, clofed the 
proceffion When he wrote to the king of 

Portugal the particulars of the relief of Dio« 
he fefidted his racal, but this was l<geaed, 
and he waa appointed to continue three yean 
longer, with the additional honour of the 
title of Viceroy. Hiafchool-companion,the 
InfimtDon Lewis, wrote him an a&dionate 
letter requefUng his acquiefcence, in whidi 
he ufes Uiis expreffion. <* Jfitr ymtt /ir- 
fmrmanct rf tht rtyal willf I trufi jom nviil 
ttfVir tbi nps •/ tti r$eks ^Cintrm. nJifith cbm* 
pels ami tfphiu •/ your vidorieSf and hng 
tnm ibtm in frrfonni np^e** CiQtsa, Jht 
rocky hills, woods, and risers, the moft.i»- 
mantic fitaation b nature, was the family 
eftate of Caftro. It is faid'he was the firft 
who brought the orange-tree to Europe, and 
that he efteemed this ^ft to his country,, as 
the greateft of his adhons. Three orange- 
trees are ftill preferved at Cintra, in.memo- 
rial of the place where be firft planted that 
valuable froitaj^e. He died^ Toon after he 
was named Viceroy, in his forty-eighth 
year. His funily iQU remain. 


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With the eulogium of Caftro, Camoens concludes his pro4> 
phetic fong, and here alfo the moil glorious period of the 
Portuguefe empire in Afia terminates. But the circumftances 
of its faU> and the noble and partly fuccefsful ftruggles which 
it fometimes made, when its total extin6tion feemed inevitable, 
are highly worthy of the attention of the political philofo- 
pher, and form alfo the necefiary condufion of this, hiftory.* , 

Garcia de Sa, an experienced officer, fucceeded Caftro, and 
concluded the various treaties of peace, procured by the arms, 
and in agitation at the death of that great man, highly to the 
advantage and honour of Portugal* The celebrated St. Francis 
Xavier was now a principal character in Portuguefe Afia. And 
while the converlion of the Baft was all he profefled, he ren- 
dered the throne of Portugal the moft political fervices. His 
unremitting diligence, and the danger and toil of Jus journies 
from kingdom to kingdom, bcfpeak a great mind, ardently de- 
voted to his enterprize ; and the various princes who received 
biqitifm from his hands, and the many thoufands who, on his 
ipftaching, afiumed the Chfiftian name» difplayod a fucce& 
which his admirers efteemed miraculous. Nothing, however^ 
could be eafier than fuch converfion. Xavier troubled his new 
.converts with no reftraint,.and required from them no know- 
ledge of the Ghrifkian principles. He baptized them, and gave 
them crucifixes to worfliip, and told them they were now fure 
of heaven. But while he was thus fuperficial as an Apoftle, 
as a Politician he was minute and comprchenfive.. Several 
friars of diflSbrent orders had ere now attempted the converiion 
^f fome Indians ; but a regular fyftem, of the moft extenfive 
operation, was referved for the fons of Ignatius Loyala ; and 
Xavier, his friend and arch-^difciple, laid the bold and arduous 
plan of reducing the whole Eaft to the fpiritual vaflklage of 
the papal chair. What is implied in this he well knew, and 
every offer of religious inftru6tion which he made, was at- 
tended with the moft flattering propoials of alliances; of al- 
liances, :however, which were calculated to render the natives 
dependent on the Portuguefe, and mere tributaries. In this 


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. -plan of operation the great abilities of Xavier were crowned 
with rapid fuccefs. Kings and kingdoms, won by his preaching:, 
fued for the friendlhip of the Portuguefe. Bat while the olive 
>of peace feemed ready to fpread its boughs over India, the un- 
relenting villainy of the Portuguefe foldiers and merchants 
•counterafted the labours of Xavier ; and feveral of the new 
baptized princes, in refentment of the injuries they received, re^ 
^turned to paganifm and hoftility. Xavier, who a6ted as a fpy 
on the military and civil government of India, not only, from 
time to time, laid thefe abufes before the king of Portugal, but 
alfo interefted himfelf greatly both in the military * and civil 
•councils of Portuguefe Afia. He was the intimate friend and 
counfellor of the great Caftro, and his political efforts were only 
•baffled by the hardened corruption of the Portuguefe manners. 
While Xavier thus laboured in the direftion of the fpiings 
•of government, Garcia de Sa died fuddenly, and in authority 
was fucceeded by George de Cabral. The Zamorim, the king 
of Pimenta, arid eighteen vaffal princes, among whom was the 
late converted king of Tanor, who now had renounced his 
baptifm, joined in a league againft the king of Cochin, the 
faithful ally of Portugal, and took the field with near 200,000 
men. Cabral hafted to the affiftance of Cochin, and in feve- 
ral expeditions gained confiderable advantages over the enemy. 
The enemy's main army was now in the ifland of Cochin, and 
Cabral with 100 fail, and an army of 40,000 Cochinians, had 
reduced them to the loweft extremity; when, on the very day, 
upbn which the eighteen vaffal princes were to have been given 
up as hoftages, a new viceroy, Don Alonzo de Noronha, ar- 
rived, and inftantly flopped the operations of Cabral : and by 
the mifunderftanding between the two governors, the Whole 
army of the enemy efcaped. Xavier remonftrated, by letter, in 

• In 1547 Malaca was favedby Xavier. chants to fit out ten veffels. He went on 

The king of Achem, the inveterate enemy of board, and by his periiiaTions, and prophecies 

Portugal, fitted out 60 velTels againft that of fuccefs, fb encouraged this fmall fqua- 

port. And when the governor rcfufed to dron, that they gained a complete yv&orf 

/ail in fearch of tjie enemy, ere they were over the fleet of Acbem, 
/ully equipped^ Xavier perfuaded the mcr 


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the ftr<Migeft tei^ms^ to the king of Portugal, and advi&d the 
feverity of puniihment ; but to theie Mutary wamiiigid i»» 
attention was paid by the court of Liibon. 

During 8a's government, the coafting trade oi the private 
adventurers became more and more piratical, and continuaily 
gave birth to an endlefs fucceffion of petty, but bloody wars* 
Though the king of Cochin had ever been the faithful ally of 
Portugal, Cabral ordered, withoi^ even the pretence of com- 
plaint, one of his richeft pagodas* to be pltiQidared. This at- 
tempt, in the true fpirit of the private traders, was defeated 9 
but the royal monopoly, already miferably inadequate both tor 
its means and objed, fuJiered by this breach of faith. It was 
the caufe, fays Faria, that the homeward fleet, of only three 
fhips, fet out ill laden, and late in the feafon, when the tcm- 
pefts were coming on. 

When Noronha opened his patent of commiffion, he found 
that his power had received a limitation unknown before. A 
council was therein nominated, by whofe advice he was enjoined 
to govern. But it does not appear, from his envious and rui- 
nous tranfaftion with Cabral, or from any other of his meafures, 
that he was either reftrained or influenced by their controul. 
Petty wars and ufual depredation marked the beginning of his 
regency ; the latter part of it was truly infamous. The Por- 
tuguefe had valuable fettlements in the rich ifland of Ceylon, 
and the king of Cota, their ally, was now treacheroufly in- . 
vaded, in breach of a folemn peace, by Madune king of Cey- 
tavaca. In one of the firft battles the kirtg of Cota loft his 
life, and his fucceffor implored the ftipulated affiftance of the 
Portuguefe. Noronha himfelf haftcned to Ceylon, and his 
firft aftion was to put to the rack fome of the domeftics of 
the king whom he came to defend, in order to make them dif-^ 

* The Indian pagodas cr temples are tke fyot ^Yitre fiie firft dungs, they cied tht 

repofitorics of their moft valaablc trcafurei. . throne of the idol to w^om the pagoda^ 

When they intend to build a pagoda, fays which they build around it, is to be dcdi- 

Faria, thev fow the ground uitk kidney- catcd. Pythagoras'* veneration for bcajis, ' 

beans. When thefe are green, they bring together with his metempficholis, was per- 

a grey cow to feed ariiong them, and on the baps borrowed from the Indians. 

r cover 

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cover their piince's treafures* He then plundered the palace 
of the late lung, and demanded 200,000 dOcats to defray hia 
charges, which fum was immediately given to him. He after- 
wards defeated Madune, and rafed his city in fearch of trea- 
fiire, and very coniiderable riches were found. By agreement 
one half of the booty was due to the king of Cota, but No- 
ronha paid no regard to the faith of treaty. Nor would he 
leave one Portuguefe foldier to defend his injured ally, though 
eameftly folicited, and though the king of Ceytavaca remained 
in the mountains ready for revenge on the departure of the 

The Grand Turk, ftill intent on the extirpation of the Por- 
tuguefe from India, fitted out three formidable fquadrons^ 
during the regency of Noronha. The firft, commanded by a 
bold pirate named Pirbec, failed from Suez, with an armament 
of 16,000 men. He plundered the Portuguefe fettlement at 
Mafcate, and even the city of Ormuz, though the fort held 
out againft him. Having alfo plundered other coafts, he re-* 
turned to Conftantinople with great riches,^ which he prefented 
to the Sultan. But, as nothing efFe£tual was done towards, 
the extirpation of the Europeans, in place of reward, Pirbcc'a 
head was ftruck off by order of the Grand Signior. 

The (Irenuous and long continued efforts of the Porte to 
expel the Portuguefe from the eaftern feas, difplay the vaft im- 
portance of the naval fuperiority of the Europeans in Afia. 
Though immediate gain feems to have been the fole motive of 
the Europeans who firft went to India, the Moors and Turks- 
perceived the remote political confequences of their arrival, ia 
the cleareft light. DifTatisfied with the undecifive expedition, 
of Pirbec, two other formidable Turkifti fquadrons were fent 
againft the Portuguefe. JBut both of thefe were commanded 
by officers of mean abilities, and were totally defeated by fhip-- 
wreck and battle. The Zaroorim and the king of Pimenta, 

* By order of the king of Portogal, and* by means of Xayier,.the extortions of Noronhai 
were afterwards refiored to the king of Cou. 


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whofe combined army Noronha had formerly permitted to 
efcape, had continued, during the war in Ceylon and w|th the 
Turks, to harrafs the Portiiguefe fleets, and the king of Co^ 
chin, their ally. Noronha, now at leifure, went in pcrfon to 
revenge thefe infults, and the rich iflands of Alagada, fubje£l 
to the king of Pimenta, after a defperate defence, were de- 
ftroyed with fire and fword. Our military poet, Camoens, at 
this time arrived in India, and difcovered his valour as a vo- 
lunteer in this expedition. 

While the royal monopoly and the coafting trade were thus 
reduced and expofed, under, the lan^ur and weaknefs of the 
military operations, the a6):ive fpirit of Xavier was untired. 
Having vifited almoil every' fettlcment^ every where endeavour- 
ing to infpire political vigour and unanimity, he was now 
bufied in adding the Chinefe language to his other laborious 
acquirements of the oriental tongues; for the fpiritual do- 
minion of China was the grand obje6t of his ftupendous plan. 
But, alarmed at the fpreading odium raifed by the cruel and 
unjuft adions of Noronha in Ceylon, he hafted thither, for he 
forefaw the malign influence of the Portuguefe infolence and 
opprefTion. From Ceylon he went to the Malucos and Japan, 
and when ready to enter China, his death in the iile of San^- 
cyon clofed his unwearied labours of twelve years in the Eaft. 
To reftrain the Portuguefe injuftice and tyranny, and to win 
the afFeftion of the natives, were the means by which Xavier 
endeavoured to eftablifh his ftupendous plan of the vaiTallage 
of the eaftem world. And, had he lived in the more virtuous 
days of Albuquerque, his views would probaby have been 
crowned with fuccefs. By the mean artifices and frauds of the 
Jefuits who fucceeded in his miflion, whofe narrow minds were 
earricft for prefent emolument,, what good effefts the fuperior 
mind of Xavier had produced, were foon counterafted, and 
totally loft. 

After a regency of three years, Don Alphonfo de Noronha 
was fuccefdcd by Don Pedro de Mafcarcnhas, a gentleman in 
his fevcntieth year, Meale Can was now at Goa. Mafcarenc 

r 2 adopted 

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lulopted the former policy of fupporting Male's title to 
the throne of Hydal Can, and proclaimed 4iim king of Vifa^ 
por. But Mafcatrene's death, ere he had governed thirteen 
months, clofed. bis regency, and Francifco Barreto, his fuc- 
ceffar, entering into his views, and defirous of the immenfe 
emoluments of an Indian war, profecuted his defigns. The 
great Caftro, by his patronage of Meale, had kept the Hydal 
Can in awe ; but Caftro's faith and abilities were now want- 
ing. In breach of a treaty of peace with the Hydal Can, and 
on prdrence of doing joflice to an exiled prince, Barreto 
kindled a wiar, which proved highly injurious to the Portu-r 
guefe. Meale was defeated and taken prifondr jn his kingdom 
of Vifapor ; and feveral bloody undecifive campaigns dif- 
played the rcfeptmcnt of the Hydal Can *. Nor were the af- 
fairs of the MalucQS lefs unhappy. Deza, the Portuguefe go- 
vernor,, treacherouily imprifoned the king of Tternate and his 
whole family, and ordered them to be ftarved to death. He 
was relieved, however, by the neighbouring princes, who took 
arais in his defence ; and the Aibmiffion of the Portuguefe, 
who deprived Deza of his command, ended the war. 
, While the military reputation of the Portuguefe had almofl: 
loSi its terrors, while their empire in the Eaft yvas thus haften- 
ing to its fall, John III. wa» fucdeeded by Sebaftian, an infant; 
and Don Conftantine de Braganza, of the blood royal, was 
appoiaied Deputy^-king of India^ He governed three years, 
and never performed one a6Kon which did honour to his abili- 
ties. The officers he fent out on various expeditions were ge- 
nerally ^defeated, particularly in a war with the Turks on the 
coafts of Arabia. He himfelf ihared the fame fate, and once 
faved his life, at the city of Jafanapatan, by inglorious flight. 
His views were of no importanoe. He imprifoned Luis de Melo 
fir lofing too much time in a viftorious expedition on the 
coaft of Malabar. In a defcent on Ceylon, the Portuguefe 
feized the tooth of a monkey, a relick held facred by the Pa- 

f Set the aoto^OA BiwetD, in die Lift «f Canoens. 


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gans, for which, according to Linfchoten, 700,000 ducats were 
offered in ranfom; but Conftantine ordered it to be burned* 
The kings of Siam and Pegu pretended the real tooth was 
faved by a Banian, and each afferting that he was in poffeflion 
of the genuine one, bloody wars, which much endangered the 
Portuguefe eaftern fettlements, were kindled ; and Conftan- 
tine, finding himfelf cmbarraffed, refigned, contrary to the 
defire of the council of Lisbon. He is celebrated for his great 
politenefs and affability ; and his government is diftinguiftied 
by the eftablifhment of the Inquifition at Goa. 

Don Conftantine was fucceeded by the Count dc Rodondo. 
Petty wars continued as ufual on every coaft. In 1564, a 
Portuguefe fhip, contrary to the treaty of peace, was attacked 
by three veffels of Malabar 5 Redondo complained, and was 
anfwered by the Zamorim, that Jbme rebels had done //, whom he 
n»as welcome to feize and chaJHfe. Irritated by this reply, and on 
purpofe to retort it, he fcnt Dominic de Mefquita with three 
fliips to fcour the coaft of Malabar. And Mefquita foort 
murdered above 2000 Malabrians, the greateft part of whom 
be fewed up in their own fail cloths and wantonly drowned. 
Redondo, however, died fuddenly, ere the Zamorim com- 
plained ; but fuch was the famencfs of idea among the Portu- 
guefe, that Juan de Mendoza, his fucceffor, in anfwer to the 
Zamorim's complaint, adopted the intended witticifm of Re- 
dondo, and retoited the Zamoriro's reply 5 // was done by rebels^ 
nchom be was welcome to feize and cbajlije. A fpirited reprifal is 
often the moft decifive meafure ^ but this inhuman one, furely, 
was not ditEtated by wifdom. A bold woman of quality, whofe 
bulband had been murdered by Meifquita, with all the fury 
afcribed to an ancient Druidefs, ran from place to place, exe- 
crating the Portuguefe, and exciting to revenge. Many of the 
Moors entered into an oath, never to lay down their arms till 
they had rooted the Portuguefe out of India, They fuddenly 
hefct the fort of Cananor, and burned above thirty Portuguefe 
ftwps that rode under its. cannon i and a tedious war enfucd. 
Mendoza, after fix months, was fuperceded by Don Antonio 


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dc Noronha, who ended the war of Cananor with the defola- 
tjQn ^ the adjacent country. Confufion and bloodfhed co- 
vered the rich ifland of Ceylon, and the new qojtiverts, the 
allies of Portugal, were hunted down by the other natives. 
The king of Achem and other princes began now to meditate 
a general league for the extirpation of the Porttiguefe. And 
the Grand Turk, defirous of acquifition in India, became a 
' zealous auxiliary. But though the firft attempt upon Malaca 
was defeated by the valour of Don Leonis, the commander, 
the league continued in agitation, while the Portuguefe feem- 
ed to invite and to folicit their own deftruftion. The rapine 
of individuals became every year more fhamelefs and general. 
While an idolatrous devotion to faints and images rendered 
them inexorable in their cruelty to thofe of a different wor- 
Ihip, they abandoned themfelves without reftraint to the moft 
lafcivious luxury, and every officer had his feraglio of five, fix, 
or eight of the fineft women. Indian women of quality were 
publickly dragged from their kindred by Portuguefe ravifhers. 
The inhabitants of Amboina had received the Portuguefe with 
the greateft friendfhip. At a banquet given by the natives, a 
young officer, in the face of all the company, and in prefence 
of her hufband, attempted to ravifti one of the principal la- 
dies, and was unreproved by his countrymen. The tables 
were inftantly overturned, and the Portuguefe expelled the 
ifland. And here, as at Ceylon aqd other parts of India, the 
popular fury was firft glutted with the blood of thofe na- 
tives, now efteemed as traytors, who had embraced the religion 
of the Portuguefe. Immediately another moft daring breach 
of humanity called aloud upon the princes of the Eaft to 
^nite in. the defence of each othen Ayero*, king of Ternate, 

* This IS the fame prince whom Deza alliance with the Portaguere, he was trea- 

treacherodly imprifoned, and attempted to cheroafly murdered by the commandant's ne- 

iUrve. He continaed, however, ^thfiil to phew* As he was ftabbed, he laid hold of 

the Portagnefe, till his nephew was mur- a cannon which bore the arms of PortogaU 

dered by fome of their officers. Three of and exclaimed, M ! Ca^umliers^ is it tbms 

the aggreffors were feized by the king's or- jou nward tht moft faithful fui^S of yut 

ider^ and pat to death. On renewing the king^ n^ fovereign! 


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had always been friendly and tributary to the Portuguefe, yet 
on renewing a treaty of alliance, after having mutually fwom 
on the arms of Portugal, he was ftabbed by order of the Pof- 
tuguefe commandant. Nor did this treachery appeafe the mur-^ 
derer. In preience of his queen and daughters, who in vain 
implored permiflion to bury him, his body was cut into pieces- 
and (alted, put into a cheft, and thrown into the fea. He 
had a fon, however, Chil Babu, who, in revenge of this, proved 
the moft formidable enemy the Portuguefe had ever known: 
in the Eail. His ambalTadors hailed from court to courts and 
the princes of India, harraffed by their cruel awful tyrants, who 
trampled on every law of humanity and good policy, combined 
with him in a general league for the utter expulfion of the Por- 
tuguefe ', and fo confident were the natives of fuccefs, that not 
only the divifion of the Portuguefe fettlements^ but the pof- . 
feilion of the moft beautiful of their wives and daughters, 
was alfo fettled among them* Five years was this league 
in forming, and eaftern politics never produced a better 
concerted plan of operation. The various forts and terri- 
tories of the Portuguefe were allotted to the neighbouring 
princes. Goa, Onor, and Bra9alor were to reward the vi£to- 
ries of the Hydal Can ; Chaul, Damam, and: Ba9aim were to 
be taken by Nizamaluco, a king of the Decan ; the Zamorim. 
was to poflefs. himfelf of Cananor, Mangalor, Cochin, and 
Chale ; the king of Achem was to reduce Malaca j and the 
king of Ternate was ta attack the Malucos, Befides thefe, 
many other princes had their appointed lines of a6lion s and 
this tremendous ftorm was to burft, in every quarter^ at the 
fame inflant. Don Luis de Ataide was governor of India 
when this war began. The Hydal Can, with an army which 
confifted of iqo,ooo infantry, 35,000 horfe, 2 140: elephants, 
and 350 pieces of cannon, covered the continent oppofite to 
Goa for feveral leagues, and the difpofition of his extenfive 
pofts difplayed great generalfhip. Every eminence was for- 
tified, and his batteries, of" two leagues in extent, thundered 
upon Goa. The difpolitions of Ataide, however, not only 


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protected that iiland, but his ifiiexpefl:^ inroads often car^ 
rLed terror and flaughter through this immenfe encampment. 
The Hydal Can, though greatly difpirited, began to plant 
gardens and orchards, and build banquettiag houfes, as if 
refolved to conquer, at whatever diftance of time. While 
Goa was thus beiieged, ChauU a place of lefs defence, was 
invei):ed by Nizatnaluco, at the head of an army of 1 50,000 
men, Turks, Moors, Ethiopians, Perfians, and Indians. The 
king of Ternate attacked the Malucos ; the queen of Gar^ 
zopa carried her arms againft Onor ; and Surat was feized by 
Agalachem, a prince tributary to the Mogul. And even the 
ancient Chriftians of St. Thomas, pcrfecuted by thelnquifition 
of Goa, for non-fubmiffion to the See of Rome J, joined the 
Pagans and Mohammedans againft the natives of Portugal. 
But where even the embers of haughty valour remain, danger 
and an able general will awake them into a flame. Don Luis, 
the viceroy, was advifed to withdraw the Portuguefe from the 
exterior parts for the fuppot't of Goa, the feat of their empire. 
But this he gallantly refufed, and even permitted a fleet with 
400 men to fail for Portugal *. The Zamorim and the king 
of Achem, having met fome repulfes at fea, were not punftual 

{ Sec Gcddes*8 Hiftory of the Malabrian 
Church. The Chriftians of St. Thomas, 
according to the Portngueie kiftorians, ' 
tliflurbed the new converts, by telling them 
that the religion the PortugaeKs taught thqm 
was not Chriftianity. This gave great of- 
fence to the Jefuits, ivho in revenge perfe-.. 
cuted the Thomifts with all the horrors of 
the newly eftabliihed Inquiiition. The fol- 
lowing fiiort account of the Chriftians of 
the Eaft may perhaps be acceptable. In 
the fouth parts of Malabar, about 200,000 
of the iphabitants profeffed Ctiriftianity be- 
fore the arrival of the Portuguefe. They 
called themfelves the Chrifbans of Saint 
Thomas, by which apoftle their anccftors 
had been converted. For 1 300 years they 
had been under the Patriarch of Babylon, 
who appointed their Af^/fr^ff/ or archbiftiop. 
Dr. Geddes, in his Hiftory of the Church 
of Malabar, relates, that Franct/co RoZr^ -a 
Jefnit miflionary, complained to Mene^s, 

the Portuguefe archbifhop of Goa, that 
when he (hewed theie people an image of 
our Lady, they cried out, ** Away with that 
£lthinefs, we are Chriftians, and do not 
adore idols or pagods.^ 

Dom Frey Aleixo di Menezes^ archbifliop 
of Goa, did «• endeavour to thruft Upon the 
** church of Malabar die whole mafs of 
** popery, which they were before unac- 
•* quainted with." To this purpofe he had 
engaged afl the neighouring princes to aflift 
him, •* and had fecurcd me major part of 
** the priefts prefent, in all one hundred and 
** fifty-three, whereof two- thirds were or- 
<< dained by himfclf, and made them abjur? 
" their old religion, and fubfcribe the creed 
'• of pope Pius rV.»— Millar's Hiftory of 
the Propag. of Chriftianity. 

* This was the trading fleet, or regd 
monopoly, the delay of which might have 
produced his rccaL 


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in the agreed commencement of hoftility. This favoured- 
Ataide ; and no fooner did he gain an advantage in one place, 
than he fent relief to another. He and the beft troops 
haftened from fort to fort, and victory followed viftory, till 
the leaders of this moft formidable combination fued for 
peace. A fignal proof of what valour and military art may 
<lo agamft the greateft multitudes of undifciplined militia. 

An highly honourable peace was concluded with Nizamalu- 
coj but while theHydalCan was in treaty, and while the 
Zamorim, who was now in arms both by fea and land, pro* 
pofed conditions to which Ataide would not liften *, that brave 
commander was fuperceded by the arrival of his fucceflbr, An- 
tonio d$ Noronha. When Ataide left India, the Hydal Can 
was ftill before Goa, and the new viceroy bad the honour to 
conclude the treaty of peace. But the important fortrefe of 
Chale, near Calicut, furrendered to the Zamorim, who was 
jftill in arms. And the new commiflion of Noronba involved 
the Eaft in perplexities unknown before. At the very time 
when the league began to exert its apparently invincible 
force, at that very time king Sebaftian, now about his fix- 
teenth year, divided his eaftern empire, as if it had been 
in the moft flourifhing condition, into three governments, 
independent of each other. Noronha was to command 
from Cape Gardafu, on the mouth of the Red Sea, to the 
coaft of Pegu, with the title of Viceroy of India. From 
Gardafu to Cape Corrientes^ below Madagafcar, was given 
to Francifco Barreto, late governor of Portuguefc Afia, now 
entitled Governor of Monomotapa ^ and from Pegu to China, 
with the title of Governor of Malaca, was appointed to 
Antonio Moniz Barreto. In this pompous divifion of em- 
pire, Moniz Barreto was to be equipped from India j but 
Portuguefe India could not afford the force which his patent 
appointed^ and Moniz rcfufed to fail to Malaca with an infe- 

* a>a}ouU mah no fiaa, he faid, hut upon/uch Hrmj as the Zamrim migSt ixfeS^ win 
ihe Portuguefe in the mft Jlourifring cpnUtivn^ 

f rior 

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rior equipment. The celebrated Echebar, the Great Mogul, 
or emperor of Hindoftan, had now pofteffed himfelf of the 
throne of Cambaya |, and as Ba9aim and Damam had formerly 
belonged to that kingdom) he meditated the recovery of thefe 
territories from the Portuguefe : but while he was ready to in- 
veft Damam, Noronha entered the river with fo formidable a 
fleet, that Echebar confented to a peace which confirmed the 
Portuguefe right of poffeffion, on condition of their alliance. 
The king of Achem, who according to the league was to have 
invaded Malaca, now performed his part, and reduced that 
fettlement, which had no governor, to the deepeft diftrefs. 
The arms of Ternate were alfo profperous in the Malucos. 
To the relief of thefe Noronha fent fome fupplies, but while 
he was preparing to fend more, an order from Portugal ar* 
rived, which empowered DonGafper archbifhop of Goa to dc- 
pofe Noronha, and inveft Moniz with the government of India. 
Don Leonis de Pereyra was at the fame time appointed go- 
vernor of Malaca. Moniz urged him to fail to the relief of 
his fettlement, but Leonis refufed to go thither with lefs than 
the appointed equipment. Though on the private accufations 
of Moniz, Noronha was degraded for a like refufal ; though 
Noronha was then at war, and Moniz now at peace ; and 
though Leonis abated in his demand, Moniz was immoveable. 
Leonis therefore failed for Portugal, where his condudl was 
juftified, yet no punifhment allotted to Moniz ; fuch was the 
unblufhing partiality with which the minifters of Sebaftian 
governed the falling empire of Portuguefe Afia. 

While Malaca was thus deferted by its governor, the king 
of Achem and the queen of Japara> with numerous fleets and 
armies, poured all the horrors of war upon that valuable ter* 
ritory. Time after time, as the ftiattered fleets of the one re- 
tired to repair, the new armaments of the other immediately 
filled their ftations. And the king of Ternate, the author of 

t Mahumud, nephew of kine; Badur, was betrayed into Echebar^s hands by one of his 
officers. The traitor was beheaded by order of Echebar. 


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the League, was viflorious in the ifles of Maluco. The feveral 
fupplies of relief, fent by Moniz, one of which confifted of 
2000 troops, all perifhed by fliipwreck ere they reached their 
deftined ports. The murderer of king Ayero was ftabbed by 
the populace, and the Portuguefe were totally expelled from 
this fettlement, which commanded the fpice iflands. Nor was 
the government of Francis Barreto, in Monomotapa, lefs un- 
happy. He, who had been governor of India, fays Faria, ac- 
cepted of this diminifhed command for three reafons -, becaufe 
ie was foor^ becaufe it was the king's will, and becaufe it was 
a poft of gieat danger. His commiffion was to make himfelf 
mafter of the mines which fupply Sofala and the neighbouring 
ports with gold and (ilver : and one Monclaros, a Jefuit, ac- 
companied him, without whofe concurrence he was prohibited 
to aft. He failed from Lifbon, with only three (hips and a 
thoufand men, in 1569, and having received fome fupplies 
at Mozambique, together with tools for miners, camels * and 
other beafts of burden, he proceeded to his vifionary govern- 
ment. Hs landed in the river of Good Signs, and propofed to 
march to the mines by the route of Sofala. But to this Mon- 
claros would not confent, and by his direftion he took a more 
diftant courfe. After a march of ten days along the river 
Zambeze, during which his fmall army fuffered greatly by ex- 
treme heat and thirft, he faw the mountains and valleys covered 
with innumerable multitudes of armed men. Thefe, however, 
were difperfed by his fire-arms ; and foon after another army, 
as numerous as the former, (hared the fame -fate. The Cafres 
now fued for peace, and offered to difcover the mines. But 

* Cortez is juflly admired for the ready Cafses, who had Bever before feen fuch an 

dexterity with which he improved every opi- animal, thought it fpeke to the governor, and 

^ion of the Mexicans to his own advantage. earneftly a&ed what it faid. Thefe creatures, 

JBarreto gave an in (lance of this art upon replied Barreto, live upon human fielh ; and 

this expedition. When the Cafres were this one has been fent from its brethren to 

fuing for peace, and Barreto in great want beg I would not make peace with you, other- 

of provifions, one of the camels having broke wife they muft be ftarved. After much en- 

loofe from its keepers, and after running till treaty, Barreto promifed to perfuade the ca- 

tired, happened to be met by Barreto, to mels to be contented with the fiefh of beeves; 

whofn it inftantly kneeled, as is ufual for that upon which the Cafres gladly fupplied him 

<preatiire when it receives its burden. The with as many herds as he defired. 

fz when 

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when now on the eve of fuccefs, Monclaros commanded him 
to defift from his ruinous expedition, and immediately to re- 
turn to Mozambique. And fo deeply was Barreto affeftcd 
with this difappointment and dishonour, that overwhelmed 
with the fever of indignation, without any other fymptom, of 
ail, he breathed out his life in iighs, after the violent mental 
agitation of two days. Among his papers was found a com- 
miflion for Vafco Homcm, his major, to fucceed him ; who, 
perfuaded by the Jefuit, immediately returned to Mozambique. 
But Monclaros having foiled for Portugal, Homera, upbraided 
by the officers, of that ftation, returned to Monomotapa. He. 
.landed at Sofala, and from thence, by a fhort and eafy march,, 
arrived at the place where the mines were expe6led. After 
fome (kirmifhes with the Cafres, the king of Chicanga pre- 
tended to be friendly, and offered to fhew the mines. Having; 
led the Portuguefe from province to province, he at laft brought 
them to a place where he had ordered fome ore to be buried 
and fcattered, and here he told them was a rich filver mine.. 
While the Portuguefe were feveral days bulled in digging 
around, the Cafres efcaped; and Homem, his provifions be- 
ginning to fail, retired to Sofala, leaving a captain named Car- 
dofo, with 20Q men, to make farther trial. Fearlefs of this 
fmall party, the Cafres returned, and with confident promifes, 
offered to difcover the richeft and eafieft worked mines in their 
country. Cardofo believed them, and was led into defiles, 
where he and all his men perilhed by the weapons of the art- 
ful bar4)arian«. Such was the end of the government of Mo- 
nomotapa, the golden dream, the ill-concerted and ill-con- 
duftcd plan of the weak minifters of a giddy empire haftening 
to its fall. 

Moniz, after he had governed three years, the term now 
ufually named in the writs of fucceflion, was fucceeded by Don 
lago de Menezes, under whom the bloodihed of the ufual petty 
wars with the Moors and Malabrians continued. His regency 
is diftinguiflied by no warlike event of note : and after he had 
held the fword of command about two years^ he was fuper- 
, . ceded, 

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fieded by 4jb<^ Itr^ve At4i4e Ci»m^ /^ Autotfguiay, whofe ai?t aiiu^ 
valour bad \9if\y triiMifiphed aver the nioft foriQidable'efiiarts^ 
of the General League. 

To fuppofe that Sebaftian or his minifters perceived the^ 
precarious an^ ruinous Aate of their Eaftem Empire^. wheiK 
they appointed this able o&k&v to that very critical command,, 
were to all^w th^m a mefit^ which eve^y other part of their 
€ondu6l relatiye to India difc}aim$. Don Sebaftian's ideas 
were totally <kbauched by the qioft romantic thirft of military 
glory,, aoad it wa» hi? atnbition frgm his childhood to diftin- 
guilh himfelf at the head of an army in Africa. Ataide ftre- 
fiuoufly oppc^ed t^^is wild expedition, which, he was jufHy 
convinced, was ill-adapted to the ftate of his country. But 
JSebaftian, now in hts twenty-fourth year, to be relieved of his 
difagreeable covmfel,, ordered him to refume the vieeroyftiip of 
India. The fpeech which Sebaftian made to Ataide, upon this^ 
his iecond appointment, ftrorjgjy charafterifes the frivoloufnefs 
which now prevailed at the court of Lifbon. Don Conftan- 
tine dc Braganza, of. the blood royal, was one of the weakeft 
governors that ever ruled India.. Ataide, on the contrary, had 
.performed moft incredible aftions ; had faved the Portuguefe 
from the greateft dangers they ever furmouiited ii> Alia. Yet 
Sebaftian did not bid him reign as he had formerly done.. No^. 
he bade him reign like Don Conilaniine — a man, w]>ofe abili- 
ties reached no farther thaii perhaps to open a ball gracefully; 
for his politencfs was his only commendation. When errors, 
in government begin, the wife fee the fecret difeafe, but it is^ 
the next generation which feels the worft^^ of its effefts* Ca- 
moens, whofe political penetratipn was perhaps unequalled in^ 
his age and country, faw the declenfion of manners, and fore- 
told in vain the fall of empire; Portugal owed its- ej&iftence 
to the fpirit of .chivalry and the ideas of liberty, which were 
confirmed by the ftatutes of Lamego. Camoens^ in a fine al- 
legory, laments the decay of the ancient virtues^ Under the: 
charafter of ahuntfman he paints the wild romantic purfuits 
of king Sebaftian, and wifhes that he may not fall the vdftim 


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cxxxiv PORTUGUESE Asia; 

of his blind paffion. The courtiers he charafterifes, as the 
moft venal of felf-interefted flatterers ; and the clergy, the 
men of letters, he fays, 

— — trim'd the lamp at night's toiid hour. 
To plan new laws to arm the regal power, 
Sleeplefs at night's mid hour to raze the laws. 
The facred bulwarks of the people's caufe. 
Framed ere the blood of hard earn'd viftory 
On their brave fathers' helm-hackt fwords was dry. 

Unperceived by the unlettered nobility, the principles of the 
conftitution gradually expired under the artful increafe of the 
royal prerogative. If Sebaftian was more abfolute than John I. 
his power was bought by the degeneracy of his fubjefts, and 
weaknefs of the ftate, the certain price with which monarchs 
purchafe their beloved defpotifm. The negleft of one man of 
merit is the fignal for the worthlefs, if rich, to croud to court. 
Many of thefe fignals were given in the reigns of Emmanuel, 
John III. and Sebaftian, and thus the labours of an Albuquet-que, 
a Nunio, a Caftro, and an Ataide, were fruftrated and reverfed. 
Thefe governors, bred in war, enthufiafts in honour, all died 
poor. Xarafo, the creature of Sampayo, the tyrant of his 
maftcr the king of Ormuz, juftly accufed of murders and the 
moft unbounded extortion, was fent in irons to Lilbon. But 
he carried his treafures with him, and was reftored to his em- 
ployments. Anthony Galvam, the moft honeft of men, faved 
the Malucos, returned poor to Portugal, and, like Pacheco, 
died in an alms-houfe. But thefe, the errors and crimes of 
former reigns, were of little effeft compared to the evil con- 
fequences of the inattention to, and ignorance of Indian af- 
fairs, difcovered by the minifters of Sebaftian. They ordered 
Don George de Caftro, who furrendered the fort of Chalc to 
the Zamorim, to be tried and beheaded j and he died on the 
fcafFoId at Goa. Yet a year after this, the court of Lifbon if- 
fued a commiflion appointing him to command on another 


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ftation. The poverty of an Albuquerque, a Nunio, and a 
Caftro, was now the public jeft of the Portuguefe * com- 
mandants. Under the ihade of (ilken umbrellas, fome of 
the late viceroys rode to battle, in chairs carried on men's 
fhoulders. All was difunion, grofs luxury, and audacious 
weaknefs in Portuguefe Afia, when Sebaflian loft his crown 
in his African expedition. And what greatly haftened their 
ruin, the natives now perceived their weaknefs, and foretold 
their approaching fall. About fifty years before this period, 
it was the general opinion of India, that the Portuguefe were 
among men what lions arc among beafts : and for the fame rea^ 
fon^ faid an Indian captive to a Portuguefe officer, nature has 
appinnted that your fpecies Jhould be equally few. But as foon as 
their luxury began to appear, thefe fentiments were changed. 
het them alone y faid one Indian prince to another, the frauds of 
tbeir revenue^ and their Iwe of luxury will foon ruin them. What 
they gain as brave fildiers they will foon lofe as avaritious merchants. 
They now conquer Afia, but Afia will foon conquer them. And a 
king of Perfia afked a Portuguefe captain how many of the 
Indian viceroys had been beheaded by the kings of Portugal. 
Noncy replied the officer, ^en you will not longy returned the 
Perfian, be the makers of India. 

When Ataidc failed for India on his fecond viceroyfhip, he 
dreaded the difafters which would follow the precipitate, ill- 
concerted expedition of Sebaftian. And it was his firft care, 
after his arrival in the Eaft, to prevent the evil confequences 
of the unhappy event. He immediately fitted out a fleet which 
ftruck the princes of India with awe and terror. Any par- 
ticular deftination -of this armament was never known ; for fo 
formidable did Ataide appear, that the tidings of the death 
and total defeat of Sebaftian in Africa, produced no war in 
India. Sebaftian was fucceeded by an old weak man, his 
grand uncle, the cardinal Henry. Two years clofed Henry's 

• In pardcolar, Don A. deNoronha, vice- tires of thefe heroes perhaps difplayed the 
roy in 1 568, is recorded for publickly brand- traeft policy and higheft niagnanity. Of 
ing fuch condu^ as madnefs. But the mo- this hereafter. 


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:pufillatiimous fway. And Philip 11. of Spain foon after made 
himfelf matter of the kingdpra of Portugal. The brave 
Ataide, after having humbled the Hydal Can for a breach of 
treaty, and concluded a peace, fell into a deep melancholy, of 
which he died in the third year of his regency; fo fincercly 
was he affedted with the fail of his country, which he forefaw 
and foretold*. He was fucceeded by Hernan Tcllez de Me- 
jiezes, appointed by the five regents who governed Portugal 
after the demife of Henry, Under Menezcs, Mafcate was 
^plundered by the Turks/ A fquadron was fitted out to its re- 
lief > hut this the commander never attempted. He avoided the 
Turkifh galleys, but plundered and laid in aihes the rich cities 
of Pefani, Gaudel, and Teis, on the coaft of the Nay laques, near 
Cambaya, with whom the Portuguefe were not at war. After 
>a government of fix months, Menezes was fuperceded by Don 
Francifco de Mafcarenhas, the firtt viceroy appointed by Philip« 
His brave defence of Chaul againft Nizamaluco entitled him 
to this diftin£tion ; and Philip, for obvious reafons, loaded 
him with honours, powers^ and emoluments, fupcrior to thofe 
enjoyed by any former viceroy. He was commiffioned to pro- 
<:laim Philip in India i but Menezes, though be lott his re- 
gard, had already performed this confirmation of the ufurper's 
title J. But though Mafcarene found Philip peacefully ac- 
knowledged, all was confufion and weaknefs in the Portuguefe' 
iettlements. Turks and Moguls, the Zamorim, and other 
princes, in little fquadrons, udconnefted with each other, 
fpread all the horrors of piratical war from Melinda to Ma-^ 
laca. The Portuguefe fquadrons were frequently defeated, 
^nd their military reputation was in deep decline. Cochin had 
long been the faithful and valuable ally of Portugal 5 but the 
prefent king, unable to pay the enormous, ungenerous taxes 

• So clear was his heart from the irifcc- raaajjtan prcfcrved as his trophy in hli 

tion of avarice^ fays Faria, that while others caille of Piniebe. 

carried immenfe treafures from A£a to For- t By the ftatutes of Lamego, the magnm 

tugaly he only brought four pars of water, €barta of Portuealf a foreigner cannot holdr 


£lled from the four great rivers, Tygris, the Portogneie Iceptre 
JEuphrates, Indus, and Ganges, which were 

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demanded by Mafciarcne, refigned his revenues to the Portu- 
gueie. Twenty thoufand Cochlnians bound themfelvcs in 
an oath to die in defence of their ancient rights, and M afca- 
rene was neceilitated to fufpend his acquirement^ an acquire- 
ment which was relinquiflied by D. Duarte de Menezfis, who, 
after the ufual regency of three years, fucceeded him in com- 
.mand. Malaca» . invefted by the king of Ujantana, was now 
defolated by famine. About ah hundred people died every day, - 
and mothers exchanged their children, that they might not 
eat their own offspring* The ifland of Ceylon was alfo 
fteeped in blood, and the Portuguefe there reduced to the 
deepeft diftrefs. But though Don Paulo de Lima difplayed the 
ancient valour of his countrymen in the relief of Maiaca and 
the fort of Columbo in Ceylon, the frequent repulfcs of the 
Portuguefe emboldened the natives to feize every opportunity 
of hoftility. 

Under the government of Menezes, a court of chancery, in 
1586, was erected .at Goa. The citizens, long oppreiTed by 
military tyrants, had requefted Philip for fuch jurifdii^lion. 
But what chiefly diftinguifhes this period, is the alteration of 
the Royal Monopoly^ and the eftablifhment of a Portu&uesb 
East India Company. The revenues of India, received by 
the exchequer of Lifbon,. amounted to little more than a mil- . 
lion of crowns* This, yearly fent to Portugal in Indian goods 
on board of his majefty's (hips, had long been inadequate to 
the expence of the armaments almofl: annually equipped in Por- 
tugal for the fupport of the Indian dominion *. And Philips 
unwilling to continue fuch prepofterous courfe, farmed the 
trade of India to a company of merchants, under regulations 
of the fame fpirit by which the Spanifh trade to Mexico, and 

• According to Paria, die royal revenuet, ibovc a million of crown* yearly. It ought 

aboatthis dme, ftoodthas : THe cuftoins of to have been two miliions, fayi our hifto-^' 

Dio, above ioo»ooo crowns ; thofe of Goa« nan, buc was tht» reduced by the frauds of 

160,006 ; thofe of Maiaca, 70,000 ; the office, and enormous fataries of the com-> 

tribute of princes and territories, 200,000 ; nanders of the various forts, which article 

which, together with the king's fhare 6( the alone amounted to more than half a millioft 

prizM taken by his own (hips, amovated to per annum* 

t the 

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-the Portugacfe commerce with * Brazil> haw ever been g<v 
vcrned. As in thefe the fovereign is Ible mafter of thegarri- 
' fons and territory, which are prote6bed by his fleets and armies^ 
fo Philip remained fovereig;n of Portuguefe India. And as the 
annual flotas which fail to Mexico and Sratii are under fevere- 
reftri^ions, but have the exclu/he privilege of trading to thofe 
regions, fb the merchants v4io und^took the annual ^quip* 
ment of the Indian fquadronyin reward of the revenue fiipu-* 
lated to foe paid, received the exclufooe privilege of trading with 
India. An eftablifhment upon other principles would have 
been inconflftent with every idea of colonization underftood,. 
or ever pradifed> by the courts of Spain and PortugaL 

When this new commercial r^ulation was known in India,, 
it excited the greateft difcontent. And all the authority of the 
viceroy and of the clergy was hardiy fulHcient to fuppreis an 
infurre£tion at Goa. By its due operation, the lucrative li- 
centioufnefs of the private traders woold have received fome 
bounds s and a check upon their immenie profits gave a gene^ 
ral alarm* There were dated vofi^ges pearformed under the 
dire^on of the viceroy to coUeft the king's revenues in the 
different Settlements. And the commanders of thefe fi^ua^ 
drons^ a£^ednow> without reftraint^ as private merchants, and 
thdr profits were almoft incredible f. The idea of preventing: 
the military to become merchants was now na more. And 
even the viceroys^ after Caftro and Ataide, became private 
tra(krs. Befides their yearly falaries, now raifed to i8,ooa 
crowns, fome of them cleared 3> fome 5, and fome 800,000 
ducats, by their own merchandife. And thofe who bore the 
title of Don were not now afiiamed to command their ovm 
piratical merchant (hips. After C^ro, fome of the firfl: 

* The tnde to tkefe places is ctmtned ID Wcmght tke «a»tttn 100,000 cnmns^ for 

particokur ports, annual flotas and nmSatst xxXy the Mi^x. of tke goods of oti^ra 

flups, and oven the quantity of goods li» wludi be carried ; thfttfrom Coiomandel to* 

xnitted. See Account of the EoropeM Malaca» 20,000; from Goa to Mozam- 

Settlements in Amerka, fifth edit^ vol. k bique, 24,000; and the ihort vc^age to 

f. 234, &c and 315. Ceykm, 4000. And die prc^ts of theiv 

\ According to Faria's eftimate» the oiwa mdie were eq^ly {paat. 
voyage from Goa to China and Japan^ 


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HoblUtjr of Portugal wera fent to govern India : and their 
liiftortans bluntly confefs, thi|t they went thither to repair 
-their fortunes. But though the new regulations were in the 
^irit of the Spanifh trade to Mejdco, nothing like the regu- 
larity, of the iotas was attained in India. The viceroy ftill 
retained the care of fitting out the homeward fliips, and the 
exigencies of India fwdered their number and cargoes over 

Don Duarte de Meaeze9 was fucce^ed, in i58S» by Ema- 
nuel de Souza Coutini¥>» who in 1590 resigned the fword to 
Matthias de Albuquerque, who governed about feven years; 
bk i597» Don Franciico de Gama, Count de Vidigueyra, and 
grandfon of the Di£;ovcrer of India» afcended the throne of 
Portuguefe Afia. But not more degenerated were the times, 
than were his actions and manners fi'om thole of his illuftri- 
ous anceftor. He was the xnoft detefted and moi^ infuked 
ruler * that ever governed India ; and the meannefs of his 
aHlities» the ferocious ungrateful haughtinefs of his carriage, 
^nd his grois injuftice* merited the.iignal contempt with 
which he was treated. The peninfula of Pudepatam, between 
Ooa and Cochin, was at this time pofleiTed by a Mooriih pi- 
rate named Mahomet Cunnale Marca, who made war alike on 
the Portuguefe and the fubje^ of the Zamorim. The Za- 
morim and the Viceroy entered into a treaty to cruih this pi- 
rate ; and the former, with an army of «o,ooo men, and Don 
1ms de Gama, brother of the latter, with a^eet of above fifty 
veiTels, laid fiege to Marca's peninfula; but both were ignomi- 
nioufly repnlfed ; and the Portuguefe arms under Don Luis 
received the greateft difgrace, fays Faria, they had ever, except 
at Ormuz, experienced in the Eaft. Andreas de Furtado, the 
only Portuguefe officer of this period whofe name is recorded 
with honour, foon after compelled Marca to furrender on con- 
dition of life } a condition which was brutally violated by the 
ungenerous Gama %, But what principally marks the fatal 

* For inftances of tkeTc, (ee the notes oa the life of Camoens. ' 

J Vid. ibid. 

1 2 regency 

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regency of this count de Vidigueyra, is the arrival of the firft 
warlike fquadron of the Dutch in India, the heralds of the 
total fubverlion of the Aftatic empire of Portugal. 

For the laft twelve years, the Portuguefc cruelties ♦ in Cey- 
lon had difgraced human nature. And for many years, annual 
fleets had regularly been fent to the coafts of Malabar and the 
north of Goa, to make piratical wars, on pretence of the fup-* 
preflion of pirates. Yet, as if all their former cruelties had. 
been too little, 9l Bull of Croifade^ in 15941 arrived in India, 
Commanding the Portugvrefe to reduce the infidete to the faitb 
by the force of arms. This was a new pretence to plunder 
the pagodas, the repofitories of the Gentoo treafures, and was* 
procured by the Jefuits, who now governed the fprings of ac- 
tion over all Portuguefe Aik» Though moft ^roit in frauds 
ful cabak, that which bears^ the diihoneft name of Low Cun- 
ning was their only talent. Cruel, obftinate, and narrow iiv 
their minds, the groffeft compuliion, and the horrors of the- 
inquiiition X^ were the methods by which they endeavoured to^ 
propagate their religion. Avarttious of power and riches, and 
eager for immediate poflfeflion, they thruft themfelves intO' 
every pubfic tranfaftioA. The idle luxurious Military eafily 
fwfFered themfelves to be guided by them : and their intrigues^ 
and ignorance' of the arts of civil aid military government^, 
embroiled and perplexed every operatiom In- almoft every 
expedition was a Monclaros : and it became ufual, for the^ 
defeated commanders to vindicate themfelves. by accuiing the- 

* Dan HicKHne de Azevedo oommandef his afiial fpeecHt wben the ih£uits feeamedl 

ia Ceylon during the rainous wan already on the lance. 

mentioned. When he kept the field, and t.SodifierentfromXavier were the Jefui ts 

had gained any advantages, he compellod of tJiis period,, that they totally. impeded the^ 

the Indian mothers to caft their childroi be- converfion of the Gentoos,. by the moft ab- 

tween roilftones, and to look on while they foxd* topics of conteft. The Gentoos wear a 

were ground in pieces. At oiJier. times he Tefirm of three threads, (pf which, fee p.. 

ordered his foldiers to hold up the fliriek- 470.) and are bigotted to the- ufe of this 

ing infants on the tops of their pikes. their ancient badge. Bnt the Jefuits, who 

'f &3. he did for a moft wretched pun. laid it was inftitnted by the Devilt. obfti^ 

The natives of Ceylon call themfelves Ga-- natelv infifted that it fhould be relinquiftied 

last and G alios is Spaniih for a cock« Hark by tneir new converts. The badge and 

Jbt^nAi thtft joun^ cciks a fr'u/ — i» recorded aa^ &eir old religion were tlierefore contmued.. 


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Jcfuits. Itnprcft with the enumeration of the fails from 
which the above conclufions are drawn, and having mentioned 
a dlipute amicably adjufted by a Jefuit^ The Religious^ fays the 
hiftorian Soufa, are Juccefsful agents in the promotion of peace 
between Lay Governors i but when they take upon tbemfehes the 
government of fecular affairs y tiky bring every thing to confu/!on 
and ruin. 

' While the Jefiiits thiss cankered and confounded every fpring 
of government, the civil and military officers, intent only on^ 
theijT own prefent gain, beheld the public weaknefs with 
the moft languid indifference. Almoft totally eagrofled by 
their immenfe American empire, and the politics of Eurc^; 
the Spaniih court paid little attention to Portuguefe India.. 
The Will of the Viceroy, now more arbitrary than ever, way 
the Supreme Law ; headlong in its operation in his prefence^ 
and headlong where his creatures, who fhaped it to their 
pleafure, were armed with power -, but it was feeble and mif- 
interpreted, often contemned and difobeyed^ in the diftant 
iettlements. The commanders on the different ftations ceafed 
ta a£t in concert witk each other ; and their forts were often 
in a ftate of blockade,, under all the miferies of famine. It 
was now ufual for commanders and whole bands of the 
Portuguefe, without the confent of their fuperiors, to under-- 
take piratical expeditions, and to enter into the fervice of the 
Aiiatk princes*: and in many actions they fought againft 

•About 1586, the Turks with powerful 
aimiea invaded Peifia. Some years after, 
the immenfe armies of the Mogul invaded 
the rerions beyond the Ganges. And the 
gl^eat kingdoms of Pegu and Siam were al- 
ternately laid wafte by each other. Portu- 
guefe adventurers diftinguiflied themfelves in 
all thefe wars ; nor did they confult the vice- 
M>y when they went off with their, ihipping 
and ibidiers. Two of thcfe renegadoes, by 
the mvft deteilable treachery and cruelty, 
Tofe to the ibvereign rank ; and, under the 
pegal titlei negociated with the Portuguefe 
viceroys. Of thcfe hereafter. 

The hiftory of one of thefc renegadoes 
dirowi light on, Portuguefe Afia. lago 

Soaiez de Mdo, guilty of murderj fled from 
thp ftntenee of <remdi in Portugal. He was 
feveral year» a pirate in the eaftem feas« 
On his promife to accnfe Don Stephen de 
Gama, he was pardoned by M. Alonzo de 
Souza, the new governor. He afterwards, 
with above 1000 Portuguefe, who renounced 
allegiance to their fovereign, went to Pegu, 
where he was appointed general of the 
army, gratified with immenfe treafnre, and 
entitled the king's biother. In this height-^ 
of his fortune, he happened to pafs by the 
houfe of a rich merchant on the day of his 
daughter's wedding. He entered in with 
his armed followers, and was invited tapzr*- 
uke of the fumptuous entertainment. Struck 


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«ach other with the greateft rancoun Their mother country 
groaned under the yoke of Spain. Moftly natives of the Eafty 
the Portuguefe in India loft ail affeftion for Portugal^ and in« 
deed the political chain which bound them together was now 
but a flender thread. Unreftrained by regular government^ 
Ihe will of the captain of the fort was abfolute^ and his pro- 
teftion of the moft audacious plunderers was the fupport of 
)iis power. Detefted by the natives, at ftrife among them* 
ielves, every circumftance concurred to invite other merchants 
to India^ In this wretched condition of Portuguefe Afia» 
Houtman, a Dutch merchant, while in jail for debt at Lifbon^ 
planned the eftabliihment of his countrymen in theEaft. The 
Hollanders paid his debts ; he failed for Alia, and returned 
with credentials of his promife, which gave birth to the Dutch 
India Company, an inftitution of deep commercial wifiiom : a 
regular machine, connected in all its operations, and the very 
reverfe of that blind monfter, that divided Polypus> the Por- 
tuguefe defpodcal anarchy. 

The fpice iflands offered the faireft field for the Dutch ope« 
rations. Here the Portuguefe were both weakeft and moft 
4etefted. And at Amboina and Temate the ftrangers were 
gladly received, and conditions of commerce fettled^. In 
1600, Ay res de :[:Saldanna fucceeded the weak Count de Vidi« 
gueyra -, but he was equally remifs, and made no head againft the 
Dutch. One of his captains only, the brave Furtado, for five 

mtk At bsM^ of the young bdjr, ke at* of die Dutch had difpbqped their dumAer. 

tempted to take her away oy force; the They were deteded in offering money of 

fafidegroom and hii kindred who offered re- bafe metal for die cargo of the firft fhip 

iUboce, were flaoehtered npon the banouet* which they hnded with fpicery. Thofewko 

ing taUes ; and une frantic bride fled trom offered it were feized by the nadvei ; and 

the foene of horror, and ended her life with the fquadron which firft anived at Temate* 

a cord. Soon after, however, the power of endeavoured to refcae their coaatrymen at 

Mek), and the thoufand Portugiiere who Java, by force of arms, bat were repalfed» 

ierved under him, were not fuficieat to pro- and compelled to pay the ranfimi which 

teft him from the rage of the people. The the natives demanded, 

icing delivered him iu>, and he was torn in J He renewed die treaty of alliance with 

pieces by the multimde. the celebrated Echebar, or Akbar^ who was 

* Nothing but the deep deteftation of the now mailer of all Indiaj aa far fouth ae 

Fortugneife coold have procured fuch favour; Yifapor* 
for previous to thisp the very firft operation 


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^ears carried on a petty war with the Hollanders among the 
Malatos } but tho«^h he gainedieveral vidories, he was tinablc 
to expd the new intruders. And new fqnadrcwis from Holland 
anivied yearly, «ad caiTMd their hoftiiities from Mozambiqiie 
to Bengal and other parts of India. The Portuguefe ralour 
Ibemed to revive, and the Dutch, in many engagements, were 
(defeated. Their vaaquilhod fleets, however, carried ridi car^ 
goes to Europe, and brought fre& fupplies. The Jefuita 
omkted no device, 210 fraud, that might inflame the natives 
agaiuft them % even their republicati form of government was- 
iteprefented as big whh ruin to the Indian princes. But the 
deteftati<Mi of the Ptortuguefe name wa»doep in India $ and 
that rooted ocUum, to wUch thdr villainies and cruelties had 
l^ven ^rtb, aind had long nouriflied, was now felt to mili* 
tate againft them more than millions in arms. Had the gene^ 
cal conduct of the Portuguefe governors been hire that of 
Alboquerque, bad the princes of India mourned over dieir 
graves, no Arrangers had ever eftablifhed themfelves on the 
ruin of foch allies. Though repeatedly defeated in war, the 
Dutch comniM-ctt increafed, the harbours of India received 
them with kindnefs, and gave them affiftance; while the 
friendlefs detefted Portuguefe, though vidorious in almoft 
every fldrmifli, were hacrafied out and daily weakened. Vk» 
heaAs of prey in their dens, or mountaineer bjuuUtti, they 
kept their gloomy fortrd&s, their deftni^on the wi& of the 
natives, who yet were afraid too openly to provoke the rage of 
thefe wolves and tygers. About four years aftorthe arrival of 
the Dutch, the Engliih alfo appeared in India. The Dutch, vrho. 
pleaded the law of nature, without ceremony entered the beft. 
harbours, and endeavoured to drive the Portuguefe from their 
fettlements. The Engliih, in 160 1, under Sir James Lancafter,. 
erefled feveral fa6iories in India, but they went to ports (^en 
to all, and otfered injury to neither Dutch, Postuguefe, nor 
Moorifli fcttlement. Twenty EngUfh fleets made the voyage to- 
India without hoftility with the natives, when the Portuguefe 
Jefuits brought on a. ruptiure, which ended in the lofs of the 


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Poituguefe military reputation. Every treacherous art which 
the Moors praftifed againft Gama was repeated by the Jcfuits, 
and the event was the fame : for he who fights with the wea-* 
pons of frauds whenever he miiTes his blow, ftands naked and 
weakened^ and every wound he receives is mortal. 

In i6o4Saldanna the viceroy w^s fucceeded in ofEce and 
languid negligence, by Don Alonzo de Caftro} and on Caftro's 
death, in the third year of his government, Don Frey Alexio 
de Menezes, archbifhop of Goa, was invefted with the author 
rity, though not with the title of viceroy. The patronage of 
the Inquifition, and the reduction of the Chriftians of St, 
Thomas, of Ethiopia and Armenia*, to the See of Rome, were 
the fole employments of this governor. In 1609, the brave 
Furtado received the fword of command : he was a foldier $ and 
his firft ambition was the expulfion of the Hollanders. He 
called the council and principal citizens of Goaj, and urged 
them to aflift him in ftriking a decifive blow, which might 
ruin the Dutch. His fpeech was heard with joy; but when 
he h^d filled the port of Goa with a formidable navy, Ruy 
Lorenzo de Tavora arrived from Portugal, and fuperfeded 
Furtado, in the l*birj Month of his regency. The only cir- 
cumflance for which Tavora is diftinguifhed is his generous 
acknowledgement, that he thought it was Furtado who go- 
verned, when he faw fuch warlike preparations, and that he 
was unhappy to fuperfede fo worthy a governor. And unhappy 
it was for the Portuguefe intereft. It was now twelve years 
lince the Englifh, and fifteen fince the Dutch, had portended 
the ruin of the Portuguefe ; yet, except the armament of Fur- 
tado, no regular plan had ever been concerted for the expulfion 
of fuch formidable rivals* About this time, captain Beft, in a 
large Englifh (hip, and captain Salmon, in a bomb-ketch, lay 
nearSurat; Nunno de Cunha, with four large galliots, and 
twenty-five frigates, part of the armament prepared by Fur- 

^ * For the miferies with which the Jefoiu conduft was the fame in Armenia. This 
diilrefled Ethiopia, fee the note, p. 470. archbifhop was a moft zealous patron of 
Though attended with lefs bloodihed, their this method of conver&on. See p. cxxviii. 


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tado, was fent by Tavora to take or deftroy them. The Mo- 
gul had an army at this time upon the fliore. The beach and 
the eminences were covered with fpeftators. And now thofe 
who had deemed the Portuguefe invincible at fea, with afto- 
nifhment beheld nine and twenty fhips vanquifhed and put to 
flight by two veffels ♦. And a few days after, Thomas Beft, in 

* An Indian, who had been aboard the 
Eagliih (hips, told Nnnno that they had not 
above a wc^'s provifion, and that he had 
nothing to do but to prevent them to take 
in frefh water. Nnnno replied, that i&#iM«/y 
not fjend a *wi€k*s pro^ifiomt upon bh ovm 
men to furthmfi a miaory that might ho 
M«r/ f« an hour. And in the fame high 
Ipirit he Tent Canning, an Englifli piifoner 
in his cnftody, to help his coontrymen to 
light, boafting, that he would /oon takt him 
ugaiu ivifh men €ompany. As Nunno ad- 
vanced, with red banners diiplayed, Beft 
weighed his anchors, and began the fight in 
the centre of the four large galliots ; and 
Captain Salmon, in the bomb ketch, be- 
haved with equal coura^. Withington, a 
writer of king James's tune, thus mentions 
the engagement': ^* Curtain Salmon, of 
'' the bomb ketch, the Oiiander, was like 
^ a Salamander amid the ibttt dancing the 
''hay about the Portogoefe, friiking^and 
" playmg like a falmon. '• The Portuguefe 
wntert afcribe thefe viQories to the excel- 
lence of the EngUfli, and incapacity of their 
own gmmert. Soon after, however, the 
EngliSi commerce in India greatly declined. 
The Dtttdi pretended that their hoftilities in 
India were in revenge of theSpaniih tyranny 
in the Netherlands. Portugal alfo bowed 
down beneath the fame cruel yoke ; yet this, 
in the Dutch logic, was her crime ; and thus, 
becanfe the Porturaefe groaned under Spani(h 
onprefljon, the Spanifh oppreffion in the 
Netheriands was revenged upon them. The 
truth is, the Portuguefe fettlements were 
little regarded by Spain, and the Dutch in- 
truded upon them as the Wronger boars in a 
German foreft flioulder the weaker ones 
from the beft fall of acorns. Tl^>ugh beat 
off by the herdfmen, the ftronger boars 
perfift and return ; fo the Dutch perfifted, 
till they fecured pofTcffion. Every thing, 
however, was different in the firft fettle- 
mcnt of riie Englifh. The Author of the 

Hiftoin Pbilofophiaui^ tic. fcems to decry the 
policy of their nrft captains, who made 
themfelves mailers of no port, but bought 
their car»>es of the native merchants. But he 
ought to have owned that the hoftilities of the 
Turks and Morals, and the treachery of the 
latter in expelling the Englifti fadors, ren- 
dered retribdtion juft. . But with all the fang 
froid of a Materialift, the Englifh perceived, 
(ays he, that great riches could not be acquired 
mntbout great injuftice. ; and that to attain 
the advantages enjoyed by thePbrtuguefe and 
Dutch, they muft adfo adopt their meafures^ 
and eftablifti themfelves by force of arms. 
But James, he adds, as if he condemned . 
fnch narrow policy, wa^^too pufiUanimous, 
and too much engaged in controverfial di- 
vinity, to allow warlike operations. The 
'treaty of the Engliih with the potent king 
of Perfia, however, he mentions as an eN 
fort of great political wifdom. But' Sir 
D. Cotton's embafiy into Perfia, in the 
Clarendon State Papers, Vol. I. p. 36. fol. 
throws another light upon this aiiair. The 
treaty with Perfia wu the idleft ftep the 
Englifti could pofllbly have taken. Accord- 
ing to this authentic record, the great mo- 
narch of Perfia appears little better than a 
captain of Italian banditti ; and his prime 
mittifter, railed from the meaneft ftation« 
as a greater fliuffler and villain than his 
mafter. The treaty with Perfia, indeed, 
alarmed the Mogul, the Portuguefe, and 
the Dutch, and brought hoftilities upon the 
Englifti, which the pufillanimous James 
would not allow them to punifti as juftice 
required. But it was not two months to- 
gether in the mind, nor was it in the power 
of the tyrant of Perfia, to give any efiedlual 
afiiftancc to the Englifti. A Pcrfian ftruck 
Ix>rd Shirley, the Sophi's ambaflador, in the 
prefence of James, and. each charged the 
other with impofture. The king of Perfia 
and his minifter did nothing but fi:ruple 
the credentials fent from England, and en- 
u deavoor 

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a harder conflift, was again vi6topious. Don Hierome de 
Azevedo, whofe cruelties ip Ceylon difgraced the name of 
Man, in 1612 fucceeded Tavora in the viceroyftiip of India* 
In every view of importancie, the hiftory of Portuguefe Afia 
terminates with his government. And the occurrences of his 
regency are flrongly charafteriftic, ilot of a falling, but of t 
fallen empire. 

The moft fearlefs infolence and treachery were now the cha- 
ra6teriftics of the Portuguefe commanders on every ftatiom 
Percyra, captain of the fort of Mombafla, treacheroiifly bribed 
the Cafres to murder the king, whofe head he fent as a trophy 
to the viceroy Azevedo. The infolence of Don Luis de Gama 
brought the hoftilities of the Turks and Pcrfians upon Or- 
muz and the adjoining territories. In Ceylon, the common 
foldiers robbed the natives at pleafure, and the commanders: 
added rapes and adulteries j //// the feopk^ lays Faria, fn^bt 
refuge among the wild beajls of the mountains^ to Jhun the more 
hrutal outrage of men. Near Surat, a Portuguefe c&ptain^ 
in breach of the peace, took a rich ftiip from Mecca, the pro- 
perty of the Mogul, and carried her in triumph into the har- 
bour of Goa. Reftitution was refufed, and the Mogul, whofe 
dominion was now extended from the kingdom of Delhi ta 
the confines of Calicut, detained all the Portuguefe fhips in 
his harbours ; and, together with his tributary the king of 
Decani laid fiege to Damam, Chaul and Ba9aira, and de- 
folated the country around. Even the unwarlike Chinefe 
were exafperated, and the humble fubmiffion of the Por-»^ 
tuguefe to new and fevere laws, preferved their continuance 
at Macao. In 1606, a Dutch fleet had blocked up the 
mouth of the Tagus, and prevented the annual fuppUes to 

d'eavoor to extort prefents. Whilfc James 
thus amufed himielf with his Perfian nego- 
ciatioii, as fagacious and fniitlefs as tfaofe 
he held with the court of Spain and the 
l^ince Palatine, the commerce of his fab- 
je6ts languilhed in India. Hopelefs of an^ 
help from Perfia, they entered into a land 

of partneHhip in feme of the Dutch fcttle*- 
tnents. Bat when the Hollander found hi& 
opportunity, the Englifti of Amboyna and 
other places experienced injuries and cruel- 
ties which are yet unatoned, and which for 
many years rendered them of little or n<i 
coniequence in thcEafL 

India 1 

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liidia; a^d ibeir power wias ^ow greatly increaied In the 
Eaft. The mtiy^j, in hatred of the Portuguefe, in every 
part favoured them; itlpte Jciijgs of Achem and Tern^tc 
tiften nffii^d theni whh powerfpl ^mks againft ]Vfalaca ^lod 
^fe lylahico^, iaiid the HoU^fiders were now frequently vie- 
tictnans. . While thie fi9£tRm:yrcg^ 1^9? . thus in arms agaanft 
tbe Portu^efe, ihfiirre^ioQ^ among themfelves raged in every 
iettl$ment« Whiile the goldCmiths siod nie^cer^ of Goa had a 
Un^dy epgageoumtt the pe»ce <>fiiqers robb^^ the fhpps of 
both parties* Aniftrmaineitf of feven fliip^ ^nd 250 foldier^ 
was foued neo^flary to fapprei^.tbe murde^QU^ tumults s^t Me^r 
liopor.. in. the tumults of Chaul; B^g^iAmt T^appr, and T^na,, 
fonie pf the Portu^efc wisre aflipoft daijly fl^iv^ghtered by each 
^tiiGtj and Mrfaile thjey were miai?dsrii)\g one another in Ceylon, 
lihie natives iffued from the,for^% mi .mountains^ ,^Tid ren 
duc^d them to.ilw greaiteft ^exti$fnt«yw I^go ^|moe^» fpf 
^feriricesi rendered to ^he emperor of MQnc^nv>t^9» had recdi^^d 
« grai\t ^.all.the mines of that country in favour of the king 
0S Pqrtugal, and had built fcwie fpm ipn the ri^Y^r 24pb9ze^ 
TojooEifuire his fbeCef^^ he foliKited a rpimforceipqijit from th^ 
irioovoy, .which .waafeiit under th( ^onjirnaod of Fpqifeca PintOi, 
akwyen Suit this reuDtforcement turned th^ir arms agauii^ 
Simoens, and brought turn fltod his fettlen^ent to utter ruim 
Fonfeca, who was fcnt as judge tqMc^amhique, enriched him* 
fejf by the moft fegitious i»5^s of iajiiftice and tyranny*! an 
example which was followed l^ hip ^cfte^grp, who. without 
the atathority <i£Axev«do,iC9ndem»ed *n Qj®cer to .tH^^gibb^tt 
and alternately imprifoned «ai;b ether, 

^•^ ^c eTtti fo}d tbe proviisoss, Imjde- <fqaal witjiifonfeca, whhcopimtmltojeftord 
stents, and mining tools which he parried * MelQ. When they arrived, Jthey imprifpneJ 

to Simoens; whom he «C€iired to tho tmpt-, Fonfeca. iwt'ati officer Aattod GMtrra i^ 

WQT as a listMl againft tke viceroy, a4d urged lie^d him; and imjwfon^ Cunha. And 

the emperor to kill him. He feized the he,*as Fonfeca had ddne, bribed his keepers, 

lands of Simoens, and fold his flaves and and efcaped to Momba/Ta, where Melo then 

€&£b. He dep<^ Ray de Melo, gpver- was. ^Melo and Cunha now f^led for Mo- 

«or oi Mozambiq^ne, and aifo feized )m zambique, and Fonleca with immeafe wealth 

eftate, which he appropriated to htmfelf. fled to Goa ; but; Gueira* who remaiaedt 

Melo was acqi4tt^ at Goa. lago de CoAba,* w^s tried \>y Cu|iha,. and ckeCttted. 
finother lawyer, was appoin^d to authority 

u a By 

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cxlvrii P O R t U G U E S E ^ A S I A, 

By conceflions and prefents the viceroy had now purchafed 
peace with the Mogul, who, influenced by the arts of the Jefuit 
Percy ro, interdifted . commerce with the Bnglifh and Dutch ^ 
and the Portuguefe merchant ftiips which were detained in 
his harbours were relieved. During the laft thirty years, the 
ftrength and commerce of the Turks had conltderably increafed 
on the coafts of Arabia:]:. Their trade with the ports of 
the Mogul was great, and confiderable quantities of the pro- 
duce . of India were now again fent to Europe by Egypt and 
Conftantinople. The fubjefts of the Mogul refufed commerce 
with the English, and the Turks had oflFered'hoftilities to Sir 
Henry Middleton in the Red Sea. Middleton therefore ap- 
pealed to the force of arms ; but he did not aft as a pirate. 
He feized fome Mogul veffels near Aden, but for the Indian 
traffic which he took from them, he gave them full value in 
Englifti goods, according to the eftimation of the Eaft, pro- 
feffing that he only defired an equitable commerce. Fearful 
of fuch rivals, Azevedo fitted out a fleet of eight ihips, fome 
of S, fome of 6, 5, and 400 tons, befides 60 frigates, and 
ibme fly boats. But after a faint attack, Azevedo withdrew ^ 
atid though often braved by the Englifh, reififofced only with 
four vcflels, to the deeper aftoniihment of India, he decUned 
the combat, and fufFered the enemy, unmolefted, to proceed 
homeward with loaded ftiips. 

Nor wa^ Miranda, the admiral of the feas of Malaca, more 
ppofperous. After a hard engagement with a great fleet of 
Aehem, he was totally defeated $ by a Dutch fquadron of 
eight vefiels. The trade with China was now annually inter-* 
rupted by the Dutch, who, not fatisfied with the route by the 
Cape of Good Hope, had now pafled the flraits of Magellan,, 
and opened a trade with Japan f. A Portuguefe adventurer,, 
named Sebaftiaa Gonfalez Tibao jj,, who,, by betraying^ the In- 

t By this iocreaft, the cnftoms of Onnuat + This country was diicoverei hy the 

and Mafcate were greatly seduced, Vid. Portugueic, who opened a trade with it^ 
Faria, fub Ajfn. i6i6. about 1J45. 

I So conipletely was he defeated, that he || This adventurer went to India a private 

Reaped CO ihore with only fix meu. , (bldier. Hedefertedfrbm the fervice, and 


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dian pdnces who favoured him, eftablifhed himfelf in Sundava, 
was there proclaimed king, and became an independent mo- 
narch. Confcious that the king of Arracam, his late ally, 
whom he had treacheroufly deferted when invaded by the 
Mogul, would meditate revenge, he fent an embafly to Aze- 
vedo, to whom he offered alliance, and propofed a war with 
the king of Arracam. Allured by Tibao's report of the im- 
menfe treafures of that pnnce, Azevedo, contrary, fays Faria, 
to all laws human and divine, concluded the defired treaty 
with the r^negado, and invaded Arracam. But here alfo the 
Portuguefe arms were difgraced, and Tibao, deprived of every 
foot of territory, was reduced to his original meannefs. Even 
more unfortunate was Philip de Brito e Nicote. By the moft 
ungrateful treachery to the king of Tangu and other Indian 
princes, he alfo had raifed himfelf to the fovereign power, had 
been proclaimed king of Pegu, and his name was the t:error 
of Siam and the neighbouring regions. The king of Ava, in 
revenge of his vaffal the king of Tangu, with an army of 
X2o,ooo men, and a fleet of 400 veflels, laid fiege to Brito in 
his ftrong fort of Siriam. Azevedo, in hope that he might 
prove an aufpicious ally, fent an armament of five galliots to 
the fupport of Brito j but Brito, ere its arrival, was over- 
powered, after a brave defence *. . His wife and foldiers were 
maimed and fent into flavery ; and. he himfelf and his male 
kindred were impaled on the ramparts of his garrifon. 

Such were now the civil infurrcftions, fuch the wars J of 
the Portuguefe 5 the fpirit of Azcvedo's treaties are even more 

became a feller of ialt ia Ben^aL His pro- * Brito had no powder to repel the enemy^ 

fits increafed, till he found himfelf mafter an officer whom he had ient with money to 

<^a fquadron of ten veflels^ with which he piuchafe that article having never returned, 

commenced piratical wars; and having af- He was impaled with his race to his houfe, 

fbmed regal power, he extended his territo* and lived two days, fays Faria» in that 

ncB, and made treaties with the neiehboonne dreadfiH condition* 

princes. The king of Arracam, ureatened { Though nnder the fame monarch, the 

with an invaiion from the Mogul, entered Spaniih governor of the Philippine iiles fent 

into a league.with Tibaa. But, bribed by a party of men, in 1602, who, in defiance 

t^ Mogul, he fufiered his army ta pais of the remonftrances and threats of the Por«> 

lum ; and while the Moguls plundered ont ti^uefe commander, built a fort at the port 

part of the rich kingdom of Arracam» b? ot Pinal. Some years, after, ho^vever, the 

plundered the cities of the other fide. increafe of the Dutch power inclined the go- 


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charafberiftic. Wcnn by Afukljstbh's gallant behavieiur^ anl 

-regardldfi of tlie viceroy's refemmQiit, the M<^ul, contraiy to 

jthe late treaty, not onl^ adniitted the En^iBn to free commerce 

with his fuk)e£ts, but tltie En^ifti admiral was entertained, by 

his order, with allthe %)l«hdoj: of eaflem pomp. The Zamo- 

xim, the king iff Cofrhin, ^nd the king of the Uttk iilaadof 

faru, prepared for hoililitiQs ; Azevedo ient fich prefqits^ and 

jbe^ed for peace > the preibat^. were accepcedj hat the moft 

conten^ptuxHts pretences ciccuied delay^ and ihe conditions 

were never fettled. An embafiy, with rich pi^enta, was ient 

to Abas Xa, king of Perfia,,. wha meditated theconqiieft <3ii 

Ormuz ; but this was aUo treated with icora, ^nd the Pep(ian«» 

aflifted by the £ngli(h, ibon after wrefted Ormuz and its ter- 

.ritory from the Portugueie, Idle, tindetermined treaties, were 

renewed with the Mogul, and traniafted with the king of 

£iam, who would not confent to expel the Englifh frQm his 

luirbours. The reafons^ he urgod fpeak the de^ft contempt : 

he excafedthe hoftitities. of thp queen of Patane, his vaffal, by 

faying 4he was mad i zM he liked 4die£n^iih, he iaid, becau& 

^hey were ufeful to hun^. and fhewed him great reaped:. The 

f>rince of Pandar, a kingdom of Ceylon, though the Portut* 

guefe had lately murdered gax ambaflador from his neighbour 

the king x>f Candea, lent propofals of peace and offered tribute 

to the viceroy; but finding the Portuguefe lefs formidable 

than he hod efteemed, he recanted; and Assevedo concluded 

rthe treaty^ on condition of only one^ half, of the -tribute firfl: 

.propofed. £ut the mod contemptuous treatment is yet un- 

mentioned. The king of Ava, alarmed at the treaty with Siam^ 

jand apprehenfive of revenge for the death of Brito, fent an 

embaffy ko the viceroy. Azevedo accepted his propofak, and 

Martinho de Colta Falcam, his ambafTador^ went to ratify %h^ 

treaty at the court of Ava. But the nK>narch'^ fears, and the 

pernor of Mmilkto iblicit tbe offiffaoioe of ported Modm. And dieTe whoHy der^niel 

Aaevedo, to expel the Dstch from Che. Ma- ere tl^y came to adion. The admiral 

kMXtf . Bat the vicerav coold only afl^ird an liayuig» contzaiy to his orders, touched at 

jmament whish oon^ied chiefly of txaitf- Malaca^ favt them the final opportaoity. 


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reputation of the Portugucfe valour, were now no more. 
After many days fpent by Falcam m vain foiicitations for an 
audience, the hour of midnight was at laft appointed. In the 
dark he was brought to an apartment, and in the dark alfo 
was ordered to deliver his embaffy, for the king, they faid, was 
there, and liftened. He delivered it, and received no anfwer. 
Yet, though this haughty filence told him he had been talking 
to the walls, Falcam ftill meanly folicited to fee the fovereigh ; 
and the former refined contempt was renewed, A day, and a 
place in the ftreet were named, where Falcam might fee his 
majefty as he rode out on his elephant. The day came, but 
the king never deigned to turn his eye to the place where the 
ambaffador flood. And Falcam, thus loaded with the mofl 
contemptuous difgrace, returned to Goa. 

On a voyage to Dio, Azevedo fell in with four Englifh vef- 
fels. He held a council of war, and it was refolved not to 
fight, becaufe the flate of India, fhould viftory declare againft 
them, could not fuflain the lofs of the large galleon in which* 
the admiral failed. Such was the poverty of the Portuguefe 
cuftom-houfes in the Eafl s iarid the exchequer of Lifbon re- 
ceived an equally fmall and precarious revenue from the Com- 
pany of Merchants who were the proprietors of the goods 
brought to Portugal. In fotne of the laft fifteen years, not a 
Portuguefe fhip failed from India to Europe; and half of 
thofe which ventured out, were either taken by enemies, or, 
having failed kte in the feafon, were deftroyed by tempeft. 

While ^hus degraded and broken down, the Spanilh court 
completed the ruin of the P4prtuguefe Eaftern empire. The 
expence of the fupplies, lately fent againft the Dutch and 
Englifli, far exceeded the taxes of the Company, reaped by 
Spain I and Azevedo rec-eived an order from the court of Ma- 
drid, to dirpofe of every employment, of every office under 
him, by public falc, that money might be raifed to fupport his 
government. We now need add few circumftances more, for 
the hiftory of the fall of the Portuguefe empire in Afia, is here 
eiTentially complete. 


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While the Indian ftatc was fo poor, that it could not afford 
to rifque the lofs of a fingle galleon, Azevedo the viceroy was 
itnmenfely rich. As he complained one day of the great loffes 
fiiftained by his trading veffels, near the latter part of his 
reign, one of his officers told him he was ftill worth 4 or 
500,000 ducats. To this he replied, I am Jiill worth more than 
that fum in cattle only. 

Though the miniftry of Spain feemed to have abandoned 
India, they beheld the fuccefs of the Dutch with great refent- 
ment. Becaufe he had not defeated the Dutch and Englifh, 
Azevedo was recalled, was ftripped of his riches, and con- 
demned to a dungeon, in which he * ended his life^ and in 
which he was maintained by the Jefuits, who afterwards ho- 
nourably buried him : a debt, no doubt, of gratitude for the 
Services which he had rendered that fociety in India. 

Even deeper declenfion followed the reign of Azevedo. The 
numerous Portuguefe forts, almoft every where ftripped of 
territory, had been long fuffcred to fall into decays for their 
commanders were only intent on their own fudden aggrandife- 
ment. Shipwrecks and dreadful tempefts added to the miferies 
of the Portuguefe: and the moft remarkable events of the 
government of John Count de Redondo, who in 16 17 fupcr- 
ieded Azevedo, are the folemn fafts held at Goa. In fome of 
thefe, the citizens lay day and night on the floors of the 
churches, imploring the divine mercy, in the deepeft and moft 
awful filence, while not a found was to be heard in the 
mournful ftreets. 

Though Azevedo was puniftied for not defeating the Dutch 
and Englifti, fo little regard did Spain pay to India, that Her- 
nan de Albuquerque, who after Redondo governed for three 
years, never received one letter from the court of his fovc- 

* To the inftancet of Ascevedo's cruddes The crooodiles, fays Fiuia, were (o uftd to 

already mentioned, let another be added. He this food, that they would lift their heads 

nfed to amufe himfelf and his foldiers, by above water and croud to the place, at the 

throwing his prifoners over the bridge of fight of the vidims. 
Malvana^ to fee the crocodiles devour uem. 


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TBign. In 1622, Don Francifco de Gama failed from Lif- 
bori with four fhips, and the comraiffion of viceroy. On his 
voyage, the three veffels which attended, conteraptuoufly left 
him ; and, to fave himfelf from a Dutch fquadron, he burned 
his own fliip on the coaft of Mozambique, from whence, in a 
galliot he proceeded to India. After a regency of five years, 
in whicli he neither executed nor planned one action of the 
finalleft amfe<|aence, he refigned the government to Don Luis 
de firitOy the bifhop of Cochim. Malaca, again befieged by 
the king of Achem, was again reduced to the deepeft diftrefs; 
but the bcfliop would fit out no armament to its relief, jea-* 
lous, it was thought, left the commander of it fKould be ap- 
pointed viceroy. On the biihop*s death, which happened after 
his having benumbed every bufinefs of ftate for near two 
years, the writs of fuccelEon were opened, and two governors 
were found named, one for the civil, the other for the military 
department. But fo vague were the terms of expreffion, that 
two genthmen of different names claimed the fword of com- 
mand. The difpute was fubmitted to the council of Goa, and 
Alvarez BoteUo was declared governor. By a vigorous effort 
he relieved Malaca ^ but he fell foon after in an engagement 
where the Hollanders were victorious ; and Malaca was agaia 
invefted by the neighbouring princes, affifted by a fquadron of 
twelve Dutch ihips« Mozambique, Ceylon, various forts of 
^e Moluccas and on every coaft of India, were alternately 
Ipft and recovered, were again repeatedly attacked by the ene- 
iny, and at laft finally abandoned by the Portuguefc. In 1632, 
under the viceroyalty of the Count de Linarez, Our European 
enemies^ iays Firia, rove J aver the fees nmtbout oppojifion^ took many 
of our Jhips^ and ruined our trade. l!hey alfo every where incenjkd 
the Indian princes agaififi us\ for n»ehad no e^ any of their 
4:ourts,to vindicate our caufe. Yet, deep as fuch declenfion ap- 
pears, Linarez, on hie return >to Europe, prefented the king of 
Spain with a hat band, and the queen with a pair of pendants, 
^ gift valued at 1 00^000 crowns. In 1639, while another 
.aBchbiihop of Goa was governor, a fquadron of nine Dutch 

X veffcU 

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vcffels rode in triumph in the river of Goa, and burnt three 
gilleons in the harbour, without oppoiition y for the fort, fays 
Faria, was deftitute both of ammunition and m6n. In 1640, 
the kingdom of Portugal, by one of the nobleft efforts upon 
record, threw off the yoke of Spain ; and the Portuguefe in 
India acknowledged the duke of Braganza as their fovereign. 
And in 1642, a viceroy was fent to India by John IV. But 
though the new monarch paid attention to India, and though 
the £ngli(h, during their civil wars, , aband<»ied the commerce 
of the Ea]ft, the Dutch were now fo formidable, and their ope- 
rations fo well conne&ed, and continued,. that every exertion^ 
to recover the dominion of India was fruitlefs and loft. Soon 
after the civil wars, the Englifh arofe to more power and con^ 
fequence, than even the Dutch^ in Alia ; and many of the. 
Portuguefe merchants became their agents and naval carriers* 
Towards the end of the feventeenth cdntury, the court c^ Lif- 
bon turned its attention to the Brazils, and neglefised India. 
A fucceffion of viceroys was however continued;, but of all 
thdr numerous fettlements on every coaft of the eaftem world> 
the ports of Goa and Dio in India, and the iile of Macao in 
the bay of Canton, only remain in the poflelfion of tbe Partu«* 
guefe. And, acconiing to the information procured by the 
abbe Reynal (who publifhed his Hiftoire PbiJofopb^^ about* 
ten years ago) tw*o fmall ve£^ls, often Chineie, once in the 
year carry fome porcelaine to Goa and Dk> : but thefe muft» 
touch at Sunit and other ports to compkt^ their teturn of. 
(llks and fpicery. And one fhip, with a ipaor caJrgo, partly, 
fumiihed by the two (loops of Macao, and x>art(y purchafi^ 
from the Englifh, £nls once in the year from Oba ta Liibon» 
Such is the ^11 of that Power, which once commanded the 
commerce of Africa and Alia, from the ftratts of CHhraltar to 
the eaiftern fide of Japan. 

But Dio and Goa are uorivalkd Jftations ; and the iiland of 
Macao, on the coaft of China, is a poffeflion of the utmoft va- 
lue, a poffeflion which might be envied by the firft power of 
Europe. Would the Portugueie abplifti the Inquifition of 


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Gba, iay^ Reynal, ahdop^i their ports upon liberal prindples^ 
the Portaguefe Big might again flow triumphant over the 
^aftern ocean; But though this fl&udfti cannot be realifed, 
while tiiepower of the j^ritiih and Dutch coiftinue, there is a 
wid&aikl favburabte field open for the increafe of the Portu*^ 
guefe' Indian coma^rce ; and a begimiing that promifes future 
importance has already taken place. In 1773, the late king of 
Portagal new-modcilled the government of his Afiatic fettle- 
ments. By the new* laws the power of the governor is ai« 
tered, and the. title of Viceroy is changed to that of Captain 
General. The Inquifition of Goa> formerly moi^ dreadful in 
its cruelties than even that of Portugal is utterly aboliihed ; 
and about fix or feven ve&h are now annually cleared from 
Lifbon for India> but the commerce of thefe fleets is a Rayai 
Mmcpofy, and regulated in the fame ipirit by which the trade to 
Br^t is now, aixd h^s always been^ conducted and governed. 

'The hiflori^s of wars, from the earlieft times, are much 
alike y the names of the countries ravaged, the towns deftroy- 
ed, and captains flain, are different; the motives and condufl: 
of the oj^refTovs, and the miferies of the oppreflfed, are the 
fiime. Portugal raifed the firft commerdal empire of the mo- 
dfem world 5 the hiflxMy of her fate therefore opens a new field 
for the moil important fpeculation* The tranfa^ions of the 
Portuguefe in India are peculiarly the wars and negociations of 
commerce, and therefore offer inftruftions to every trading 
country,^ which are not to be found in the campaigns of a Cae- 
fhr or a Marlborough. Tfio profperity and declenfion of fo- 
reign fettlements, refulting from the wifdom or errors of the 
fupreme power at home, from the wifdom or imprudence, the 
virtues or vices of governors abroad; The ftupendous effc6ls of 
unftained honour and faith 5 The miferable ruinous embar- 
rafTments which attend difhoneft policy, though fupported by 
the greateft abilities in the field or in the council ; The uncom- 
mercial and dreadful confequences of wars unjuftly provoke^i 

• For which fee the Noticiaj, in the Appendix. 

X z though 

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thoug)i crowned with a long (erics, of vi£lories ; The felf-de^ 
£tru6lke meafures^ uncommercial fpirit, and inlierent weakne6 
of defpotic rule> The power,, affluence, and inability which re^- 
ward the liberal policy of humane government ; ia a word^ 
All thofe caufes which nourifh the infancy, all thofe which a9 
a fecret difeafe undermine, or aa a violent poiiba fuddenly de^ 
firoy the vital ftrength of a commercial empire ^ all thefe are 
developed and difplayed^ in the mo& exemplary manner, in the 
luflory of the tranfa£)ioas of Fortuguefe Alia.. 

And all thefe combine taafcertaia the ^reat principles npoix 
which that ftupendous Common Wealth, the BritiOi Eaft India 
Company muft exift or fall*. The commerce of India is o£ 
Qiofl: elSbntial value to the Britifli nation* By the Indian goods 
difbibuted over Europe, the efTential balance of trade is* pre-* 
ferved in our favour. But whether the Indian coitimerce. 
fhould be condu£led by an Exdufive Company, or laid open to 
every Adventurer, is the queftion of the day, a qneftion of the 
very firft: importance, ta the Britifh empire- And. to thisi 
quefHon the example of the Fortuguefe is of the £rft,conie- 
quence. Both in the Senate, and in the works of fome poH^p^ 
tical Writers^ this. example has been ap^aled to; an exa£i: 
knowledge of the commercial principles o£ Postugviefe Ada is* 
therefore highly neceffary j particularly, if themoftgrcfs mif^- 
reprefentations: of it hav^ ahxeady been given, with the pro-* 
feifed view, of influencing, the Legillature. And an authen- 
ticated ftate of the principles of the. Portugmde Afiatic com-^ 
merce, were ii only to. guard us< againjOb the. vifionary^ andt 
dangerous fchemes..of Theory^, cannot but baof fome utility^ 
to. that nation which now commands the. commerce of India- 
Through out the foregoing Hiftory of Fortuguefe Afia, the: 
charafteriftics and principles of the Fortuguefe military, ands 
commercial government, have been ftated andauthentioated*. 
But a. retrofpcft will be neceffary,. to bring the Fortuguefe: 
example decifively home ; and feveral fa£ls, as for their propet 
place, have beea hitherto referved for. the following 


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When Gama arrived in India> the Moors, great mafters o£ 
the arts of traffic, were the lords of the eailern feas« They 
had fettlements on every convenient ftation, from Sofala to 
China; and though under different governments, were in 
f eality one great commonwealth. They clearly forefavf what 
inj«iry their trade would fiiitisun, were Europeans to become 
acquainted with the Afiatic feas. They exerted every fraudful 
art, that not one man of GaiHa's fleet might return ta Europe^ 
And when thefe arta were defeated,, with the moft determined 
zeal they commenced * hoftilities. 

Garrifons amd warlike fleets were now abfblutely neceflary 
to the exiftence of a naval commerce between Europe and 
Afia. And on the return of Gama, Cabral was fent with aa 
armed fleet of thirteen veflels. His O)minifilon was to make 
alliances, to eftablifli forts and factories, and torepel hoftilities* 
His commiilion he executed, and the commanders who fuc-r 
ceeded him greatly extended the Portuguefe fettlements, which 
were reduced by Albuquerque into a regular plan of empire^ 

To increafe the population and riches, and thence the 
ftrength of the mother country, by the exportation oi her do- 
meftic manufactures, railed from her donieftic ftaples, is the 
great and only real advantage of fcMreign fettlement.. But this^ 
was not underftood by the Portuguefe. To raife a revenue 
for the king his mailer was the idea of Albuquerque. And 
the ftupendous fabric which he raifed does his genius immortal- 
honour : for it muft be remembered^ that even had he under- 
ftood the domeftic advantages of a Free Trade, it was not ia 
his power to open it. The king of Portugal was fole merchant, 
every fa&ory was his, and the traffic ^tween Portugal and 
India was,, in the ftriftcft fenfe, a Regal Monopoly. There was a 
J^ecies of free trade indeed allowed in the eaftern feas ; but 

* • To the above let it be added, that the Soldan of Egypt, and the Grand Turk, for near a 
ctritury, continued their ftrenuous efforts for the utter expulfwn of the Portoguei^. 


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from this the mother country received no benefit ; and the 
principles upon which it cxifted, naturally produced the fall 
of the Portuguefe eaftern empire, AVe need not repeat its 
piratical anarchy. The greateft and moft accompliihed of the 
Portuguefe governors faw its fatal tendency, and every me** 
thod was attempted to relkriA and render it infamous. 

The tribute of the vaffal princes, the territorial levies, and 
the duties of the various cuftom-houfes, produced under feme 
governors a cof^iderable reyeane. Bu« how miferably ohviioa^ 
is this iyitem to every abuie 1 The foregoing Hiftory demgn-^^ 
llrates how, period a&er period, it fell into deeper and deeper 
dilbrder. The yearly fakry of Alrheyda, the firtft viceroy, waa 
only 15,000 rials, (r. e. 1041 /. 13 i. risl. fterling) 5 about four- 
fcore or an .hf»)dred years after, the falary and profits of three 
years vkeroyaity amounted to about one million and an half of 
ducats. Faria y Soufa has given, from the archives of Portugal^ 
iui exa6^ lift of all the fliips cleared from Portugal for India, 
from the difcoveiy of Gama to the year 1640^. During the 
firit fifty years, which was the moft flouriflung period <^ Por« 
tuguefe Alia, only nine or ten veflel^ &ikd yearly from Portugal 
for India. And from that period to the end of the Spanifh 
ufurpation, only one or two vefibls carried the annual traffic 
of IndJa to Portugal. 

Befides the mifconduft which naturally refults from that 
worft of all monopolies, a Regal 6ne, many were the other cir- 
cpmftances which included the future rain of the Portuguefe. 

* Trom the commencement of tbe Indiaii ' Aerefbre near five fliips (enf , and the retain, 

<0mnao^ onier Cabnd, in 1*500. to tht aaaborapropoitioiito, about liule. Donac 

death of the great Caftro, in 1 5489 494 fliips C7 years under the crown of Sp^n, only 28 c 

ftikd from Liflx>n focIndia» of which 41 noled for India, whereof only 2$6anvnd. 

were lofl qb the voyajge. On an average^ Some yean not one fliip failed, either from,' 

therefore, about 1 9 fliips in each two years Lifbon to India, or from India to Liflxm. At 

afiniFed in India. Aa many of thefe were war this peiiod, fay all our anthors, the fliips were 

fliips, fent to continue in the Eafl^ we cannot . moftly overloaded, and failed at improper 

foppofe chat, making allowance for fliip- feafons, by which means many were loft, and 

wrecks, more than five returned annually to many were taken by the Dutch and Engliflu 

Poroigal. From 1548 to the acceffion of And thus, upon an average, at leaft, from 

Philip, 173 iailed fronvLiOwn for India, of about the year. 1616, not more than three 

which 17 were loft. The yearly average is vefleb in each two years arrived at Liflxm. 


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The vague terms of the viccroy^s commiilion {for wbicb fes 
the J^endix) ^uid his arbitrary power, from which there was 
no appeal to any body of laws of fupreme authority, naturally 
prcduced the unjuft wars, the infolence, cruelty, and fearlefs 
rapine of the Portugaefe governors and their dependent 

From every drcumftance it appears^ that the courts of 
Lifbon and Madrid never condlidered ti^ commerce of India aa 
an ofojeft worthy of thetr attention. Sovereignty and revenue 
were the advantages they expected, and endeavoured to find m 
the Eaft. 

Every hiilorian of Porti^uefe Alia oomplains^ of the fudden 
cecals of the vicerop ; and the ftated terai of three years 
viceroyalty is moflr apparently abfurd and ruinous.. Every hii^ 
torian of thefe tranfa^ons mentions it as the general pra6tice> 
that the new viceroy flopped and reverfed every preparation 
and plan of his predecefibr. 

Though no veflels but thofe of bis icnajefty carried the com^ 
modities of India to Europe, a contraband traffic of the offi^ 
eers and ikilors had been, moft aiiuredly, ci the earlieft com-^ 
mencement. By a ftatute paflbd in 1687, it appears that the 
viceroys had formerly obtained the privilege for themfelves^ 
and of granting licences to others, to carry certain articles and 
quantities of their own private traffic:, on board of his ma-^ 
jefty's vefTels, to Portugal. When this grant commenced, we 
havetiot been able to determine. Certain it is, however, that 
it mud have been mentioned^ had it been in exiil^noe whezi 
Caftro, Ataide, and other viceroys exerted the moft ftrenuDua 
efforts to difcourage the mercantile purfuit^ of the nativse Por^ 
tuguefe; Were we allowed to venture a cotije£):ure, we would 
place this exclufive grant to the viceroy and hi;s creatures ^n thi 
reign of John IV. who made a faint and vain endeavour to re^ 
cover the dominion of Ihdia. And it outrages probability to 
fuppofe it older than the extraordinary but uncertified emolu^ 
ments recorded as given by Philip II. to the vic«roys of Indian 
Whenever it com<aenced,. how^ver^ in 1687 the legal right to 


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cIk po r t u g u e s e a s I a: 

this private traffic was abolifhed ; but the contraband pra£):Ice, 
whkh certainly began with the firft voyage of Cabral^ was as 
certainly continued. 

TheExclufiveCompany of Merchants, whoin 1 587contra6led 
to fit out the Indian fleets, appear to have had little influence in 
the affairs of India. The power of the viceroy and the piratical 
ianarchy were flill predominant. While only one or two failed an- 
nually for Portugal, the floops and other yeffds employed in 
the trade of the private adventurers amounted to a confiderable 
number. Captain Be£t met a trading fleet of 240 Portuguefe vef^ 
fels on the coaft of Cambaya : and when the Mogul declared 
war againft the Fortuguelb, in 16 17, the number of their vef- 
fels detained in his harbours, (viJ. Far. fub atm.) was 2oo« 
Yet were the adventurers in this trade liable to every incomre- 
nience ufually fufiered by fmugglers and freebooters. It is 
tr.ue they ,caiiried the commodities of Ethiopia and tlie coafts 
around Ormuz, to Malaca and China; and in return diftri- 
buted the products of the' eafl[ern over the weft6m fhores of 
the Indian ocean. - But they had no certain protection of their 
property, and they were furrounded with monopolies. The 
viceroys and commanders of forts had monopolies of their 
awn in every ftation between Ethiopia and China. And it is 
eafy to conceive how their creatures muft have lorded it over 
all thofe who dared to interfere with their profits. To render 
a foreign trade profperous, the honefl: merchant muft have 
every poflible encouragement. . If it is eafy to acquire an hand*- 
taxxi^ independence in an honourable channel, the ions of men 
of property and of connexions will adventure ; and where 
capital ftock and real abilities are beil rewarded, commerce muft 
greatly increafe. If on the other hand, the merchant is fet- 
tered with difiiculties, only men ofdefperate fortune will fettle 
in a diftant climate. And thefe, confcious of the reftraints 
under which they labour, confcious that they have much to 
gain and little to lofe, will, in the nature of things, be folely 
influenced by the fpirit of the mere adventurer j by that fpirit 
which utterly ruined the Portuguefe in India* 


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JBach of the fleets which failed annually from Lifbon to In-* 
<fia, carried out, upon an average, about 3000 men. Very few. 
of thefe evier returned to fettle in Portugal. They married in 
the Eaft, and became one people with the defcendants of thofe 
Portuguefei who, at various periods, had fettled and married 
with the natives, in the numerous colonies of Portuguefe 
Afia^ Their great commonwealth, in the beginning of the 
feventeenth century, was a mere anarchy, and its revenue of 
fo little value to the mother country, that Philip XL abandoned 
India in the moft extraordinary manner : he made an edi£t, that 
every office under the government fliould be fold by public falc, ' 
an edift that merit fhould be neglected, and that only the moft' 
worthlefs and rapacious (hould be entriifted with the affiurir 
of ftatei 


Of the example of Portuguefe Afia cannot be better enforced • 
than by an examination of the popular arguments relative to 
the Britifli commerce with India. A recent Writer on the 
Nature and Caufes of the fTeaith of Nations^ has ftood forth as 
the philofophical champion for the abolition of the Mmopdj 
of the Englifh United Eaft India Company. His arguments 
may be reduced to thefe four pofitions. 

I. Exclufive Compani^ are in every refpeft pernicious. 
- 11. In the Portuguefe commerce with India, for more than a 
century, there was no Exclufive Company ; fuch monopoly 
is therefore unneceffary for the fupport of the Indian 
" commerce. 

III. Under a Free Trade, faftors will fettle in India of their 
own ac^M'd^ and every commercial accommodation of 
felling and purchafing cargo will naturally follow. 

IV. Where forts and.garrifons are abfolutely neceflary, thefe 
will be beft under the. immediate proteftion of the fove- 
reign, under whofe care his native fubjefts will find 

. tl^cmfelvcs perfeStly fafe and eafy. 

y The 

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The fable of Procnifbe^ and his iron bed^ was perhaps de« 
figned by the aDcients to figmij ^ fyftem builder and his 
fyilem. The reader will fboa he enabled to form, his owft 
judgment oa the juftice of this explanatioit. 

The firft poiition is thus maintaiaed by our Author : '^ Of 
*^ all the expedients that can we^ be contrived to Jiunt the na* 
^^ tural growth of a new colony, that of an ezclufive company 
*' is undoubtedly the moft effedual/* VoL ii. p. iju 

Having diftinguilhed monopolies into two kinds^ our Author 
thus concludes his chapter; '* Such exckiiive Oxnpanies^ 
** therefore, are ttuifatwes in every reJpeS^ always more or kfs 
** inccmvenient to the countries in which they are eftablifhed^ 
H and deftruftive to thofe which have the misfortune to fall 
" under their government/* Vol. ii. p. 256. 

Thus, and throughout our Author's whole work, monopo- 
lies are reprcfented as always^ every Hvberey and in every refpeSt 
pernicious. Yet when fome hiftorical fafts, and the manners 
of nations, are put in the other balance, the fcale, loaded with 
thefe aflertions, will inftantly fly up and kick the beam. 

However fbme men may declaim, there was a time when 
the founding of abbeys and monaflEeries was the moft political 
method by which the monarchs of Europe could introduce ci« 
vilization among their barbarous fub|e£ts. And, however ill 
adapted to the pref^nt times, that old monopoly, the inftitutioa 
of corporations, was at one period highly political, and abib* 
lately necefTary to fupport infant commerce againft the fur« 
rounding opprefiions and uncommercial fpirit of the feodal 
fyftem. The commerce of the Hans towns began not only 
with incorporated companies, but alfo with a general ftipulated 
league of thefe companies, for fuch union was abfolutely necef-- 
iary to protcft the infancy of their naval commercial inter- 
courfe againft the numerous bands of favage pirates, who at that 
time infefted the Baltic, the Daniih, and the German feas. 

When Prince Henry of Portugal, at his own private ex- 
pence, had difcovered Madeira, his brother, king Edward, made 
him proprietor of that ifland. Henry divided it into diftrifts^ 


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whicli he ^e to ferae of his caaptaanst who in retiim paid 
him a revenue. When the fame prince had difcovered the. 
coaft of Guinea, the muted efforts of a Company appealed 
to- him as the moft vigorous method of profecutbg his de-* 
^;ns. Under a diarter from faim, and for which they paid 
him t reTcaue, feverat of his captains erefbed a commerciai 
Conrpcmy at Lagos, and the vigour o£ thctr piirfuits anfweroii 
the explications of Henry. In the third year of their efta* 
hUlhmeirt, £wurtecn (hips failed fn>m that port tqpon trade and 
£uthcr difcovery j aAd liflieen were the fame year fitted ont 
from Madeira. In 147 1, Aionzo V. engrofled by dotaeOic 
qnarrds, cad the affinrs of Morocco, granted Fernando Gomes 
a waotnofokf oi the Coinea. tcade, for the fmoU fura of 500 
dttcatB annually, but upon condition that durii^ the ^A five 
years he flaovld extend ins difconreries 500 leagues farther 
along the fea coaft. This condition h^j^y vindicates tho 
wifilom of this monopoly} as the numerons Beets of Lagoe 
and Madeira juft&fy Henry. IKfbovery was a molb unpopular 
meafure, and neither the attention of Aionzo, nor the finances 
of the ftatej'cioiuld aSord to fit ont iquadrcms on ei|>edition8 
ci Hope. Even in 1497, two of the four fhi^ wJuch were 
kot to difbo<v«r India, were parchafed £tom fiihyeds, (fie Jlp^ 
pendix) fo unable were the royal docb>yaxds of Portugal to fit 
out fleets for &lko9wj. 

Without the regular coane^on of x Coaqany, under the 
ian&ion of Legpiflative audionty, the Dutch might have as 
rsHonoMy attempted to eftaUifii a eomnerce with the Moon 
as with India. The natives, it is true, received, at firft, hoth 
the Dutch and the EngUih with joy. Bnt the Portngnefe vercr 
infimteiy too- Arong for att the uneonne&ed attenspts of att 
the private merchants of Eniop^, and it was their intereft ttf 
furevent intruders. Nor did the good will of the natives axife 
from anyotho: canfe than tlieir deep hatred of thePortv. 
guefe. It was the inteceft of the Moors, Egyptians, and 
Tudcs, that no Europeans flioukl navigate the «iftem feas $ 
tnd had the Dutch and Bnglifh been the firft who dUcovetod 

y 2 India, 

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India, they muft have encountered the whole force of the 
Eaft, and all the rage of the Moors. 

, A fovercign who defires to open a comnierce with a diftant 
country, under the circumftances of India, has only this.aU 
tcrnative ; he muft either give exclu/he privileges to . a Com- 
pany, or he muft put his exchequer to the enormous expence 
of forts and garrifons, and warlike fleets year after year, to 
awe the hoftile natives. In this .laft fuppofitioh, the trade 
with fuch countries may be either referved as a monopoly of the 
crown, or laid open and free to all the fabjefts, Exclufive 
Companies were chofen . by the Dutch and Englifh, in their 
profecution of the commerce of India. And a crown mono- 
poly was adopted by the kings of Portugal. But no fovereign 
was ever fo deep a Theorift as to take upon himfelf the.enpr- 
mous and iincertain expence.of conquering and bridling dif- 
tant and warlike nations, in order that, after enriching them- 
felves with the commerce of fuch countries, his.fubjedls might 
be better enabled to pay what future taxes he might think 
proper to impofe upon them. 

: The fecond pofition afcribed to our Author is deduced from 
thefe fentences : ".The Portuguefe .carried on the trade both 
^* to Africa and the Eaft Indies, without any exclufhe Compa- 
" nies.*' Vol. ii. p. 248. 

" Except in Portugaly and within thefe fe in Fraw yearsnce, 
" the trade to the Eaft Indies has, in every European country, 
** been fubjeAed to an exclufive Company." Vol. ii. p. 242. . 
That fuch companies are not in general neceflfary for car- 
rying on the Eaft India trade, is fufficiently demonjirated .by 
the experience of the Portuguefe, who enjoyed almoft the 
whole of it for more than a century together y without any ex-- 
" clufrve Company." Vol. ii. p. 246. 

In political philofophy an exclujhe Company and exclufive 
^rade are exactly the fame. Our Author himfelf gives the 
very worft of ch^rafters of . a Regal Monopoly 5 b.ut it 
feems to have been utterly . unknpwn to him, that fuch 
«»er was, and is, the Portuguefe commerce between Europe 
. . and 



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zx^ IndU ; iltfitrly Qnknown to hnpy that the Portaguefe free 
trade in the Indian feas was a diigrace to commerce, was 
ruinous in every principle; was efteemed infamous, only fit foe 
felons^ in the days of the Portuguefe profperity } and in order 
to its fuppreilion, was taxed greatly beyond the trade carried 
on by the natives. The continuance or abolition of the Eaft 
India Company is a matter of the firft importance. If either 
method be adopted upon falfe principles,, the confequences will 
be ieverely felt. We (hall therefore claim fbme merit in holding 
up a confpicuous example to future philofoj^hers,. how im^ 
prudent it is to truft to the felf-fufficiency of /peculation^ when» 
on the moft important topics, they appeal to hiftorical fa£ls 
as ^fufficient demonfiratiotLoi the- eafe anid iafety of their theo*- 
reticai fchemes. . , 

. The third pofition afcribed to our Author will be foynd at 
great length in his Fourth Book. In Svveden and Denmark he 
owns that the encouragement of a monopoly was neceffary to 
their trade with India. But where monopolies are neceffary-, 
fiich countries, he fays, ought not to trade direftly to the Eaft 
Lidies. He takes it for granted, that the fmalluefs of the na^ 
tional capital dock, which fpared in theilow returns 
of fo diftant a trade, produces this necefllty. And it were 
better, he adds, for fuch countries to buy tlieir.In^lian goods 
" (bmewhat dearer" from other nations. But when a nation 
is rich enough to trade with India, a.fre? cqmmerce, according 
to our Author, would naturally fpring up in the moft beau-- 
tiful order. He; ftates the obje£Hon of the impoftibility of 
a private merchant's capital being able to fupport faftors and 
agents in the different ports t)f India; to which he thus replies,. 
(vol. ii. p. 246.) " There is no great branch of trade in which 
*' the capital ef any, one private merchant is fufEcient for 
" carrying on ^all the fiibor4inate branches, which muft ^be 
.** carried on in order to carry on the principal branch* But 
" when a nation is ripe* for any great branch of trade, fomc: 
" merchants naturally; turn their capitals towards the princi- 
^^^ pal,.andfome.towf»rds the fubordin^ brarvcto of it.. 


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clxvi PORTUGUESE A § X A. 

•* If a nation therefore is ripe for the Eaft In^i trade, a cer- 
*♦ tain portion of its capital will naturally divide itfelf among all 
^ the drffercnt branches of that trade. Some? of its merchants 
« w2ilf find it for their intereft to refide in the Eaft Indies, 
and employ their capitals there in providing goods foi- the 
ft\ips which are to be fcnt out by other merchants, who re- 
fide in Europe." 
When this fcheme of commerce with India cannot be ef* 
fcfted, it is a proof, according to our Author (p. 247.) that 
fach country, at that particular time, was not ripe for that 
trade j and had better buy their Indian goods, " even at a 
•* higher price,** from other nations. But had the Portuguefe, 
Dutch, and Englifh, waited for luch theoretical rifenefs^ they 
had never yet fet one foot in India. 

In the moft favourable view of fiich eftabliihment of com- 
merce with the great world of Afia, its perfeftion cannot 
fpring up in a few years, and would be always precarious. 
When the Moors were in force, fiach peaceful eftablifliments 
were impoflible, for they kne\^ their prefcnt intereft too well to 
liften to the promifes of European fpeculation 5 and the pre- 
fent character of the Indian nations gives no prophecy when 
forts and garrifons will become unneceffary to the European 
refidentf in India. Our Author feems aware of this, in the 
fentence which immediately follows the laft cited, and which 
vindicates the fourth pofition into which we have divided his 

But it will be here neceflfary to give a ftiort Analyfis of the 
great principles of our Author's fyftem. 

The Wealth of Nations, he fays, arifes from labour; the 
value of which, he often tells us, is only to be fixed by the 
higgling of the market. That Ihare of land-rent which is 
claimed by the fovereign, is his favourite fource of revenue. 
And were every fubjeft allowed a free trade too^ the whole 
nation wotild be enriched, and this fource of revenue, of 
confequence, greatly enlarged. But monopolies of all 
kinds, by Jtmting the ufe of ftock and the confisquent in- 


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creafe o£ richer, fimt the fouroes of revenue. MottOpc£e» 

are therefore every where and in every refpe£fc prejudicial 

to fovereign and people. As the fovereign b chiefly in-* 

terefted in the floi^idiing ftate of the land^rent revenue, 

it \% moft likqly to*, flourish under bis care. And ever and 

above^ as the population of foreign colonies muft enlarge ftho 

above natural fource of revenue, for all other fources are 

round about i fo the population of foreign cronies is the 

chief end of colonization. 

From this analyiiK, which challenges the fevereft teft, the 

propofitioa to put the forts and teriitory of Bnttih India into 

the hands of the foveiieign, naturally follows. We (hall give 

it in our Author's own vrords : 

'^ The fettlementSy fays he, which different European 
^ nations have obtained in the Baft Indies, if they were 
*^ taken from the exclufive Companies to whkh they at 
^ prefent belong, and put under the immediate prote^ion 
•* of the fovereign, would render this refidcnce" (i.e. of the vo* 
bmtary uMComuSed adoenturers before mentioned) ^^ both fafe and 
** f^, at leaft to the merchants of the particular nations to 
*' whom thofe iettlemcnts belong." 

Bckt ere we examine this bold propolltian, our Author's great 
ob|e£lion8 againft the Dutch and Englifh Bail India Companies 
require our previous attention. " Thefc, fays our Author, 
*' though pofTeficd of many coniiderable fcttlements, both 
^' upon the coaft of Africa and in the Eaft Indies, have not 
'' yet eftabliihed in either of thofe countries fuch numerous 
'* and diriving colonies as thofe in the iflands and continent 
" of America, (p. 247.) . . . . Jn the fpice iilands, the Dutch 
<« bum all the fpicery which .a plentiful feafcm produces, be^ 
*^ yond what they expe6t to difpofe of in Europe virith fuch ^a 
** profit as they think fuficient. • . * . They have reduced the 
" population of feveral of the Nfoluccas. Under the go- 
^* vemment even of the Portugueie, however, thofe iflands are 
*' faid to have been tolerably well inhabited. The EngliOi 
^* Company have not yet had time to eftabiiib in Bengal fo 

•* perfectly 

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icixviii Pt> R T U C U E'S & : A S 10^.- 

*^ perfeftly-deftrAiftiv* a fyftem^ The plan of their govern- 
•* ment, hpwever, has had exa(SlIy the fame tendency. It has 
" not been uncomrfton, I «m well afTured^ for the cbirf^ that is 
"' the y&yl clerk of a factory, to order, a peafant to plough up 
♦* a rich field of poppies, and fow it with rice or fom©^ 0ther 
^* grain. The pretence was to prevent a fcarcity of provi- 
** fions ; but the real reafon to give thie chief an Opportunity 
<* of felling At a better price a large quantity of opium, which 
** he happened then to have upon hand. Upon other occa- 
'^ iioHS the order has been reverfed, and a rich field of rice or 
^ other grain has been ploughed up, in order to make room 
** for a plantation of poppies.'' p. 250. And thus, as i our 
Author expreffes it, p. 253, Monopolies " 7?//;i/ the natural 
^ growth of foaje parts, at leaft, of the furplus produce of 
" the country, to what is barely fufficient for anfwering the 
" demand of. the Company." 

Our Author's abhorrence of commercial purfuits, and his' 
keen predileftion for land rent revenue, are ftrongly marked 
in the following fentence : " A Company of merchants are^^ 
** it feems, incapable of confidering themfelves as fovereigns, 
** even after they have become fuch. Trade, or buying in or- 
^' der to fell again, they fiill confider as their principal bufi« 
^* nefs, and by a firange abfurdity^ regard the character of the 
^^ fovereign as but an appendix to that of the merchant, as 
'• fomething which ought to be made fubfervient to it, or by 
^' means of which they may be enabled to buy cheaper in In- 
^* dia, aijd thereby to fell with a better profit in Eqrope. 
'•^ They endeavour for this purpofe to keep out, as much as 
^' poflible, all competitors. . . . Their mercantile habits draw 
** them in this manner, almoft neceflarily, tliough perhaps 
*« infenfibly, to prefer, upon all ordinary occafions, the little 
«' and tranfitory profit of the monopolift, to the great . and 
^* permanent revenue of the fovereign." p. 2.52. 

Such are the evils which attend the Dutch andEnglifti Eaft 
India Companies : The advantages which would follow, were 
&}ch monopolies to be aboliihed, .and the Sovereign to heible 


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nafter of Indian tcqniiition are tliefe : all hi^ fut^efls, who 
yleafedy might turn their ftock to the conunerce of India. 
By fuch means, the population of the colonies, and, of con- 
^uence, the regal fhare of their revenue^ would be greatly 

And thus» according to our Author^ commerce is of veryr 
mferior confequence} and the importation of the Sovereign'^ 
sevenue the very fiaunum hofom of the political wifilom of 
colonization^ But thdfe very fuJj^<ious data demand a much^ 
deeper inveftig^tion than our Author has beftowed upon 
them. In many places he exprefles the mofti cordial affe^ion. 
for the kingly power. Becaufe it is the ibvereign's intereft 
lllat his colonies Ihould profper,. he iuppofes,. therefore^, 
that colonies, if under his immediate piote£tion^, will anid 
muft * flouriih. And becaufe a monarch, at the head of a 
ftanding aumy, tmtf defpife the rudeft and moft^ licentious^ 
libellers, he concludes, p. 311. that a ftanding army is 
propitious { to the caufe of liberty. That perfedion o£ 
wifilom,. magnanimity, and attention^ which is moit eflen-^ 
tially implied in thefe fuppofitions, is not, however, to be^ 
found in a Succession of monarchs. No, not in an indi«^ 
vidual fovereign, if we may believe an aflertion which has 
eicaped from our Author, p; 441. '^ The forvants^ fays he». 
^ of the moft carelefs private perfon, are^ perhq>s, more 
^ under the eye of their mafter, than^ofe <^ the moft care-* 
" fill prince/* 

When die Portuguefe Indian commerce was farmed, by a> 
Company of merchants, in 1587, about 87 years after it»* 
commencement, the Regal monopoly was altered, not abo» 
liflied; for this commerce was continued^ according to every. 

' ;^Tbi8 ai^^mtteiit,.. abfekitdy eflencial to What •rUtraiy inprifimmenfi nisht be 

I Us fyftea, IS fopported by our Aathor, avoided^ and what expenoe of legions- 

Vol. ii. p. aji, &c. &c. te*. of fpies tidghc be fated, codd tfaey per*' 

} What a pity it », that France and cexve oar Autbor's advantages of a ftaad- 

I Spain have never, fbond out this ibcret! lag armyr 

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idea ever known in the Spanifti or Portuguefe colonies. It 
was carrfed on in a limitted numbfer of Regifter fhips ; and 
the fovereign authority of the Indian viceroys was ftill predo- 
minant. Our Author confeffes, p. 17 1* that the commerce 
of regifter fhips is " 'very nearly upon the fame principles as that of 
an exclujive company.** And certainly, vrtth rcfpcfl: to his lyftem, 
they are exactly the fame. In defcribing the management o^ 
trade, where it is the fole property of the fovereign, our Au- 
thor has* given, though very undefignedly, a very accurate 
fketch of the regal • rAonopoly of Portugal. Talking of the 
mercantile purfuits of princes 5 " They have fcarce ever fuc- 
" ceeded, (fays he, p. 414.) The profufion with which the 
" affairs of princes are always managed, renders it almoflr 
" impoffible that they Ihould. The agents of a prince re- 
" gard the wealth of their mafter as inexhauftible ; are 
** carelefs at what price they buy > are carelefs at what price 
** they fell 5 are carelefs at what ■ expence they tranfport his 
** goods from one place to another. Thofe agents fre- 
" queritly live with the profufion of princes, and fome- 
" times too, in fpite of that profufion, and by a proper 
" method of making up their ' accounts, acquire the for- 
" tunes of princes. It is thus, we are told by Machiavel, 
'* thiat the agents of Lbrenzo of Medicis, nat a pirihce of 
" mean abilities, carried on his trade.*' And thus, alfo, the 
corrupted viceroys of India cojidufted the trade of the kings 
of Portugal, 

But it may be faid, the confequences of the above are in- 
applicable; for a regal monopoly of revenue, and hot of trade, 
is our Author's fyftem. His fyftem is held forth as fuch in- 
deed, yet we apprehend its condequences would be the. fame. 
A hoftile country, of vaft extent, bridled and awed, and the 
revehue of an imtnenfe territory, governed by the troops and 
officers of a diftant fovereign, is fomething exceedingly like 
the Portuguefe plan. The confequences of the Portuguefe 
fyftem, therefore, require our ftrifleft attention. 


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Tbe Portuguefc viceroys, it may be Hiid, were arbitrary » and 
governed by no code of known law^: and the officers of a 
Sritifh fovereign vill ix>t be armed with fuch power. Yet 
our Author is of opinion diat the fbrvants of the India Com^ 
pany i^tme fuch power, and that it is anapUtdy foolijb to expe£t 
they would not* Monopoly, lue fays, is the intereft of a Com- 
pany and its Servants. A free trade,, and revenue is the inte- 
reft of a fovere^n. But does it follow, as our Author's argu^ 
vxent implies, ^^t fuch is liie va^tfSt d hss fbrvants alio ? 
% no means. We may weU enquire, what is that wonderful 
virtue, eiSential to our Audxtf 's arg^menit, which is «)nferred 
by the royal commiiEon ; that virtue,, which would correft all 
the felfifk paftons which influence the ckrks of a cQUOttng- 
iioufe, and would fave the poppies jmdtbe rice of Bengal from 
an untimely plough P If the territory of Brit^ India is to be 
Ac king's,, be muft have men in office to manage it under him^ 
and thefe wilt have their privaite interefts to ferve, as wdl as^ 
the officers of a Company. Whence, then, are we to expef): 
their fupecior virtue i Not, furely, from tbetr greater oppor<^ 
tunities of extortion, and of evading enquiry-*^ But we fliatt 
here adopt a fentence from our Author, (voi. ii. p. ^53-) oniy^ 
fiibftituting the word Kingy where he writes Cmoing Baufer 
^^ Nothing can be more c$fi^^htefy Jh$lifi^ than to expe£): that 
*^ the clerks of a great King, at ten th$^tmd ndUs dijlancey and 
^ confcqxictxtiy aim$^ fuiu otst €f Jgbtj fbeuld, upon afimple 
^ order from their mafter, give up, at once, doing any fort of 
'^ bnfinefs upon their own account, abandon forever all hopes^ 
** of making a fortune, of which they have the means in their 
^ hands, and content themfehGea with the moderate falaries 
" which their matter allows them/' -^ Our Author purfues hisi 
%'gwnent, how the (ervants of a Comp^vy eftabliih monopo^ 
lies of their own ; and fuch, attended with every circumftance 
of unreltrained enormity, was the condoft of the crowa of- 
ficers of Portuguefe Afia. 

The fuperior opportunities of extortion and rapine enjoyed) 
by the military governors of a very diifcmt and rich country^ 

z 2. are: 

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xlxxii P O R T UG U E S E: A S I A. 

arc felf-evident. The clerks of a crown office have infinitely 
better opportunities of evading detection; and of amafling per- 
quifites, than thofe of a company. Our Author has already 
been cited to explain how the fcrvants of a prince abufe their 
truft. " It is perfeftly indifferent," fays he, vol. ii. p. 255. to 
*' the fervants of the India Company," when they have carried 
their whole fortune with them, if, the day after they left it, 
" the whole country was fwallowed . up by an earthquake." 
And, in the name of God, will not fuch difailer be equally in- 
different to a royal general, or a royal cuftomhoufe officer, 
whenever he finds it convenient to retire from India ? 

But this is not applicable, it may be faid, to our Author's 
fyilem, which is to plant colonies, like thofe of America, in 
Lidia, on purpofe to draw a revenue from them ; and the 
profperity of the country will then be the intereft of the royal 
officers. But a hard queftion here obtrudes itfelf; Wittit be 
the defire effaced Rodents to export a revmufy or to be careful of 
it? Though many of the Portuguefe were natives of theEaft, 
war was their harveft ; and, like the favages of Louifiana, who 
cut down the tree when* they defire the fruit, their rapacity dc- 
ftroyed the roots and fources of revenue. The nature of their 
iituation, explained by our Author in the cafe of Lorenzo of 
Medicis, vindicates this affertion, and every period of Portu- 
guefe Afia enforces its truth. Though all the artillery of ar- 
guments, drawn from the abufes committed by the fervants 
of a company, may thus, with accumulated force, be turned 
againft the fervants of a prince ; arguments of deeper import 
ftill remain. 

Whenever a fociety emerges from what is called the Jhepbird 
Jiate, luxuries become its infeparable attendants. And imported 
luxuries, however negleded and undervalued in our Author's 
cftimate, offer not only a plentiful, but the fafeft mode of 
taxing the wages of labour, the profits of ftock, and the rent 
of land. The induftry of the manufafturer and hufbandman. 
can never thus be impeded or injured, which they moft cer- 
tainly are, for a time, by every new tax upon labour an4 


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land. The luxuries imported by the Baft India Company 
have afforded a revenue * which has been equal to the land-tax 
of England. The queftion then is, whether would this valua- 
ble revenue be diminifhed or increafed, were every port open, 
and every adventurer free to fit out what Ihips he pleafed, to 
traffic with India ? 

But w^re this allowed, what an army of cuftomhoufc offi- 
cers, muft there be in Waiting at every port of the kingdom ? 
for who knows what port a veffel from India, once in feven 
years, may chufe to enter? What ayloor for fmuggling the 
luxuries of India would this open ! And we need not add, 
what a diminution of revenue ! 

Befides the great revenue which it pays, the Eafl India Com- 
pany forms one of the moft aftive finews of the ftate. Public 
Funds are peculiar to England. The credit and intereft of 
the nation depend ^ipon their fupport X ; ^^^d the Eaft India 
Compsmy is not the leaft of thefe. It has often fopported Go- 
yernment with immenfe loans^ and its continuance includes 
the promife of future fupport on the like emergencies. 

And muft this ftupendous and important fabric be demo- 
lifhed, to make way for an -f- untried Theory ? 

For a free trade, which, while it encreafed our imported 
luxuries, would greatly diminifh the revenue which arifes 
from them: 

• The revenae paid by the goods of 
the company, and the ventxnts of their 
lervantSy together with the former annual 
dooation, have been above two millions 
yearly. The land tax falls fhort of two 

t " The ctedit and the intereft of the 
nation 'depend en the fopport of the pub- 
lic funds — ^While the annuities, and intereft 
for money advanced, is there regularly paid, 
and the principal infnred by both prince and 
people, (a fecurity not to be had in other 
nations) foreigners will lend us their pro- . 
perty, and all Europe be incerefted in our 
jwlfare ; the paper or the companies will be 
converted into m(»ey.and.m^rehandize4 and 

Great Britain can never want cafti to carry 
her fdiemes into execution. In other na- 
tions, .credit is founded on the word of the 
prince, if a monarchy ; or on that of the 
people, if a republic ; but here it is efta- 
blifned on the mterefts of both prince and 

people, which is the ftrongeft fecurity '* 


• t «* In the progrefs of fociety, additional ^ 
props and balances will often become hecef- " 
lary. That of pulling down a whole edi/ice, 
to ereft a new building, generally ends i{i 
the deftruftion of the community^ and al« 
ways leads to convulfions which no one could 
forefec.** A/Govemor Johnftone'sr^tf<5^i&/i 
vn Qur acqutfitions in the Eaft ludiesl 


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Foi' a trade whkh would injure qiv own |) manufafliures^ 
were tbc preCent reftridtiom abolifl^ed : 

For a trade which could iK)t be eftabliihed in India for maiK^ 
years, and which, pe(ha{>Sy \$ in its nature impradifable : 

*< For a tranfijtion, which* though poflibk, muft br attended 
^^ with innumerable difficulties, confidering wb«fc ccmrulfiosia, 

even th^ fiaalkA; droke of legiflative authority upon private 

property getn^raUy prodidces^ notwitt^aading all the pre* 

cauttQtts which may b« § ufed i' 

For a fyftero, which muft reader the iovereign the mifitary 
Defpot of an inwaaenfe and rich * territory^ aad make \wn the 
ible raaflrer of an Unconfiitufional iev«nue. A revenue^ which, in. 
the hands of a corrupt miniftry,. would cafily defeat the noUeft 
check againft arbitrary power pi ovided by tibe Britifli Confii«- 
tution^ the eight q§ taxation m the Houie oi CoQimQn& 

America, paffively fubmiifive at the feet of a junto in power, 
cQuld not;, i(x fevoral centuriea, afford the means of cocrup* 
tion, which. India*, alseady deeply enflaiw4 woiakl fredy ybhi^ 
for at leaft a few years* 

In evejjy prebability, for only a fiew ysears^-^howevcr highly 
our Author may think of tl]u» gmii and pamatmt revenue of 
the fovereign ;. and however be may defpife Ae little and tran^ 
foory prc^ of the merchant^, we will venture to fuppost the 
very oppofite opinions. 

cottons^ toya^ and maax of th^ IndilUI QUr 
Rufaiaures, woqld |«e;itlyii^ure thoft of tbu 
cQuatry.wei^^fteeiamQn^tiQOJiIlqwed. TU 
wovea manufi^Aimf of IiwUfu unptited by die 
Company, v^ reftri^Ktd ta f«r«kn m vktcau 

S This fcQtsocc lA inwtea comvuf u 
from a pamphkv tamlcA^ Thoughts m qut 
acfuifaip^s in th £^ JtuUif^^ynntta^ by 
Governor Jo)in.ftone, 

• " The imnienit power whidi weuld be 
added to the crQwn« by onrdominipnt io the 
Eaft fk]lki( iiQmediately upder ita iMiui^<- 
ment, maft be a. ferioue coofidecatioo, wub 
every ooe who beUeve9 thi: nrepoadeoitiiif 
weight which tharpart gf Ue cfinfluouoi^ 

alreadjt poftflee; mi^ wK^ mftM» at tho^ 
lane tim«^ ^ ptraArv« ihe imft halaaco. 
£veivu)tellifBei>t min^ emft faip&e, tka im^ 
menfe addiaoaal hifiaie«ie that vmaiA m*- 
aqcrby the cQiiimaii4 of Mk^nuaokmnf 
troopsy the adminiihadon of fach axttsfive- 
r«veii«esy«i4 thedifpcifiil ef f»-mmy offices- 
The A^thoc of theft refledieoait fewfoadedy 
we might exReA the £une efikds that fbU 
h>wed^ the aftgeTwrioa of die neh ofdeis oT 
St. lagQ, QsiiMfW^- e«A AkanlM»» to tht 
OQwn of S{4in i whieh»i^€fiU»ted ^anilh* 
bifiorian &>i» oo nOT bu H i mom toiwaidi en«^ 
Saving that coeptiyy thaa all the other iafi*^ 
dioot arts aod estpedjents eif Feudimuid and^ 


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Car Author laments, that merchants will never consider 
themfelves as fovereigns, when they have really become fuch. 
Commerce was derpifed, and fovereignty was the ambition of 
the Portugucfe. Immenfe extenfion of dominion, greatly fa- 
perior to the fettlements of both the Dutch and Engliih, be- 
came therefore their object : and uncommercial, often unjuft 
wars, naturally followed this fearch for revenue. And this 
iyftem as naturally produced the deepeft ruin. Wars after 
wars will ever be produced by a fovereignty alTumed in a diC* 
tant region. The Spanifh method of extirpation is the only 
preventive. Some territory is necefTary to fettlements in India. 
But fuch extenfion as would deprefs the grand fyftem of the 
Indian commeixe, muft, like the Portuguefe fovereignty, end 
in ruin. The plan of fovereignty direftly leads to war with 
the jealous natives of India. Such revenue, therefore, cannot 
ht permanent^ and moft probably Will not be great for a length 
of yearsi Our Author upbraids the India Company, becaufe 
their colonies in India are not fo populous and thriving as thofe 
in America. But were the Indian colonies as fafe from the na- 
tives, as his fcheme of unconnefled iettlers requires ; as popu- 
lous, and their revenue as greats as his idea of perfe6tion may pof- 
£bly include, how long would he insure the permanency of their 
revenue againft the interruption oi^ Revolt or ReMlion, or fuch 
cokmiea themfelves from a fudden and final difmeptberment ? -^ 
Alas ! at this prefent hour we feel a moft melancholy proof of 
the difficulties and difappc^ntments of raifing a revenue in a 
dillant country. May God never curfe Great Britain, by fixing 
her views and hopes on fuch diftant, fuch little and tranfitory 
fupport ! 

If properly watched and defended, if not facrificed to the 
dreams and dotage of Theory, the Grand Machine of her 
Commerce will ever render Great Britain both profperous and 
formidable. In this grand machine the Eaft India Company 
forms a principal wheel. The concentered fupport which it 
gives to the public credit ^ The vaft and most ratiosal homi 
tax which its imported luxuries afiEbrd, forms a con^itutional 


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fource of revetiue, ever in our own hands, never to be afFe£led 
by the politics of diftant colonies y the population which it 
gives to the mother coimtry^ by the domeftic induftry employed 
upon the ftaple * commodities which it exports ; and the effential 
balance of Trade given andfecured by the exportation. of its. 

Vantage to their cowitry*^ Nay,, farther, go- 
vernment bounty to the introdudlion of a 
new manufa^re ' is hurtful ; for tl^at will' 
diminifh the revenue, and, of confequence, 
the national capital, p. 3 ij. 

Thua faya Theory, But let it be aiked, if* 
branches of our manufacture mull thus, for 
the good of the nation, be fufFcred to fall' 
into decay, what mull become p£ the ftaples^, 
for our Author excepts no materials,, upon 
which the abandoned manufadture was em-% 
ployed I TJxeir former yakie tnuft be jgreatly. 
diminiihed, if fold unworked to foreigners ; 
and if unfold, annihilated; And thus ther 
national capital will be moft effe6lual]y in- 
jured. Our Author talks very confidently 
of the eafe with which individuals will find> 
a proper field for their induftry ; but, furely, 
wnere a number of the ftaples are thus re- 
duced, the field for domeftic induftry mnft be^ 
proportionally narrowed ; for // is bard t^ 
maki bricks luitbout ftranxs* ** Every indi- 
^< vldiial,. fays our Author, p. 32. is cond-* 
'* nually exerting himfelf to find out the 
*' moft advantageous employment for what-^ 
'' ever capital he can oonimand." But this, 
pofition, abfolutely neceftary to our Author's 
iyftem, .we flatly deny. There is net onlyt 
a t(M*p,or on the generalmind^Qif fuch diftdfls 
as are ignorant of commerce, which requires* 
to be roufed into adion by diofe of fuperior 
intelligence ; butlhere is alio a ftubbom at- 
tachment in fuch minds to their ancienr 
ufages, which half a century can hardly re- 
move. Our Author might have feen bbtk 
this ftupor and obftinacy ftron2ly exemplified^ 
in the vaft diiEculty of introauciiig. modem 

* Some people are apt to apprehend the greateft tneooTeniency, from fetting a number of artificers. 
, adrift in iearch of new employment. But this is nolhing, according to our Author, who tells us, that 
100,000 foldieisand feamen, difcharged at the laft peace, immediately found eibployment. Very true, fon 
the labourer took to his fpadc, the taylor to his needle, the fiioc-nnakcr to his awl, and the feaman to the 
merchant fcryice. But were only io,ooorwcavcrs thrown ont of employ, the cafe would be widely altered. . 
But the certainty of finding an uuknoivn employment, fully as advantageous as the branch ferfeBly knovtn^ 
fQrms a part of our Author's fyllem. It was a ftlh notion, he telU us, vol. ii. p. 136. to defopd Portugal,: 
laft war, for the fake of its trade. Had that trade been loft, fays he, it would otify have thrown the Por- 
tuguefe nnerchants out of buHnefs for a year, or two, till they found out as good a method of employing 
their capitals. Some politicians have thought, the more diannels of commerce, the more foccefs ; but our 
Aythor does not care how many were (hut up ; for this - good reafon, new ones asc furc^iohc found. Buf 
this is like knocking a man dowo, bccaufe he i» fure to get up again. 


• The firft fource of the Wealth of Na- 
tions, however neglefted in our Author's 
eftimate, moft certainly confifts in its ftaples ;. 
and the plenty of thefe, and the degrees of 
their importance, in adminiftering to the 
wants and defipcs of mankind, fixthe natural 
difference between the riches of countries. 
And to this fonrce, the labour necefiary to fit 
thefe ftaples to their refpediive ufes, is de- 
pendent and fecondary, if the fruit may be 
called dependent on, and (econdary to the 
root of the tree. It is therefore the great 
duty of the ftatefman to protect, diredl, and 
cherifti the manufadiure of ftaples ;; and by 
making colonies contribute to this purpofe,. 
he produces the natural, advantageous, and 
permanent ufe of foreign acquifuion. This, 
however, is fo far from being a part of our 
Author's fyftem, that he even reprobates 
the idea, that the Legiflature ftiould give 
any proteAion or diredion to any branch 
of manufadure. He calls it a power with 
which "no minifter can fafely bt trufled. 
Vol. ii. p. 36. " It is," he fays, " in fome 
meafure to direft people in what manner 
they ought to employ their capitals^?' of 
which, he tells us, p. 35. tKey are much bet- 
ter judges thaa any ftateiman or. lawgiver. 
Nay, he eyen aflerts, p. 37, &c. that were 
any branch of manufafture, for he excepts 
none, to fall into utter decay ^by the freedom 
of foreign importation, the country would 
lofe nothine; by it. The manufadurers, he 
owns, might luftain- the lofs of their tools 
and • workftiops, but they would imme- 
diately turn their capitals and induftry into 
other channels, which would be of equal ad- 

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imports) arc the great and permanent confequenxrbs of the; 
c6mmercial fyftem, confequences which can never arife from 
the importatim of the grcateft revenue. And foon woulc} all 
thefe advantages be loft, were the India Company to re- 
linquifti the mercantile chara6ter, and, according to our Au- 
thor's * plan, aflumc that of the fovereign. Nor can we take 
leave of our Author, without remarking, that he has been ra- 
ther unhappy in fixing upon .the Portuguefe as his favourites.; 
His three great reafons for this predileftion are X obvious ; and 

agricultureinto a certaifi country. But, '<No 
" regulation of commerce, fays he, p. ih. 
^ can iDcreaie the quantity of induitry in 
'' any focisty beyond what its* capital can 
** maintain." It is our Author's great lead- 
ing principle, that no nation ought to attempt 
any branch either of manufaaure or com- 
merce, till its capital be ri|>e for fuch branch ; 
and till fuch time, it is their intereft, he fays, 
to buy the articles of fuch branches from their 
neighbours. But here let it be afked, hovr is ' 
the capital to be increafed in this ftate of tor- 
por ? ^ Elizabeth, and fome of her predecef- 
lors, imagined that bounties and regulations 
of comnnerce would roufe to a£t^, and 
thence to the increafe of capital. At mat 
eKpence they introduced the maoufaAores 
of the continent into their own dominions. 
And hence England became what ihe now is. 
3ttt a v'xsw of the ftate of our Author's Na- 
tive Country will bring his Theory to the 
fulleft and UxtA trial. According to fats 
fjrllem, Scotland ought to be the moft flou- 
nfliing commercial countir in Europe ; for 
certain it is, and he himietf often tells it, 
that the trade of North Britain is under much 
fewer regulations and reftridions than that 
of England, Holland, or any of her com- 
mercial neighbours. There was a time, in- 
deed, before and in the fifteenth century, 
ii^ien her Jamefes aflumed the unjmft trufi 
€i[ dire6ling the channels of indullry ; when 
the^ penftoned foreien artificers to fettle in 
their kingdom, and made regulations of 
commerce. The confeauence was, the Scots 
were the matters of tJiieir own fiftieries, and 
the fhipping of Scodand were then greatly 
Aperior to their pfefent ittmber. Soon 

after, however, our Author's plan, that 
Government fiiould leave every fubjcA to 
the courfe of his own ioduflry, took place, 
in the fullelt latitude. And the confequence 
of Government ccafing to watch over and 
diredt the channels of commerce, as fully 
appeared. The Scottifli navy fell into 
deep decline; and their fifliery, perhaps the 
mott valuable in the * world, was fei2;ed. 
by thofe monopoUfts the Dutch, who now 
enjoy it. A ntoft excellent proof how th^ 
uHtncouraged and nndireQed Scots turned 
their capitals and induflry to the bell advan- 
tage ! Negledad by government, theScottifii 
commerce long and deeply languilhed, till 
Mr. Pelham, of late, endeavoured to roufe it 
into adion. But the people ftill follow our 
Author's precept, of buying, from xheir 
neighbours, the greateft part of the nuR|u- 
fadures they ufe. And the confequence of 
all is, miJiy thoufands of the Scots find a 
field for their ingenuity and induiby ift 
t^itxy commercial counuy of the world* 
$xctpt in their cwn, 

* Yet, ftrange as it may^fi^m, our Author^ 
vol. ii. p. 415^ oondemns the Eafl Indim 
Company for adopting the ideas of fbve* 
reigns. It has made them bad traders, h« 
there fays, and, he adds, has almQft brought 
them to bankruptcy. 

X Acconling to our Author, vol. ii. p. 248. 
it is owing to the genius of exclmfi've compa^ 
nies that tne colonies of other nations in In- 
dia have been lefs populous than thofe of 
Portugal. He who reads this nvork^ how- 
cfVer, will find another caufe for the Porta-* 
goefe population ; and never were any colo* 
nies fo vexed with monopolies within mono* 

« Of fuch vahie is this fifhcry, that the antral of the firft fleet of buiies U celebrated in HoUaad with 
public rejaicings, rimllar to thoic of thf Egyptians tii th^ overflow of ^e ^^ 

a a poltes 

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that thefe reafons were extremely raih and WUfoundcdj is alfo 
equally evident. His reafons are**- The Portugucfc had na 
Exclufive African or Indian Companies — A moft anlucky 
miftake! And 

The population and revenue of the Portuguefe colonies are 
exadly in the fpirit of his fyftem. 

But the kingdom of Portugal fuffered the fevereft evils from 
its vain fiver^ignty of India i and the Exclufive Companies of 
England and Holland; however reprobated by our Author, 
have long been, and ftill are, by their vaft commerce^ of the 
moft eflential advantage to their mother countries. 

Having thus followed our Author's argument for laying 
open the India trade, through every gradation of his reafon- 
ing, a retrofpeft may not now perhaps be improper. He 
founds his argument on the abfolute pernicioufnefs of all 
monopolies, in every circumftance : The fafety of laying open 
the Eaft India trade, he aflerts, is fufficiently demonjlrated by the 
experience of the Portuguefe. Were the exclufive India com- 
panies aboliihed, European merchants, he fays, would volunta- 
rily fettle in India, by whom every office of faftorfhip would 
be difcharged. And where forts are neceflary, thefe and the 
fet^ements, he afferts, would be moft advantageous and prof- 
perous under the immediate protection of the fovereign. la 
fupport of this laft argument, h^ appeals to the abufes com- 
mit t?ed by the fervants of a Company. And the advantages 
which he deduces from his fyftem, are> a free trade with 
India, in which every fubjeft may employ his capital, and the 
knportation of a royal revenue ^ which laft circumftance he 
eftimates as of infinitely more real importance than all the 
benefits refulting from commerce. But we have proved, by 
hiftorical evidence, that monopolies and exclufive aflbciations 

poliei, as thofe of Portiigoefe Jkfia« Our " of expence and not of revenue. But the 

Author, with the fame luiowledge of his << Portuguefe colonies have contributed re- 

fiihje^ always reprefents the Portuguefa '^ yeaue tourards the defence of the mother 

colonies as of more advantage to the mother *< country, or the fupport of her civil go- 

^buntry than thoie of England in America. « vcRunent.'^-*— **VoL !!• p. ipf* 
The latter, he fays,. " h»ve been ajbacct 


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were abfolutely necelTary in the infancy of trade^ and ^hat 
their efFeds were rapid, extfinfive, and highly profperous, Wc 
have likewife brought demonftration, both from the hiftory 
and the archives of Portugal, confirmed by every principle o( 
Spanifli or Portuguefe commerce, that his appeal to the expe- 
rience of the Portuguefe is founded upon a raoft egregious 
and capital error. Every page of the hiftory of Portuguefe 
Afia, and the prefent ftate of India, demonftrate the impoiS-* 
bility of the fcheme of unconnefbed and unprotected fettlers« 
And from the example of the Portuguefe, confirmed by every 
experience, certain it is, that every argument againft the fef* 
vants of a Company, may be turned, with redoubled force^ 
againft the ofiicers of a Crown. And were even this fyftem, 
whofe bafis is overturned by hiftorical fafts, were it even 
founded on truth, the confequences which he deduces from it 
are neither certain nor advantageous. By an appeal to unde- 
niable principles, we have held up to view the unavoidable 
difadvantages * of iaying open the Indian commerce *, and from 
other principles, equally fixed and evident, it amounts to de- 
monftration, that a defpotic revenue, raifed in A diftant country, 
muft ever be produ^ive of war, tranfitory, unconftitutional, 
and dangerous. On the contrary, we have evinced, that the 
benefits arifing from the commerce of India, on the great prin- 
ciples of its prcfent eftablifhment, are important, domeftic, 
and permanent. In an aufpictous trade, therefore, we muft 
fubmit to that neceffity of circumftances which we cannot 
alter; we muft not fliut our eyes againft the broad glare 
of the light of fa£ts, and amputate the limbs, and diflocate 
the joints of commerce, in order to fliorten or to lengthen it 
to the ftandard of Theory, as Procruftes is fabled to have fitted 
his unhappy captives to the ftandard of his iron bed. 

Every inftitution relative to Mam, is not only liable to cor-^ 
ruption, but, fuch is the imper^eiStion of human nature, is 

* That the India trade coald not be earned m, wkh advanfaee to the natioii, othq^wift 
dian by a Companyy is clearly proved by Sir joiiah Child, whole arguments have had theif 
doe weight widi fomer iVu'liaiMnfii. 

a a 2 furd 

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fure to be corrupted. Both the fervants of a Company, and 
the officers of a king, are liable* to the influence of felf^n- 
tereft* But the monarch's ear is hard of accefs, and oftert 
guarded ; and the regulations of a regal monopoly, or de- 
fpotic revenue, are variable at his will. Appeal here muft be 
hopelefs. But, under a Company, governed by fixed inftitu- 
tions, there exifts not only a legal claim of redrefe, but a le- 
gal right of oppofition. If errors and corruption, therefore, 
%c natural to every fyftem of human government, let the fyf- 
tem moft open to infpeftion and €orre6lion, be preferved, and 
kt its errors and corruptions be correfted. And happily the 
J&ritifh Parliament is pofiefled of the power of fuch infpeftioa 
and correftion 5 and happily alfo fueh authority is the very 
reverfe of a regal power to raife a foreign revenue^ this par- 
liamentary power is Conjiitutional. 

The Abbe Reynal, in his reflexions on the fate of the Por- 
tuguefe, informs his rea<fer, that while the court of Lifbon 
projefted the difcovery of In<Jia, and expefted inexhaufl:ible 
riches, the more moderate and enlightened forefaw and fore- 
told the evils which would follow fucccfs. And time^ fays he,, 
the fupreme judge of politics, haftened to fulfil their predic- 
tions. He, liowever, who is acquainted with the Portuguefe 
hiftorians, muft perceive the errors of this reprefentation. 
The objeftions againft the voyage of Garaa, were by no means. 
of the enlightened kind. They were thefe : Nothing but bar- 
ren deferts, like Lybia, were to be found ; or, if the difco- 
vered lands were rich, the length of the voyage would render 
it unprofitable: or, if profitable, the introdu6lion of. wealth 
would beget a degeneracy of manners fatal to the kingdom. 
Foreign fettlements would produce a depopulation and negleft 
of agriculture ; or, if foreign colonies were neceflary, Ethio*- 
pia offered both nearer and better fettlements. And the wrath 
of the Soldan of Egypt, and a combination of all Europe 
againfl: Portugal, compleated the prophecy of the threatened 
evils. But it was neither forefeen nor foretold, that the uur 
cxaropled mifcondu6l of the Portuguefe would render the moft 


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lucrative commerce c^ the world an heavy, and at laft infup^ 
portable expence on the treafury of Lifbon or Madrid; nor 
was it foretold, that the fhamelefs villainy, the faithlefs pi- 
racies and rapine of their countrymen would bring down de- 
ilru(5lion upon their empire. Of the objeflions here enume- 
rated, few are named by our Author. Nor does the evil of 
the increafe of wealthy the depopulation and negleft of agri- 
culture, which he mentions as the confequences of the navi- 
gation to India, do honour to the political wifdom, either of 
thofe who foretold them, or of thofe who adopt the opinion. 
The great population of Holland arifes from its naval trade y 
and had the fcience of commerce been as well underftood at 
the court of Lifbon as at Amfterdam, Portugal, a much finer 
country, had foon become more populous, and every way 
more flouriihing than Holland is now. 

Mines of gold, though moft earneftly defired, are the leaft 
valuable parts of foreign acquifition* The produce of mines, 
like the importation of revenue, neither puts into motion, nor 
cherifhes domeftic induftry. To encreafe the population of 
the mother country is the only real wealth ; and this can only 
be attained by increafing^the means of employment, in fuch 
manner as will naturally infpire the fpirit of induftry. The 
ftaple commodities of a country muft therefore be manufac- 
tured at home, and from hence, agriculture will of neceflity 
be improved. He, therefore, who foretels the ncgledl of agri- 
culture on the increafe of commerce,, foretels an event contrary 
to the nature of things > and nothing but an infatuation, 
which cannot at a diftance be forefeen, may poffibly fulfil the 
predidion. To export the domeftic manufa6lure, and import 
the commodities of foreign countries, are the great, the only 
real ufes of foreign fettlements. But did Spain and Portugal 
derive thefe advantages from their immenfe acquifitions in the 
Eaft and Weft? Every thing contrary. The gold of Mexico 
and Peru levied the armies of Charjes V. but eftablifhed or 
encouraged no trade in his kingdom. Poverty and depopula^ 
tioa, therefore, were not the natural confequences of the diD 


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Covies of Columbus ; but the certain fefult of the evil policy 
of Spain. We have feen how the traffic of India was nu^ 
naged by Portugal. That commerce, which vras the founda^ 
tion of the maritime ftrcn^th of the Mc^mmedan powers, 
^nd which enriched Venice, Was not only all in the power of 
the Portuguefe; but it was theirs alfo to purchafe that traffic 
on their own terms, with the commodities of Europe. But 
fovereignty, with its revenue, and not commerce, was the fole 
objeft of the Portuguefe ambition. 

Many have pronounced, that the fame evils which over- 
whelmed the Portuguefe, are ready to burft upon the Britifh 
empire. Ignorance of the true principles of commerce, that 
great caufe of the fall of the Portuguefe empire, does not at 
prefent, however^ threaten the Britiih ; nor is the only natural 
reafon of that fall applicable to Great Britain. The territory of 
Portugal is too fmall to be the head of fo extenfive an empire 
as once owned its authority. Auxiliaries may occafionally af- 
iift ; but permanency of dominion can only be infured by na- 
tive troops. The numerous garrifons of Portugal in Brazil, 
in Africa, and Afia, required more fupplies than the uncom- 
mercial feat of empire could afford, without depriving itfelf of 
defence in cafe of invafion. In the event, the foreign garrifons 
^ere loft for want of fupplies 5 and the feat of empire, on the 
fliock of one difafter, fell an eafy prey to the ufurpation of 
Spain. Great Britain, on the contrary, by the appointment of 
nature, reigns the commercial emprefe of the world. The 
tmrivalled ifland is neither too large nor too fmall. Ten mil- 
lions of inhabitants are naturally fufficient to afford armies to 
defend themfelves againft the greateft power 5 nor is fuch ra- 
dical ftrength liable to fall afunder by its own weight. Nei- 
ther is nature left kind in the variety of the climate of the 
Britiih ifles. That variety in her different provinces alike ccm- 
tributes to the produftion of her invaluable ftaplcs and hardy 
troops. Won and defended from the Mohammedans in wars 
efteemed religious, the circumftanccs of Portugal, produced a 
hi|^h and ardent fpirit of <:hivalry, which raifed her to empire ^ 


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but when fuccefs gave a relaxation to the a^ion of this fpiiit» 
the general ignorance and corruption of all ranks funk her 
into ruin. The circumftanccs of the Britifh empire are greatly 
different. Her military fpirit is neither cheriflied by, nor de- 
pendent upon, cau&s which exifl: in one age and not in ano-^ 
ther. Nor is the increafe of wealth big with fuch evils as fomc 
efteem. Portugal did not owe her fall to it, for ihe was not 
enriched by the commerce of India. If Great Britain ever fufr 
fcr by enormous wealth, it muft be by a general corruption of 
manners. This, however, is infinitely more in the power of 
government than the many furmife. To remedy an evil, we 
muft trace its fource. And never was there national corrup- 
tion of manners, which did not flow from the vices and errors 
of government. Where merit is the only paflport to promo- 
tion, corruption of manners cannot be general. Where the 
worthlefs can purcbafe the offices of truflT, univerfal profligacy 
mufl: follow. Mankind, it may be iaid, are liable to be cor- 
rupted, and wealth affords the opportunity. But this axiom 
will greatly miflead us from the line of truths if taken in a 
general fenfe. The middle rank of men is infinitely more 
virtuous than the lowefl:. Profligacy of mannei's is not, 
therefore, the natural confequcnce of affluence ; it is the ac^ 
cident which attends a vulgar mind, in whatever external 
iituation. And when vulgar minds are preferred to the high 
offices of xhurch or ftate, it is the negligence or wiokednefs of 
government, and not the increafe of wealth, which is the 
iburce of the national corruption. Some articles of traffic 
have an evil influence on a people. But neitlier is this in 
juftice to be charged on the irtcreafe of national trade. The 
true principles of commerce, on the contrary, require the rc^ 
flriftion of many *, and perhaps the prohibition of fome ar- 

* That private vices, the luxury and ex- on the natural (laples are of the firft rate 
travagance of individuals^ are public bene- fervice ; but thofe engaged on luxuries of" 
&xsy has been confidently averted, yet no ten require ipaterials which contribute to- 
theoretical paradox was ever more falfe. ti)m the balance of trade againA the coun* 
Luxuries, indeed, employ many hands, but try where they refide ; and as the fale of 
all hands in employment conduce not alike ^. their labours depends upon fafhion and ca- 
to the iiervice of the ftate. Tboft employed price, not upon the real wants of life, they 


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tides. And ignorance of the true fpirit of commerce, and 
negleft in the legiflature, are therefore the real fources of 
thefe evils. 

"While our popular dcclaimers forefec nothing but ruin in 
the increafe of commerce and wealth, they overlook, or knovsr 
not, the greateft danger to which foreign acquifition lies open, 
and which it even invites. The rapacity of diftant governors, 
fo ftrongly exemplified by the Portuguefe, has a direft ten- 
dency to the produ6tion of every evil which can affeft a com- 
mercial empire. Every governor feels two objeiSls foliciting 
his att'ention, objects frequently incompatible, at kaft not ea- 
fily to be reconciled — the public, and his own private interefV. 
if inftitutions cannot be devifed to render it the true intereft 
of governors, to make that of the public their firft care, fta- 
i>ility cannot be preferved. The voluntary poverty of Albu- 
querque and of Nunio was nobly adapted to the high and ro- 
mantic ideas df Spanilh honour; and without doubt had a 
wide effeft. But no government has a right to require fuch 
an example; and in Britifh India it would be ufelefs and 
abfurd, for we have no vifionary principles, on which it 
•could poffibly operate. He who devotes his life to the fei-vice 
of hrs country, merits a reward adequate to his ftation. An 
cftimate of the reward which true policy will give, may be 
drawn from the fate of the Dutch fettlcment at Brazil. Px'ince 
IKlaurice of Naffau, the general of a Dutch Weft India Com- 
pany, expelled the Portuguefe from one half of this rich and 
^xtenfive country. In reward of his fervice he was appointed 
governor; hut his mercantile mafters, earneft for immediate 
gain, and ignorant of what was neceffary for future fecurity, 
were offended at the grandeur in which he lived, the number 

are apt to be thrown oat of employ, and to 
Jbecome a dangerous burden on the common- 
wealth. Nor is all which is (pent by indi- 
viduals, gained^ as ibme affert, by the pub- 
lic. National wealth confiils of the labour 
•of the peopUy added to the value of the ma- 
terials laboured upon* Every bankruptcy, 
{hfirefbret annihilates^ value of as much 

labour as its deficiency of payment amounts 
to ; and thus the public is injured. Nor is 
this all ; where jprivate luxury is cherifhed 
as a public bcnent, a national corruption of 
manners, the moll dreadful political difeafe, , 
will be fure to prevail, fure to reduce the 
moll flourishing icingdom to the moft critical 


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of fortrefies which he built, and the expence of the troops 
which he kept. They forced him by ill treatment to refign, and 
the ideas of the mere counting-houfe were now adopted. The 
expence of troops and of fortrefies was greatly reduced -, even 
that of the court of juftice was retrenched ; in their com- 
jnerce with their new fubje£ts, every advantage of the fordid 
trader was taken, and payment was enforced with the utmoft 
rigour. Cent, per cent, was now divided in Holland, and all 
was happy in the idea of the Burgo-mafters, the Lords of this 
colony ; when the Portugucfe, invited by the defencelefs^ con- 
dition, and joined by the difcontented fubje£ts of the Dutch, 
overwhelmed them with ruin. Though the States now inte- 
reded themfelves vigoroufly; all the great expence of their 
armaments was loft. Brazil was recovered by the Portuguese, 
and this Dutch Weft India Company was utterly extinguished. 
Nor can we clofe our obfervationt without one more. Nunio 
Acquired an extenfive territory in India. HaiTaffed by the 
horrible wars of their nattre princes, the regions around Goa 
implored the Portuguefe to take them under prote6bion. And, 
iafie and happy, white all around was fteeped in blood, the ter-^ 
ritory under the dominion of Nunio was the envy and wonder 
of India. Taught by this example, every humane breaft muft 
warm on the view of the happinefs which the Britiih India 
Company may diffufe over the Eaft ; a happinefs^ which the 
Britiih * are pecuUariy enabled to beftow. Bcfidts^ the many 
inftances of Portuguefe tyranny and mifconduft dready enu- 
merated, there was a defeft in their government, which muft 

* The form of the govenunent, and the property, educated in independance. India* 

national charader of the Britiih, peculiarly perhaps the moft fertile coimcr)r in the 

enable them to di^ufe the bleffings which world, has fufFered more by famine thait 

flow from the true fpirit of commerce. The any other. For the thoufands who haro 

Dutch have a penurioufnefs in their manners, died of hunger in other countries, India ha* 

and a palpable felfiihnefs in their laws, ill buried millions of her fons, who have thus 

reliihed by the neighbours of their fettle- perifhed. Amazingly populous, the failure 

ments. They want a nuxture of the blood of a crop of rice is here dreadful. It is tho 

of gentlemen ; or, to drojp the metaphor, they true fpirit of commerce to prevent famine, 

want that liberal turn of idea and fentiment by hanging proviiion from one country to 

which arifes fix>m the intercourfe and con- another. And ma^ this true fpirit of it be 

verfation of the merchant with the man of exerted by the Britiih in India i 

b b ever 

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clxxxvi P O R T U O U E S E A S I A. 

ever prove fatal to a comoitrcial empire. All the ftupendoi» 
fabrics of Portuguefe colonization were only founded on the 
fands, on the quick-fands of human caprice and arbitrary 
power. They governed by no certain fyftem of laws. Their 
jgovernors carried to India the image, of the court of Lifbon j. 
and againft the will of the ruler there was no appear to a fu^- 
prcme civil power. Confidence in the high juftice of a Nunio- 
may give nations habituated to oppreflion a temporary fpirit 
of.induftrys but temporary it muft be, as a hafty journey 
made in the uncertain intervals of a tempeft. The cheerful 
vigour of commerce can only be uniform and continued^ 
where the merchant is confcioujs of proteftion, on his appeal 
to known laws of fupreme authority. On the firm bafis of 
her lavvs, the colonies of Great Britain have wonderfully prof- 
pered, for (he gave them an image of her own conflitution; 
And, even where the government of the natives, cannot be 
new modelled, an eafy appeal to the fupremacy of civil laws, 
muft place commerce upon the fureft foundation. It is not 
the fpirit of Gothic conqueft; it is not the little cunning fineffe 
of embroiling the Indian princes among themielves ;. of ca- 
joling one, and winning another ; it is not the groveling arts^ 
of intrigue, often embarrajQTed, always fhifting, which can give 
lafting fecurity.. An eflential decifive predominancy of the 
juftice of laws like the Britifti, can- alone fecure the profperity 
of the moft powerful commercial fyftem, or render its cxiftence. 
ADVANTAGEOUS or cven SAFE to the feat of Empire. 


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C clwucvu ) 

The LIFE of L U I S de C A M O E N S^ 

XT THEN the glory of the arms of Portugal had reached its meridian 
V V fplendor. Nature, as if in pity of the literary rudenefs of that 
nation, produced one great Poet, to record the numberlefs anions of 
high fpirit performed by his countrj^men. Except Oforius^ the hifto- 
rians of Portugal are little better than dry journalifts. But it is not 
their inelegance which rendered the poet ncceffary. It is the peculiar 
nature of poetry to give a colouring to heroic actions, and to exprefs an 
bdignation againft the breaches of honour, in a fpirit which at once 
feizes the heart of the man of feeling, and carries with it an inftanta- 
neous con vision. The brilliant adions of the Portuguefe form the 
great hinffc which opened the door to the moft important alteration in 
tne civil hiftory of mankind. And to place thefe adtions in the light 
and enthufiafm of poetry, that enthufialm which particularly afiimilates 
the youthful breaft to its own fires, was Luis de Camoens, the poet of 
Portugal, born. 

Different cities claimed the honour of his birth. But, according to 
N. Antonio, and Manuel Correa his intimate friend, this event happened 
at Lifbon, in 151 7. His family was of confiderable note, and origmally 
Spaniflu In 1370, Vafco Perez de Caamans> difgufted at the court jrf. 
Caftile, fled to that of Liibon, where kingTerdinand immediately admit- 
ted him into his council, and gave him the lordfliips of Sardoal, Pun-' 
nete, Marano, Amendo, and oAer confiderable lands ; a certain proof of 
the eminence of his rank and abilities. In the war for the fucceflion, 
which broke out on the death of Ferdinand, Caamans, fided with the 
king of Caftile, and was killed in the battle of Aljabarrota* But though 
John I. the vidtor, fcized a great part of his cftate, his widow, the 
daughter of Gonfalo Tereyro, grand majfter of the order of Chrift, and 
general of the Portuguefe army, was not reduced beneath her rank. She 
had three fons, who took the name of, Camoens. The family of the 
cldeft inter-married with the firft nobility of Portugal, and even, accord- 
ing to Caftera, with the blood royal. But the family of the fecond 
brother, whofe fortune was flender, had the fuperior honour to produce 
the Author of the Lufiad. 

Early in his life the misfortunes of the Poet began. - In his infancy, 
Simon Vaz de Camoens, his father, commander of a veflTel, was Ihip-' 
wrecked at Goa, where, with his life, the greateft part of his fortuno 
was loft. His mother, however, Anne de Maccdo of Santarene, pro- 

b b t vidc4 

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^ded for the education of her fon Luis at the univerfity of Coinibra.. 
What he acquired there, his werks difcover : An intimacy with the 
claflics, equal to that of a Scaliger, but direded by the tafte of a 
Milton or a Pope. 

When he left the univerfity, he appeared at court* He was hand- 
fome *, had fpcaking eyes, it is faid, and the fineft complexion. Cer- 
.tain it is, however, he was a polifhed fcholar, which, added to the 
natural ardour and gay vivacity of his difpofition, rendered him . an ac^ 
compiifhed gentleman. Courts are the fcenes of intrigue, and intrigue 
was fafhionable at Lifbon. But the particulars of the amours of Caraoens 
jreft unknown. This only appears : He had afpired above his rank, 
iFor he was banilhed from the court ; and, in feveral of his fonnets> 
he afcribes this misfortune to love* 

He now retired to his mother's friends at Santarene. Here he re- 
newed his ftudies, and began his Poem on the Difcovery of India* 
John III. at this time prepared an armament againft Africa. Camoena> 
tired of his inactive obfcure life, went to Ceuta in this expedition, and 
greatly diftinguifhed his valour in feveral rencounters. In a naval en- 
gagement with the Moors, in the ftraits of Gibraltar, in the conflict of • 
boarding he was among the foremoft, and loft his right eye. Yet neither 
the hurry of aftual fervice, nor the diffipation of the camp, could ftifle 
his genius. He continued his Lufiadasy and feveral of his moft beautiful 
fonnets were written in Africa, while^ as he expreffes it. 

One hand the pen, and one the fword employed. 

The fame of his valour had now reached the court, and he obtained 
permiffion to return to Lifbon. But while he folicited an eftablilhment 
which he had merited in the ranks of battle, the jmalignity of evil 
tongues, as he calls it in one of his letters, was irijurioufly poured upon 
him. Though the bloom of his early youth was effaced by feveral years 
refidence under the fcorching heavens of Africa, and though altered by 
the lofs of an eye, his prefence gave unealinefs to the gentlemen of fome 
families of the firft rank, where he had formerly vifited. Jealoufy is the 
charaderiftic of the Spanifh and Portuguefe ; its refentment knows no 
bounds : and Camoens now found it prudent to banilh himfeif from his 
native country. Accordingly, in 1553, he failed for India, with a refo- 
lutibn never to return. As the fliip left the Tagus, he exclaimed, in the 
words of the fepulchral monument of Scipio Africanus, In^rata patria, 

* The French Tranflator gives us fo fine a Nicolas Antonio^ M Mediocri ftatura fuit^ 

defcription of the peHbn ofCamoens, that it et came plena^ capillis u/que ad croci colorem 

feems to- be borrowed from the Fairy Tales. fiamefcentibia^ maxime imjwventute^ Emine^ 

It is univerfally agreed* however, that he hat ei fronsy ^ mtdiui na/us^ catera longut^ 

was handfome, and had a moft engaging #/ infini cr^ufculusJ* 
mien and addrefs. Heis thus defcriBea by 

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noH poffidMs oBknuMl Uiigratefiil countty, thou ihalt not pofieis mjr 
bones ! but be knew not what evils in the £afi would awake the re- 
membrance of his native fields. 

When Camoens arrived in India^ an* expedition was ready to fail to 
revei^ the king of Cochin on the kin^ of Pimenta. Without any reft 
on Ihore after his long voyage, he joined this armament^ and in th# 
conqueft of. the Alagada iflands^ difpiaycd his ufual bravery. But his 
modefty, perhaps, is his greateft praife. In. a fonnet he mentions thi!) 
expedition ; We went to puniih the king of Pimenta, fays he, ^M^^ 
cideowsbemy and we fitcceeded well. When it is confidercd that the Poet 
bore no inconfiderable iharc in the vidory, no ode can conclude more 
elegantly,, more happily than this. 

In the year following, he attended Manuel de Vafconcello in an expe- 
dition to die Red Sea. Here, fays Faria, as Camoens had no ufe for hif 
fword, he employed his pen. Nor was his aftivity confined in the fleet 
or camp. He vifited Mount Felix, and the adjacent inhofpitable regions 
of Africa, which he fo ftrongly pidures in the Lufiad, and in one of his 
little pieces, where he laments the abfence of his mifirefs. 

When he returned to Goa, he enjoyed a tranquility which enabled him 
to beftow his attention on his Epic Poem. But this ferenity was inter- 
rupted, perhaps by his own imprudence. He wrote fome fatyrs which 
gave offence, and, by order of the viceroy, Francifco Barreto, he was- 
banilhed to China. 

Men of poor abilities are more confcious of their embarralfment and 
errors than is commonly believed. When men of this kind are in 
power, they affeft great folemnity ; and every expreffion of the moit 
diftant tendency to kflen their dignity, is held as the greateft of crimes. 
Confcious alfo how feverely the man of genius can hurt their intereft, 
they bear an inftin^live antipathy againft him, are uneafy even in his 
company, and, on the flighted pretence, are happy to drive him from 
them. Camoens was thus fituated at Goa ; and never was there a fairer 
field for fatyr than the rulers of India at this time afforded. Yet, what- 
ever efl:eem the prudence of Camoens may lofe in our idea, the nobl^- 
nefs of his difpofition will doubly gain. And, fo confcious was he of 
his real integrity and innocence, that in one of his fonnets he wiflies no- 
other revenge on Barreto, than that the cruelty of his exile ftiould ever 
be remembered*. 

* Caftera^ who always condemns Camoens, 
as if gailty of {acrilege» when the flighted 
reproach of a grandee appears, tells us, 
** that pofterity by no means enters into the 
** refentment of our poec ; and that the Por- 
'^ tugoefe hiftorians make glorious mention 
*' ofBarreto, who was a man of true merit." 
The Portuguefe hiilorians, howeyei, knew 
not what true merit was. The brutal uncom- 

mercial wars of Sampayo are by them|nea« 
tionri as much more gk)riocM than the le£i 
bloody campaigns of a Nunio, which efta- 
blilhed commerce and empire. But the 
adioDs of Barreto ihall be called to witnefe 
for Camoens. 

We have already feen his ruinous treaty 
with 'Meale Can, which eqded In thedif-. 
grace of the Portuguefe arms. The king of 


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The accompUihments and manners of Camoem foon found him 
friends, though under the difgrace of baniftimenn He was appointed 
commiflary of the eftates of theDefunA-in^theifland of Macao, on the 
coaft of China. Here he continued his Luiiad; and here alfo, after 
five years retidence, he acquired a fortune, though fmail, yet equal to 
his wiihes* Don Conftantine de Braganza was now viceroy of India, 
and Camoens, defirous. to return to Goa, refigned his charge. In a fliip, 
freighted by hinifelf^ he fet fail, but was fliipwrecked in the gulph near 
the mouth of the river Mecon., in Cochin-China. All he had acquired 
was loft in the waves : his poems, which he held in one hand, while he 
faved himfelf with the other, were all he found himfelf poffeffed of^ 
when he flood friendlefs on the unknown Ihore. But the natives gave 
him a moft humane reception : this he has immortalifed in the pro- 
phetic fong in the tenth Lufiad^; and in the fevcnth he tells us, that 
iere he loft the wealth which fatisfied his wiflies : 

4gora da efperaufa ja adquirida, &c 

Now bleft with all the wealth fond hope could crave. 
Soon I beheld that wealth beneath the wave 
Forever loft ; ■ ■ 

My life, like Judah's heaven-doom'd king of yore. 
By miracle prolonged 

On the banks of the Mecon, he wrote his beautiful paraphrafe of the 
pfalm, where the Jews, in the fineft ftrain of poetry, are reprefentcd as 
hanging their harps on the willows by the rivers of Babylon, and weep- 
lAg their exile from their native country. Here Camoens continued 
fome time, till an opportunity offered to carry him to Goa. When he' 
arrived at that city, Don Conflantine de Braganza^, whofe chara^eriftic 
was politenefs, admitted hiifl into intimate friendfhip, and CanK>ens was 

Cinde defired Barreto's aflxftance to crnih a 
neighbouring prince, who had invaded his 
dominioas. Barreto went himfelf to -relieve 
him ; but having dif agreed about the re- 
ward he required, (for the king had made 
peace with his enemy) he burned Tata, the 
royal city, killed above 8000 of the people 
became to proted; for eight days he deftroyed 
every thing on the banks of the Indus, and 
loaded his v^Iels, fays Faria, with the 
richeft bootv hitherto taken in India. The 
war with nydal Can, kindled by Barreto's 
treachery, continued. The city of Pabol 
was deftroyed by the viceroy^ who, foon after, 
at the head of 1 7,000 men, defeated Hydal 
Can^s army of ao,ooo. Horrid defolation 
followed diefe victories, aiid Hydal Can 

continacd the implacableenemy of Portugal 
while he lived. Such was Barieto, the man 
who exiled Camoens ! 

• Having named the Mecon : 

Efie recebera flacldo^ e brando^ 

No feu Tiga^o Cafito, quemoJbadoy &c. 

Literally thus : " On his gentle hofpitable 
bofom (fie brando peeticej (haU he receive 
the fong, wet from, woeful unhappy fhip- 
wieck, efcaped from deftroying icroodls, 
from ravenous dangers, the effeft of the 
unjufi fentence upon him, whofe lyre (hall 
be more renowned than enriched**' When 
Camoens was commiflary, he vilited the 
iilands of Tcmatc, Timor,'&c. defcribcd in 


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Irappy till Count Redondo afllimed the government. Thofc who had 
formerly procured the banifliment of the fatyrift, were filent while Con- 
iiantihe was in power ; but now they exerted all their arts againft him* 
Redondo, when he entered on office, pretended to be the friend of Ca- 
moens; yet, with all that unfeeling indifference with which he planned 
his mofl: horrible witticifm on the Zamorim, he fuifFercd the innocent 
man to be. thcown into the common prifon. After all the delay of bring- 
ing witnelfes, Camoens, in a public trial, fully refuted every accufation 
of his condud:, while commiffary of Macao, and his enemies were loaded 
with ignominy and reproach. But Camoens had fome creditors ; and 
thefe detained him in prifon a confiderable time, till the gentlemen of 
Goa began ta be afliamcd,. that a^ n»an of his fingulap merit ihould* expe- 
rience fuch treatment among them.^ He was fct at liberty ; and again 
he afiumed the profeffion of arms, and received the allowance of a gen- 
tleman volunteer, a charafter at that time common in Portuguefe India. 
Soon after, Pedro Barreto, appointed governor of the fwt at Sofala, by 
high promifes, allured the poet to attend him thither.. The governor 
of a diflant fort, in a barbarous country, Ihares, in fome meafure, the 
fate of an exile. Yet, though the only motive of Barreto was, in this 
unpleafant fituation, to retain the converfation of Camoens at his table, 
it was his leall care, to render the life of his gueft agreeable. Chagrined 
with his treatment, and a confiderable time having elapfed in vain de- 
pendence upon Barreto, Camoens refolvcd to return to his native coun- 
try. A ihip, on the homeward voyage, at this time touched at Sofala,, 
and feveral gentlemen * who were on board, were delirous that Camoens 
ihould accompany them. But this tire governor ungeneroufly endea-. 
voured to prevent, and charged him with a debt for board. Anthony 
de Cabral, however, and Hcftor de Sylveyra, paid the demand ; and Ca- 
moens, fays Faria,. and the honour of Barreto, were fold together. 

After an abfence of fixteen years, Camoens, in 1569, returned to 
Liibon, unhappy even in his arrival, for the peflilence then raged in! 
that city, and prevented his publication for three years. At lafl, in 
1572, he printed his Luiiad, which, in the opening of the firft book, in 
a mofl elegant turn of compliment, he addreffed to his prince^ king 
Sebaftian, then in his eighteenth year. The king, fays the French 
trJnflator,, was fo pleafed with his merit, that he gave the Author a pen- 
lion of 4000 reals, on condition that he Ihould refide at court. But this 
falary, fays the fame writer, was= withdrawn by cardinal Henry, who 
fucceeded to the crown of Portugal, ' lofl by Sebaftian at the battle of 

II According to the Portugiiefe Life of lyard voyage, wrote annotatiom upon the 

Cainoensy prefixed to Gedron'$» the beft Lofiad, ander the eye of its author. Buc 

edition of his works. Diego de Couto, the thefe unhappily have never appeared i^ 

hiilorian^ one of the .company in this hoBkt*, public. 


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But this ftory of the penfion is very doubtful; Cowea^ and other 
cotempotary authors, do not mention it, though fome i«ce writers hzvt 
given gredit to it. If Camoens, however, had a penfion, it is highly 
jprobable that Henry deprived him of it. While Sebaftian was devoted 
to the chace, his grand unele, the cardinal, prcfidcd at the council board, 
«d4 Camoens, in his addrefs to the king, which clofes the Luiiad, advifes 
him to exclude the clergy from ftate affairs. It was eafy to fee that the 
cardinal was here intended. And Henry, befides^ was one of thofe 
ftatefmen who can perceive no beneik reiulting to the public from ele- 
gant literature* But it ought alfo to be added in completion of his 
<har:a<fter, that under the narrow views and weak hands of this Henry, 
the kingdom of Portugal fell into utter ruin ; and on his death, 
which clofed a ihort inglorious reign, the crown of Lifbon, after a faint 
ilruggle, was annexed to that of Madrid. Such was the degeneracy 
^ pf the Portqguefe, a degeneracy lamented in vain by Camoens, and 
whole obfervation of it was imputed to him as a crime. 

Though th^ great X patron of one fpecics of literature, a fpectes the 
^^everfe of that qI Camoens, certain it is, that the author <^ the Lufiad' 

X Cardinal Henry^s patronage of learning 
mud Itarned men is mentioned with cerdisQ 
«6eem by the Portuguefe writers. Happily 
they alfo tell us what that learning was. 
Is was to him the Romifh Friars of fine Eaft 
tranfmitted their childish forgeries of in* 
faiptions and miracles (for fonu of *u:kuh, 
^ the noti OH /« 47 3«^ l^ correfponded 
with them, dire£ied their labours^ and re- 
ceived the firil accounts of their foccefs. 
'Under his patronage it was difcovered, that 
St. Thomas ordered the Indians to wor- 
ship the Crofs ; and that the Mootifli tra- 
dition of Perimal, (who, having embraced 
Mohamme4^fin, divided his kingdom among 
his officers, whom he rendered tributary to 
the Zamoiim,) was a malicious mifrepre- 
Jentation $ *for that Perimal, liaving turned 
ChrifHan, refiened his kingdom, and became 
a moiik. Sudi was the learning patronifed 
by Henry, who was alfo a zealous patron of 
die Inquiddoa at Liibon, and the Founder 
of the inquifitioa at Goa, to which place he 
icnt a whole ^paratus of holy fathers-to fup- 
prefs the Jews and reduce the native Chril- 
tians to the See of Rome. Nor muft the 
treatment experienced by Buchanan at Lif- 
^n be here omitted, as it affords a con vindng 
proof, that the fine genius of Camoens was 
tlie true fource of his nusfbrtanes. JohnrlU. 
•ciameft to promote the coltiviitioa of jpolils. 

literature among his fal]je&s> enfi;aged Bu- 
chanan, the moft elegant Latiniit, perhaps 
of modem times, to teach philofophv and 
the helhi leHrei at LiAon. But the dcfign 
of die monarch was foon fruftrated by the 
cardinal Henry and the deigv. Buchanan wai 
committed to prifon, becanle it was alledged 
he had eaten fleih in Lent ; and becanfe, ia 
his eally yonth, at St. Andrew's in Scotland, 
he had written a fatyr againil the Fraacif-i 
cans; for which, however, ere he would 
venture to Li/bon, John had promiied ab/b- 
lute indemnity. John, with moch diffi- 
colty, procured his releafe from a loathfome 
jail, but could not effed his reftoration as 
a teacher* He could only change his prifon ; 
lor Buchanan was fent to a monafteij, to be 
inftru&td by thg mofth, tHe men or letters 
patronifed by Henry. Theiib are thus cha- 
ra£berifed by their pupil Buchanaa,-*->w^ «p» 
bumanis, nee malisy fed otnnit religionis 
ignarif^ ^ Not uncivilized, not flagitious, 
biit i^rant of every religion." A U^cal 
negative compUment, folh>wed by a charge 
of grofs baroariAn. In this confinement^ 
Buduman wrote his elegant verfion of the 
pfalms. Camoens, about the fame time, 
Ailed for India. The ble£bd e^eds of the 
fpiris which perfecated fuch men, are well 
caprefled in the praverb, A Spamardrftript 
9fJlMi mrtuei^ m^ku go^d Porfuguefe. 


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wts Utterlf neglefted by Henry, tmdcr nvliofe ingloridus reign he died 
in nU ihe niiftry ^ poverty. By fomc it is (zii Kc died in an aims-houfe. 
It appears, however, that he had not even the certainty of fuWiftence 
which th^(k h^fes pMvide* H^ hi4 a blai^k fervant, who had grown 
old wkb htm, mvd who hftd long exper ienoed his tnaftar's humanity. 
Thii grateful Indian, a MtiYe of Jaya, who, according to fame writo-s, 
iaved his mtfter's life in the unhappy ihipwreck where he loft his efie&s^ 
bcigned in the ftreets of I^lboo for t;he only man in Portugal on whon» 
Gqq had bellowed thofe talents, which have a tendency to orcSt the 
ipirit of a downward age. To the eye of a careful obferver, the fate of 
Ctrnioens throws great light 6n that of his country, and will appear 
ftf iftly conne^d with it. The £uiie igaoracce, the fame degenerated 
^irit, which fui&rdd Camocns to depend on his ihare of the alms begged ' 
in the ftreei9 by his old hoary fervaot, the fame fpirit which cauibd this^ 
iiwk the kingdom of Portiagal into the moft abjoft rafiaUage ever expe- 
rienced by a conquered natioiu Whik the grandees of Portugal were 
Uiad to tiie ruiii which impended over them, Camocns bchdd it with a 
pungency of grief which haAened his exit. In one of hSa letters he has 
theie remaiikable words, *^ Mm fim mxMhr^ a vida, e vivram iodos que fug 
^iifmia a miuho patria, ice" *^ I am cadhi^ the oonrfe of my life, the 
work! will witnefs how I have loved my country^ I have returned, not 
only to die in her bofom, but to die with her/* In another letter, written 
a little before his death, he thus, yet with dignity, complains, << Who 
has feen, on fo fmaU a theatre as my poor bed, fuch a rcprefcntation of 
the difappointments of fortuned And I, as if fhe could not herfclf 
fubdue me, I have yielded and become of her party ; for it were wild 
audacity to hope to furmount fuch accumulated evils.*' 

In this unhappy fituation, in 157-9, in his fixty^ccond year, the year 
after the fatal defeat of Don Sebaftian, died Luis de Camoens, the greateft 
literarjr genins ever produced by Portugal ; in isnartial courage, and fpirit 
of hoaour, notiiing inferior to her greatdft heroes. And in a manner 
iuitable to tiit poverty in which he died was "he buried* Soon after, 
however^ many epitaphs honoured his memory ; the greatne& of his 
merit was univerfally confeffed, and his Lufiad was tranflatcd into various 
languages*. Nor ought it to be on»itted, that-tbe man So mifcrably 
a^kdbed by the weak king Henry, was «ameftlyen<|uired after by Philip 

^ AcoDrdififi; to Gedsoa, a jecaad ^itioo f aft Im ^sriion i^jffx tlie p^Hic u an on* 

of the Lufiad umascd in the faiae y^r ginal. LeP. Nkcraa iay«, dicre were t^v» 

with the firA. There are two italiaa und pttMor (Atin UsmAsdoiif. It is tranflated 

ibur^aiulh traaflaaons of it. An hundNKl ^0 jnto Hebrew^ wldi givat elc^^ance and 

invars hejbie CaOem's verfien, it appeared in fpirit bj one lmmm% a learned i»d inge* 

fjcnch. Thomas de Faria, bifiiop of Taija mo«s Jew, author of ftverat foem^ in that 

in i^frica, traaikted it into tatia» and JAii«age« and who, abovt thuty years a£<v 

^frinted it without either his own or the name die4 in the Holy Wad* 

of Camoens: a meani but vain» attca>pt ip 

<c c 


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of Spain, when he aflumed the crown ot Liibon. When Philip heard 
that Camoens was dead^ both his words and his countenance exprefled 
his difappointmeRt amd grief. 

From the whole tenor of his life^ and from that fpirit which glowf 
throughout the Luiiad^ it evidently appears that the coura^ and man- 
ners of Camoens flowed from true greatnefs and dignity of foul. Tho*^ 
his poiifhed converfation * was often courted by the great, he appears fo 
diflant from fervility, that his imprudence in this refpcft is by fome 
highly blamed. Yet the inftances of it by no means deferve that 
fcverity of cenfure with which fome writers have condemned him. Un- 
confcious of the feelings of a Camoens, they knew not that a carelefTneft 
in fecuring the fmiles of fortune, and an open honefly of indignation, 
are almofl infeparable from the enthufiafm of fine imagination. The 
truth is, the man poflefled of true genius feels his greateft happinefs in 
the purfuits and excurfions of the mind, and therefore makes an eftimate 
of things, very different from that of him whofe unremitting attention* 
is devoted to his external intereft.. The profufion of Camoens is alfo 
cenfured. Had he diffipated the wealthy he acquired at Macao, his pro-^ 
fufion indeed had been criminal ; but it does not appear that he ever en- 
joyed any other opportunity of acquiring^ independence. But Camoens^ 
was unfortunate, and the unfortunate man is viewed . 

■ through the dim Ihade his fate cafts o'tr him t 

A ihade that fpreads its evening darknefe o'er 
His brighteil virtues, while it Ihews his foibles. 
Croudiog and obvious as. the midnight ftars,^ 
Which in the funfliine of profperity 
Never Imd been dcfcried 

Yet,, after the ftrideft difcuffion, when all the caufcs are weighed toge^- 
ther, the misfortunes of Camoens will appear the fault and difgrace of 
bis ^e and country, and not of the man. His talents would have fe- 
cured him an apartment in the palace of Auguftus, but fuch talents are 

* Camoens has not efeajped Ae fate of Ferma B alar do mia^ &c. 
other eminent witi. Thetr ignorant ad* was the paflage iniiliined ; and that, on the 
mifers contrive anecdotes of their humour, potter's complaint, the injured poet replied, 
which in reality difgrace them. Camoens, ** I have only broken a few bafe pots, of 
it is. &id, one day heard a potter £nging ** thine, not worth a groat ; but thou haft 
fome of his verfes in a miferabte mangled ** murdered a fine flanza of mine, worth a 
manner, and, by way of retaliation,' brolie ♦"mark of gold." Hut both thefe fillv tales 
H parcel of his earAen-waJC. " Friend^ faid are borrowed from Plntafch's life of Aacefi- 
'' he, you* deftroy my verfe», and I deftroy laus, where die fame dull humour is told of 
^* your goods/' The fame foolifli ftory is Philoxenus. *« He heard fome brick- 
told of Ariote ; nay, we are even informed, makers miftune one of his fongs, and in 
that Rinaldo't fpeech to his horfe, in the return he deftroyed a number of thei» 
fiiftbook» bricka.'' 

a curie 

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a curfe to their pofleflbr in an illiterate nation. In a beautiful digreffive 
exclamation^ at the end of the fifth Lufiad^ he gives us a ftriking view 
of the ncgleft which he experienced. Having mentioned how the 
greatcft heroes of antiquity revered and cheriihed the Mufe, he thus 
charaderifes the nobility of his own age and country : 

Alas ! on Tago's haplefs fliores alone 

The Mufe is flighted^ and her charms unkiu>wn. 

For thisj no Virgil here attunes the lyre. 

No Homer here awakes the hero's fire. 

Unheard, in vain their native poet fings. 

And cold negleft weighs down the Mufe's wings. 

And what particularly feems to have touched him— — 

Even he whofe veins the blood of Gama warms * 
Walks by, unconfcious of the Mufe's charms : 

* The poHtical evils impending over his 
country, which Cunoens aiunoft alone fore- 
saw, gave not, in their fulfilment, a ftronger 
proorof his fuperior abilities, than his pro* 
phecy of Don f randfco de Gaqia— 

Nem as Filhas do f^o, que dehcajm ] 
As teHas douro fino^ i que •cantafftm. 

JVfl Njmpb of Tagus fi?all hanje ber golden 
embroidend web^ and fing of bim — affords 
of his knowledge of men. Camoens was 
iuperior to a mean refentment ; he moft on- 
doobtedly perceived that ignorance, unman- 
ly arrogance, and infignificance of abilities, 
which, 1 8, and 38 years after his deadi, 
difgraced the two viceroyalties of his hero's 
grandfon. JnfUce to the memory of Ca- 
itaoens, idid even fio the caufe of polite lite- 
rature itfelf, requires fome ihort account of 
this nobleman, who appears to have treated 
cur Author with the moft mortifying ne- 
^ed. He was named Don Frandico de 
Gama, Count de Vidiguevra. Fa£k9 will 
l)eft give his charader: He had not one 
idea, that the elegant writer who immor- 
laU6d his anceftor nad the leaft title to liis 
countenance. Several yean after the death 
of Camoens, he was made viceroy of India, 
bjr the king of Spain. Here he carried 
himfelf wiui fuch ftate, %s Faria, that 
he was hated by all men. When he entered 
apon his government, he beilowed vftrf 
place in his gift upon his parafites, who pub- 
iickly fold them to the beffc bidders. And 
though CmmalC| the pirate, who had dif<* 

gracefully defeated Don Luis de Gama, the 
viceroy's brother, had funenderftd, upon the 
(ble condition «f life, to the brave Furtado, 
Connale, his nephew Cinale, and 40 Moors 
of rank, were brought to Goa. But the 
Moors were no fooner landed,' than the kw- 
lefs rabble tore them in |neces, andCunnale 
and bis nephew were publickly beheaded, by 
' order -of the viceroy. And thus, fays Faria, 
government and the rabble went hand in 
hand in murder and the breach of faith. 
Over the prindpal gate of Goa flood a 
marble ilatue of Vafco deGama. This, ia 
hatred of the grandfon, the enraged inhabi- 
tants broke down, in the nieht, and in the 
morning the quarters were found gibbeted 
in the vosA public parts of the dty. And 
thus the man who ^fpifed the wreath with 
which Camoens crowned his grandfather* 
brought that grandfsither^s effidei to the 
deepeft infult which can be ottered to the 
memory of the deceafed. Nor were his own 
effigies happier. On his recal to Europe, 
the firH objea that ftrucfc him, when he 
went on board the Ihip appointed to carry 
him, was a figure hangine by the neck at 
the yard arm, exafily like himfelf in feature 
and habit. He aiked what it meant ; and 
was refolutely anfwered, // nfreftnts Ton, 
and tbefe are tbe men nubo bunf it uf. Nor 
mnft another infult be omitted. After 
being. a few' days at fea, he was neoeffitated 
to return to the port from whence he had 
ikiled, for freih provifions, for all his live- 
flock, it was foundi was poiibned. After 
cc 2 W« 

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For hiiu no Mufe fhall leave her golden IdOitl^ 
No {)alm ihall blofibm, and no wreath ihall btootn.^ 
Yet fhtdl my labours and my cares be paid 
By fame immortal— *•-*- 

In fuch an age, and among fuch barbarous nobility, what but wretchedl 
negleft cotild be the fate of a Camoens I Aft^ all^ however, if he 
was imprudent on his fitft fipptdratic^ at the eoutt of Joh* III. if the- 
honefty of his indignation led him into great imprudence^ as certainly it 
did, when at Goa he fatyrifed the viceroy and the firft Goths in power ; 
yet let it alfo be remembered, that " The gifts of iihagination bring 
^« the heavieft Ufk Upon the Vigllatl^e of teafoftj And to bear thofe 
** faculties with unerring reditude or invariable propriety, requires a 
^ degree of firmnefs ^ttd ftf cool attention, which doth tot always at- 
*^ tend the higher gifts of the mind. Yet difficult -as nature herfelf 
'* feems to have rendered the taik of regularity to genius, it is the fu- 
" preme confolation of duUnefs and of foUy to point with Gothic tri* 
** umpk to thofe CKceffes which are the overflowings of faculties they 
^ never er.joye<it. I'erfedrly unconfcious that they are indebted to their 
'• ftupidity fdr tht confiftency of thek conduft, they plume themfelves 
•^ on a ithagitt^rv vlrttie^ which has it origin in what is teaUy their dif- 
** grace.f«*Let luch, if fuch dare approach the flirine of Camoens,. 
*' withdraw t6 a refpeftful diftance i and fhould they behold the ruins^ 
** 6{ genUls> or the wcaknefs of an exalted mind, let them be taught 
'* to- lament^ th* natiire has left the nobleft of her works imperfeft *.^' 
And Poetry is not only the nobleft, but alfo not the leafk ufeful^ if 
civiKzation 6f manners be of advantage to mankimL No moral tnith 
may be rtore certainly denwftftratedy than that a Virgil or a Milton are 
not otily the firft ornaments 6f St ftate; but alfo of the firft coftfequenoe^ 
if the laft i^efinement of the mental powers be of importance.^ Strange* 
as this might appear to a ;^ BUrkSgh Ot ti Locke^, it is philofophicall)^ 

lus retam to Enrope^he lAd sdl his iatereft 
to be rasilatediii Indian w2iftdi» ki hit oU 
days, after cwarty years roUdtadoB at ^he 
court of Madrid, he at laft obtained. Hit 
lecond governmentj^howevery is imifrped in 
mach obfcBfity,. an^ is diftii^giiiftiea i^ ne 
important adlion or eveift. 

* This pafiage in inverted comBifts is dted^. 
t^ith the alteration of the naffie only, from 
Dr. Langhome's aocouat of the life #rf> 
WiUiara Collins. 

{ Burleigh, though an able politid»f. 
and deep in ftate intrigue^ had Ao ide^, that 
to introduce polite literature into die veroa- 
c«lat tongue, was of any benefit to a nalkm $ 
though her temacular iaefatufe ^a9 the 

]gKMy of RoflK whta at the hteight of an*- 
put, and <ho«gh empilv fell with its de*> 
den£o>i* Spenfer,^ the man who' grtat^ 
COndaOed to refine the £nglidi Mtifes, waa< 
by Burleij^h elleexaed a baUad^fnaker, im*- 
worthy of regard. Yet the BngliA polite 
lioerattti^,. to l^reatly indebted to Spcofeiv 
is aC tkis day,- tn the efteeAi whieh it cora^^ 
jnands abroad, of more real (brvioe to Etig*^ 
]aad,.than all Che re|Hitation or intHgass of 
fidrleigh; And ten thouiand Borieighs^ ao- 
cofdiag tt> Sik* W. Tea^e, are bran kit- 
one €penfer. Ten thoul^d are bom, faya 
Sir Winiam, with abyities reqmfite to ibrm 
a glreat Staitfefiaali, for one who is bttfn -With 
tilt talents i>T genius of. « gteat Poet^ 
-^ Locke'a 

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accounted for by Bacon ; nor b Locke's opinion eithtr inejcplicaWc or 
irrefutable. The great genius of A/iftotle, and that of his great rt- 

Locke'i Hem ^pdetrjr are actotrntecl &r 
iBODeihort icatenoe $ Hb cifiwr v<nFHi.iro 
ABovT TUB MATTta. Aa cxctbCI from 
Jus coiM^ndcate «kh Mff»: Motfoaax^ aad 
a dtatioo from one of hir tissBCtfe8». (kail 
^ffaonftrgtft the triiih of this afleitioa. 

Molyntxxx vviitfts to Lockp ; 

^ Mr. Ouftrchill fttvoaml me mA do 

rfeiem of Sir R. Blackmoiv's K. Arthiir. 
Iiad read Pr. Artfurt- bdbrey and read it 
with adoiiratioiH whkh is not at all leflSened 
bf diis fecond piece, jfff xtur Englifb potts 
(exc^ Milton) b^tv^^een'mntbtdUi'maketp 
in t$mfmrtfin H htm. XJpdn the pwblicadoii 
«f hn Mt poem, I intimated to him, throagh, 
idr. Clwrdii]l*s hands, how excellently I 
tboaght ihe might perform a philofbphic 
poeoi) from many totxches he gave in hi» 
n. Aitfaari Mrticularly from Mopas's tog» 
Aad I perceive by his preface to X. Afthur 
iie has 4ad the like intimsttions from others, 
hxA reje6b them, at being an enemy to all 
phiioAphk hypothefer.** 

Mr. locka aafiven : . 

** I fhall, when I fee Sir IL Blackmort^ 
dxfcourle him as you de£re. There is, I ^^nxtl 
pleafure find,, a firange harmony througkimi, 
oetween your thoughts and mine." 

Mdyneux replies : 

'^ Iperceive yoa are ib happy at to be ao* 
qnainted with Sir Ric|i. Blackrapre; he 19 
an extraordinsry perfon, fmd I admire hit 
two prefaces as much as I do any parts of 
lus books: The firft, wherein he expofea 
^' the licentiournefsr and immorality of oar 
*' late poetry,'' is inconaparable ; and the 
jEecond« wherein he profecates the laaie fab«- 
led, and delivers his thoughts concerning 
hypotheies, is no \t£% jadiaous ; and I am 
wholly of his opinion relating to the latter^ 
However, the hifiory and pbeilomena of 
nature we may renture at ;. and this is what 
I propofe to be the fiibjed of a phiiofophic 
poem. Sir R. Blackmore has exqmiito 
taoches. of this kind,, difperfed in many 
]f laces of his books ; (to pafs over Mopas's 
fong) I'll indance one pardcfdar in the moft 

proibmid ibecdateis of Mr. Newtoa's iiil- 
lefcabf , tiias cnrioafly Canehad ia ajag. 
ArthBTr Book IX. p. 243. 

The coaftdlationi flujic «t his cammaod. 
Be form'dthrir ndiant orbs, and with fcis bind 
He welgh'd, and put them <^ with fuch a force 
M% nislit )neftnre an everUftin; tsoarfe*. 

^ I doubt not but Sir R. Bladcmoia, in- 
thefe liars, had a regard to the prafiortioii- 
moat af tiw projeflife motion of the n^it 
€intriffta^ dhat keqis the plaaets intbtiB 
floatlmird coar&s. 

^ IhavebyiaafaoMofafennitians, amde 
by a >i^cioat fnend of mine, aa botk of Sir . 
R. Bkckmare'a poema. If they auty lie 
any ways acceptable so Sir R. I&all ijaai 
them ID yau." 

Mr. Locke again replies : 

^Tbos^S^R. B'svefaiia poetry be what 
every bo<^ muft allow him to hane^ an e^- 
tnordmoiy taknt in ; and thoogh,- with yoa, 
I exceedingly valaed his firft jwefiicc, jet I 
auift own to yo«, there was aothiagl^t I 
fo mach admired him for, a»fbr what he 
%8 of hypotheies in his laft. It feems to 
me fo rjgnt, and is yet ib mnch out «rf the 
way of the ordintiy writers, aad pra^kion- 
ers in that £icttlty, that k (hews as great a 
fleength and penetratiao of jadgment ms his 
fMtry has fhrwn pghls of fancy. *^ 

As the beft comment en this, let aa €«- 
trafib ffxnn Lookers Eifayon Education folly 
caplain his ideas. 

♦♦ if he have a poetic vein, tis to me the 
^hwngeft thing in the world Aat the fathct 
ihottld defire or fuffer it to be cheriflied cr 
imprond. Metihinks the parents (honld 
labour to have it ^fled and fupprefied a» 
much as may be ; and I know not what rea* 
fan a fether can have to wifli his fen a poet,, 
who does art defire to have him bid defiance 
to all othercallin&s or bufioefs ; whicti is nor 
yet the worft of the cafe 5 for if he prows a 
fucccfsfol rhymer, and gets once- 4he repn- 
tation of a wit, I dcfirc it may be confider- 
cd, what company and places he is like to 
iJDend his time in, nay, and cftate too ; for 
it is very feldom feen that any one difcovcrs 
skines of gold or filver in Pamaifus. 'Tie 

** Thdc lines, hcfwcver^arc a dull wretched paia|hxaft •£ A19B p^ eC th« PAUns. 


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femblcr. Sir Francis Bacon^ faw deeper into the true fpirit of poetry and 
the human aflfeftioHs than-a Burleigh* In ancient Greece, the works of 

« pleafsmt air, but barren foil, and there 
mte very few inftances of thofe who have 
added to their Patrimony by any thing they 
have reaped from thence. Poetry and 
Gaming, which ufually go together, are 
alike in this' too, that they feldom bring 
any advantage bot to thofe who have no- 
thing dfe to live on. Men of eftates almoft 
confUntly go away lofers ; and 'tis well if 
- they efcape at a cheaper rate, than xhAi 
whole e&ttes, or the greateft part of them. 
If therefore yoo wocSd not nave yonr fi)n 
the fiddle to every jovial company^ without 
whom the fparks could not relifh dieir wine» 
nor know how to fpend an afternoon idly ; 
if you would not have him wafte his time 
and eilate to divert others, and contemn 
Che dirty acres left him by his anoeftors, I 
<lo not think you willmuch care he ihould 
be a poet.** 

'TUs ignorance of poetry is even worie 
than the Dutch idea of it. But this, and 
bis opinion of Blackmofe, fiillv prove, that 
Locke, however great in other refpe6b, 
knew no difference between a Shakefpeaiv, 
that unequalled philofopher of the pamons, 
and the dulleft Grub-ilreet plodder; be- 
tween a Milton and the tavern rhymers of 
the days of the feoond Charles. But Milton's 
knowledge of the affed^ions difcovered in 
the cttltivatiott of the Mufes an nfe of the 
firft importance* A talle formed by the 
.^reat poetry, he efteems as the ultimate re- 
Inement or the underftanding. << This (fays 
he, in his Tra£Ute on the Education of 
Youth) would make them foon perceive, 
what defpicable creatures our common rhy- 
mers and play writers be ; and ihew them 
what reli^us, what elorious and magnifi- 
cent ufe might be made of poetry, both in 
divine and human things. From hence> 
smd not till now, will be the right feafon of 
forming them to be able writers and com- 
pofers m every excellent matter . . . whether 
they be to fpeak in parliament or council, 
honour and attention would be waiting on 
their lips. There would then alio appear 
in pulpits other vifages, other geftures, and 
ftuff othewife wrought, than what we now 
iit under"—— Milton evidently alludes to 
the general dulnefs of the furious fe^aries 
9f his own time. I'he furious bigots of 
every (tSL have teen as remarkalle for 

their inelegance as for their rage. And 
. the Cttltivaticm of rolite literature has ever 
been found the beft preventive of elooray 
enthufiafin, and migious intollerance. 
In Milton, and every great poet, the 
poet and fublime philofopher are united* 
though Milton was perhaps the only man 
of his age, who perceived this umon or 
famenefs of chancer. Lord Clarendon 
feems to have confidered poetry merely as 
puerile iing-fong. Wallet, he izySf addi6t- 
ed himfelf to poetry at thirty, the timeivhen 
others leave it off. Nor was Charles 1. lefs 
unhappy in his eitimate of it. In the dedi- 
cation of Sir John Denham's works to 
Charles 11. we have this remarkable paf- 
iage : *' One morning, waiting upon him 
** (Charles I.) at Caufbam^ fmiling upon ffle» 
'* he faid he could tell me fome news of my- 
'^ felf, which was that he had feen fome 
^^ verfes of mine the evening before, and 
^* aiking me when I made them, I tdd him 
'* two or three years finoe ; he was pleafed 
** to fay, that having never feen them be- 
'^ fore, he was afraid I had written them 
*< fince my return into England, and though 
" he liked them well, he would advUe me 
** to write no more, alledging, that when 
** men are young, and have littU elfe to do^ 
*• they mignt vent the overflowings of their 
^* fancy that way ; but when they were 
** thought fit for more ferious employments, 
'< if they (till pcrfifted in that courTe, it 
** would look as if they minded not the way 
<« to any better.** Yet this monarch, who 
could perceive noddng but idle puerility in 
poetry, was the zealous patron of architec- 
ture, fculpture, and painting ; and his fa- 
vourite, the dcdce of Buckingham, laid out 
the enormous fum of 400,000 1. on paint- 
ings and curiofities. But had Charles's 
bounty given a Shakeipeare or a Milton to 
the public, he would have done his king- 
doms infinitely more fervice than if he had 
imported into England all the pictures and 
- all the antiques in the world. 

The reader who is defirous to Tee a phi- 
lofophical chara^er of the natural and ac^ 
quired qualifications neceflary to form a 
great poet, will find it delineated, in a maf* 
terly manner, in Raffelas, prince of Abyifi- 
nia, an Eaftem tale^ by Pr. Johnfon. 


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Homer were called the leflbn or phiiofophy of kings ; and Bacon dc- 
icribes the effeds of poetry in the moft exalted terms. What is defi- 
. cient of perfedion in hiftory and nature^ poetry fupplies ; it thus erefts 
the mind, and confers magnanimity^ morality, and delight ; ^^ and there- 
fore, fays he, it was ever thought to have fome participation of divine- 
nefe ♦•" The love of poetry is fo natural to the ftronger affeftions, that 
the moft barbarous nations delight in it. And always it is found, that 
as the rude war fong and eulogy of the dead hero refine, the manners of 
the age refine alfo. The hiftory of the ftages of poetry is the philofo- 
phical hiftory of manners ; the only hiftory in which, with certainty, we 
can behold the true charader of jp^ ages. True civilization, and a: 
humanifed tafte of the mental pleasures, are therefore fynonimous terms. 
And moft certain it is, where feeling and aflfedion refide in the breaft, 
thefe mufi be moft forcibly kindled and called into action by tha 
animated reprefentations, and living iSre, of the great poetry. Nor 
may Milton's evidence be rejefted, for though a poet* himfelf,. kis 
judgment is founded on nature* According to him, a true tafte for the 
great poetry gives a refinement and energy to all other ftudies, and 
is of the laft importance in farming the fenator and. the gentleman^ 
That the. poetry of Camoens merits this.kigh charadter, in a fin^ulap 
manner, he that reads it with tafte and attention muft owa : A Difter-- 
tation on it, however, is the duty of the Tranll^tor 

^ His high idea of poetry is tKas pEilofo- 
phicalty explained by the great Bacon : 

** So IiKewiie I finde, (bme particular 
wridngs of an elegant natiire» touching 
fome M the affettoos, as of mnfer, of com- 
fvft^ MpM ai*uerft accident s^ of tendemcfie 
of coantmasce, and other. But the poets 
and writers of hii^bries are the beft doctors 
of diis knowled^ ;. where w« £nd painted 
forth with the life, how aflefUons are kin- 
dled and incitedy and how pacified and j^- 
ftrained : ' and how againe contained from 
a6l and &rther degree : how they difclofe 
tfaemfelvesy how they worke« how they 
vary, how they crather and fortify, how 
they arc inwrappea one within another,, and 
how they doe fight and encounter one with 
another, and o£er the like particurarities ; 
amongH the which this lafl is of fpecial ufe 
in mwd and civile matters/' 

Here poetry is ranked with hiftory \ in 
the following its efTed oa the paOions is 

" The ufe of this fained Hiftory (Poetry) 
hath been to give fome fhadowe of fatis- 
£i6iion to the mind of man in thpfe points 
in which nature doth deny it : the world 

bebg m proportion inferior to the foul : 
By reafon whereof there, is agreeable to the 
ipirit of man a more ample greatnefle, a 
more exad goodnefle, and a more abfolute 
▼ariety than can be found in the nature of 
things. Therefore, becaufe the events of 
true hiftory have not that magnitude which' 
fatisfieth the' mind of man, roely fiiyneth 
a^s and events greata: and more heroically 
becaufe true hillory proponndeth the fnc- 
ceftes and iftues of aaiohs not fo agreeable 
to the merits of virtue and vice ; therefore 
Poeiy faynes them more juft in retribution, 
and more -according to revealed Providence^ 
becaufe true Hiftory reprefentetH anions and 
events more ordinarv and lefs interchanged ; 
therefore Poefy endueth them with more 
rareneile, and more unexpected and altema* 
tive variations. So then it appearetb that 
Poefy fcrveth and conferreth to magnani- 
mity, morality, and dele^tion.; and there- 
fore it was ever thought to have fome par- 
ticipation of divinenefle, becaufe it doth 
raifc and eredl the mind, by fubmitting the 
Ihcwes of things to the defircs of the mind ; 
whereas reafon doth humble and bow the 
mind unto the nature of things.^ 


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■ * >■ ■ I 11 ■ ■ ■■■■■!> Ill »»m ■■■ ^■^ »■ i.« 11 « ■ ^ I. ■■! i»<* 




VOLTAIRE, when he Wai iiv England, previous to the publica- 
tion of his Henriade, publiflied in * Englilh an Effay on the Epic 
Poetry of the European nations. In this he highly praifed and feverely 
attacked the Lufiad. Yet this crhkifm, though moft fuperikial and 

* la his FuMch ^itioiis eC thi« Eflky, be 
luis nubde wiom akefations* «t dtfoenc 
times, ia die aiticle of Cflmoena. The on- 
pnal B^liih, however, (hall be here cited, 
stnd the Fttnch iterations attended to^ they' 
occor. Nor is it improper to pfeaole, thac 
foaie di^ft curious ialikies wiU be detea*^ 
ed ; the grofs mifrepreientation of every ob- 
jedion refuted ; and demonftration broiMfht, 
that when Voluire wrote his En^lifh E&yK 
his knowledge of the Lufiad was entirely 
borrowed from a veiy flight acquaintance 
widi ihe baMj harlh, unpoetital verfioii df 
Fanlhaw. " 

" While TtMino, fevs Votodrc, was 
clearing awav the rubbim inluly, which 
barbarity and i^n6rance had heaped up for 
ten centuries, xn the way of the arts and 
Aiences, Camouens in Portugal llfeered a 
new courfe, and acquired a reputation which 
tafis (tin among his countrymen, who pay 
as much refpe£l to Ids memory, as the tng* 
liih to Milton. 

*^ He was a ftrong infiance of the irfe* 
filtible impulfe of aature, which determines 
a true .genius to follow die bent of his ta- 
lents, in tpight of all the obftacles which 
would check his courfe. 

" His infancy loft amidft iht idlenefs and 
k;noranQe of the court of Lifbon ; his youth 
(pent in romantic loves, or in the war a^ainft 
the Moors ; his loi\g voyages at fea, m hid 
riper years ; his misfortunes at court, the re- 
volutions of his country, none of all thefe 
could fqpprefs his genius. 

** Emanuel the lecond king of Portuj^al, 
having a mind to find a new way to the Eaft 
hkdkt by th^ Oceto, fentVelafco de Gama 

with a fleet in the year 1497, to that undeiu 
taking, wUdi bet^g new* was accouaied rafli 
and impiadicable, and which of courfe gain- 
ed him a .great reputation when it fucceejed. 

** Camouens ffailow'd Velafco de 6ama 
ki that dangetout voyage, led by ms frkodi- 
Jup to htm, and by a aohfe coriofity, whkh 
feldoa fails to be the charafter of men bom 
with a great imag^ation. 

<' He took his voyage for the fnbjefi of 
his poem ; he enjovM the feniible pleafure, 
which nobody had Known befiire him, to ce* 
iebrate his friend, and the things he was an 
eye-witnefs of. 

•• He vvrrote his Pbem, part on the Atlan- 
tic Sea, and partly on die Indian fliore. I 
Ought not to omit, that on a fhipwrack on 
die coafts of Malabar, he fwam a fhoie, 
holding-up his poem in one hand, v/hidk 
odierwife bad foieen perii^s Idl for ever. 

** Such a new fubjedt, msnag'd by an un* 
common genhis, ccmld not but produce a 
fort of Epic Poetry unheard of beforCt 
Inhere no bloody wan are fought, no heroes 
wounded in a dioufand different ways ; no 
woman enticed away, and the woild over* 
turned for her caufe $ no empire founded ; in 
fhort, nothing of what was deem*d before 
the only fubJeA of poetry, 

«* The Poet eondufls the Portuguefc fleet 
to the moudi of the Ganges, round the 
coafts of Africk. He takes nouce in the 
way, of maayAatioDS who live upon the 
African fhore. He interweaves artfully the 
hiftory of Portugal. The iimplicitv of his 
fubjeft, is rais'd by fome fidions of different 
kinds, which I think not improper to ac- 
quaint the Reader with. 


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erroneous^ has been generally eftecmed throughout Europe, as the true 
charaAer of that Poem. The great objedions upon which he condemns 
itjt are, an abfurd mixture of Chriftian and Pa^an mythology, and a want 
of unity in the aiflion and condud:. For the mixture ot mythology, a 
defence Ihali be offered^ and the wild exaggerations of Voltaire expofed. 
And an examen of the condudt of the Luiiad will clearly evince, that the 
Eneid itfelf is not more perfedt in that connection, which is requiiite to 
form One whole^ according to the ftridteft rules of Epic Unityt 

•< When the fleet in fidlmg in the fight of 
the Cape of Good Hope, called then the 
Cape of the Stomu> a formidable (hape ap- 
pears to them, walking in the depth of the 
lea; his head reaches to the doads, the 
floras, the winds, the thunders, and the 
lightnbgs hang about him ; hislarms are ex« 
tended over the waves. 'Tis the guardian 
of that foreign ocean nnplow'd before by 
any fliip. 1& complains of being oblig'd 
to fnbmit to fitte, and to the audacious un- 
dertaking of the Portuguefe, and foretelb 
them all the misfortunes which they muft un* 
dei|;o in the Indies. I believe, that fuch a 
fi&on would be thought noble and proper, 
in all ages, and in all nations. 

** There is another, which perhaps would 
have pleased the Italians as well as the Portu- 
guefe, but no other nation befides : It is the 
inchanted ifland, caU'd the Ifland of filifs, 
which the fleet finds in her way home, juft 
lifing from the fea, for their comfort and for 
their reward : Camooens deicribes that place, 
as Taflb did fome years after, hit ifland of 
Armida. Here a fupematural power, brings 
in all the beauties, and prefents all the plea- 
fures which naturecan afford, and which the 
heart may wifli for ; a Goddefs enamour*d 
with Velafco de Gama, carries him to the 
top of an hi^h mountain, from whence flie 
fliews him aiu the Idn^loms of the eardi, 
md foretells the fote of Portugal. 

" After Camouens hath given loofe to his 
fancy, in the lafcivious defcription of the 
pleafures which Gama and his crew enjoy'd 
in the ifland, he takes care to inform the 
Reader, that he ou^t to underfland by this 
fidion, nothing but the fatisfliAion which the 
virtuous man feels, and the glory which ac- 
crues to him by the pradice of virtue ; but the 
beftexcufe for fuch an invention, is, the charm- 
ing flik in which it u delivered (if we believe 
the Portuguefe) for the beauty of the elocution 
makes fometimes amends for the £uilts of 
the poets, as the cokwrxog of Rubens makes 

fome deieds in his figures pufi unregarded. 

** There is auotbtr kind of machinery 
continued throughout all the Poem, which 
nothing can excufe, in any country what- 
ever ; %• an nnjudicious mixture of tlieHea- 
then Gods with our Religion. Gama in a 
florm addrefles his prayers to Chrifl, but 'tis 
Venus who comes t$ his relief; the heroes are 
cfariflians^ and the poet heathen. The main 
defign which the Portuguefe are fupixM'd to 
have (next to promoting their tnufe) is to 
propagate Chnflianity; yet Jupiter, Bac- 
chus, and Venus, have in their hands all the 
management of the voyage. So incongru-i 
ous a machinery, cafts a t)lemifli upon the 
whole Poem ; yet fliews at the fame time, 
how prevailing are its beauties, fince the 
Portuguefe like it with all its faults. 

*< Camouens hath a great deal of true 
wit, and not a little fliare of falfe ; his ima- 

F 'nation hurries him into ereat abfurdities* 
remember, that after Veiafoo de Gama, 
hath related his adventures to the king of 
Melinda, now, fays he, O king, judge if 
Ulyfles, and ^neas, have traveU'd fo for, 
and undergone fo many hardfliips. As if 
that barbarous African was acquainted with 
Homer and Virgil. 

** His jpoem, in my opinion,, is full of 
numberleis faults and beauties, thick fown 
near one another ; and almoft in every page 
there is fomething to laugh at, and fome- 
thing to be delight^ with. Among his moft 
luckv thoughts, I mufl take notice of two, 
for tne likenefs which they bear to two moSL 
celebrated paflages of Waller, and Sir Joha 

^ Waller fay«, in his Epiflle to Zelinda ; 
Thy matchlefs form will credit bring. 
To all the wonders I can fiDg. 

« Camouens fays, in fpeaking of the 
voyages of the Argonautes, and of Ulyfles^ 
that the wMkrtakin^ of the Portuguefe fliall 
give credit to all thofe fables, in fuipuffing 

d d ^'Sir 

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D I S S £ R T A T 1 O Jf- 

The term Epopoeia is derived froib tht Greek lE^nr, difiotfr/e, and hehce 
the Epic, may be rendered the nartativc pochi. • In the full latitude of 
this definition, fome Italian ctftics have ctfn^ended, th« the ^pocms of 
Dante and Ariofto were Epic. But thefe tohfift of various dttiched 
Actions, which do not conftirute one whofe. In this manhehrTefeniachus 
and the Faerie Qucene arc ^Hb Epic proeihfr, A deftniti<)ft rtiore I'eftrid- 
ed, however, a definirion defcfriptive of the nobleft fpccieij df poetry, has 
been given by Ariftotle; and the greatcft critic^ have felfttf^ed him, in 

*' Sir John fienliam, In his Poeih on Coo- 
per's- Hill, fays 'to the Thames'; 

' O could T flow like thee, and make^Hy Rrnini, 
My ^reat example, a& it Is mv thette ; , 
Tho' deep, y^t clear, tho' senUe,. f c^ not dull. 
Strong without rage, without o'erflowiuc ^^^^ 

" Camcens "addreffes the I^tnphs cif Ta- 
jus m the Kke manner ; " O Nymphs, if 
ever I fdng of you, Infpire ine- now With 
iiew ahd*!lrong fa)^s ; let niy fti|6 flow like 
your leaves; let it lie Seep aiid cleir, as 
your waters, &c." 

8uch is the original crfticllin of Voltiire 
on the tiufiad. And nevdr, perhaps, was 
there fach a random reverie, foch a mafs of 
Ihifreprefentations and falfities as the whole 
of it exhibits. The ttioft excufeable parts 
of it are fuperlScial in the higheft degree. 
Both the poet and the hero are inllViamed 
by him. The name of the Ifefo has been 
eorre£tcd, that of 'Camouens rextiains Hill in 
Voltaire, the only author who ever ipelled it 
itt this Aianner. There never was an Em- 
manuel the (econd of Portugal. Camoens 
Was not fhipwrecked on the coaft of Mala- 
bar, but on the river Mecon in Cochin-Chi- 
«a. •* That Gama went a new 'waj to the 
Eaft Indies by the oiean** though C0rlt£ted 
in the edition of 1768, affords a moft 

* Thbiftor^hypothefis, which makes Ounoens a Spaniard, is of a.pieee with aMOtker of the 6ine ittge? 
9ion« Author. In hix unb^ffy f E/Tay 00 Epic Poetry, he aflerted, that Milton built his Paradiie lioft apoi» 
an iulian Cooiedy, writteo by one Andreino. This was. immediately denied, and even fome Italian Literatlr 
declared, that no fuch Author or Comedy was known ia Italy. Voltaire, liowever, would not yield, and 
♦cry gravely he tells the reader, ** 1/ n* eft fas etonnant-'-i^h is hot at all aftonlftiing, thath^tlhg^ tafcftally 
Mrched in £n|;kind for whaterer lelated to that great nian (Miltmi) T Ihdnld dilbover tircMl(llUMe^«f Mft 
Kfe, of which the public were ignorant.'*— fa-»Thii, theitfore, is theavtborityiYoin which Ire are^ betictc^ 
al)^t Milton borrowed his Piradife Lod from a-€omedy whicb nobody ever law. From the ikme refinrchet 
so England, Voltaire alfo learned other circumllances, of which the poblic were totally ignorant. The 
writbg by which Milton fold his Paradife Lod to one Simmonds, a Bookfeller, is dill extant. Bu£ Voltaire 
difcoyered, that he fold it to Tompfin for thirty piftolcs, " tnfin Tompfon Im donna trenttJnftoUs ie cct (mvrage/* 
SLord Sommers and Dr. Atterbtu7, be adds, refolving that England fhouid have an Epic poem, prevailed 00. 
tibe heirs of Tcm^J^H (He means ToMjktt peiliaps)'to print a fpfendid editaoA of it. And Addifim wrote». 
^ys he, and the £ngli(b' were perToMled^ that they bad ad Epic P«efl».** 

}ttiklng 'pMif -of VoftafreS ^ty carelcfs 
Mfuilaifif thpiLidhnf, ^t tfab tine'vyheti lie 
fiWl wi^mid icd coriWiin it. For it is 
Bftfen^WpAted ih ihefoem, that thete was 
iioway tolndia byttte ocfeah before. That 
ihe infdniy of CsUndetts Was Ufi dmilffl thi 
Wefiejs dnd ignotAyui df rbt cttuft ofLt/bon^ 
is certainly felfe. His jouih coiild not have 
b^en fpent in idlenefs or ignorairce, ibr his 
Tories difplay a moft imafterly accuracy ih 
every brandi of andeiftlhenture. 

■IiKJdgh Voltaire has 'corredled his'^crrdr 
fn feeding Camoens to die Eaft Indies iilt>ng^^ 
l^irii Gama, fach >n original impaKtlbOiea' 
fomatacedught to be recorded. 'Gamu^lbd 
on the diicovery of India in 1497. Ca-s 
fnoetis was bom in i5^i'7,and was notieven 
years of age when Oama died. Thefe tkda 
tvei« immediately bbjeft^d tp 'Voltaire, but, 
At firft, he would noryieU. 'Cotatrairvtothe 
f^ftimony of Camoetas himfelf,'ana trtty 
iircomftatace of his Hfe,^*hypo(tlidls muft 
defend ;this fivonrite fuppofitnm. In bt* 
Amfter^am edition of 1 738, Voltaire boHly 
ifletts that Camoens was a Spaniard, bohi 
10 the reign of Ferdinand and Ifabel, that 
he came to Lifbon in the ftrft year of Enraia- 
tniel, and was in intimate friendfhip witH 
Oama, whom he accompanied in his firft 
Voyage. Certain it is, however by the ar- 

. t Yet, in thefime Eflay, he givet a tncVoi- 
tmrifm \ he condemns this very aflertion : talkii^ 
'«f the plagiaries afcribcd to Virgil, *' All that,'* 

fays he, ** ought to- be ftady denied-»-^'Tls jiiflr 
*• as Ibme people lay Milton bath ftden his poeta 
<< fxom an Italian ftrollcr call d^ifr-AW." 


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appropriating to this fpecje? the tcrtn of Epopoeia^ or Epic. The fub* 
jcA of the Epopq^i^j accor4ing to that great father of criticifm, muft be 
One. One ad:ion muft be invariably purfued, and heightened through 
different ftages^ till the Cataftrophe clote it in fo complete a manner^ that 

chivoi of Portugal* dialCfiopms was in tke 

Eaft about feventy-two ycar$ after this voy- 
age i ^d that, according to thb hypothefis ot 

V oltaire, he mqft have Deen nmr an Jittodrcd 
yean old when he pabliChed hU Luiiad. 
^^oltaire. however, at laft^ conMl^ thai 
.Camoens did not accompany Gama. Yet 
fuch is his accuracy, tifj^tpfffi in the edition 
pf 1768) in 4in eflay >irhidi hc'cajis Idif 4$ 
h Anriadi^ a few pn^ before t^ confef!- 
iion, the old aflertion is ftiU retained. " U 
C^mojUtu, qui eft U yirgiu dt Poriugais f 
ahhre urn i'ventrntnt donf il fiv^t ite ttmoim 
iHi-mm. Camonens* the Portuguefe Vir- 

;il» has celebrated an eveut of whtcji hf 

liinfelf had Jbeen w^tnefs.'* 
No anec^tes ever threw moi^ Ught upon 
a chara^er than thefe throw upon that of 
Voltaire. The aflcrd9a that the Epic Ppet 

tf^d kno^vn hffore himt ^o alehraU bis friend 
^id the things be nvas ms ifi-njoitne/s tf^ can 
only be accounted for by the fu^pofition, 
^hat Voltaire was pleafed with the idea, and 
}D ^ little time miitook his ftrone; ixnpreflion 
for the remembrance of a fact. The lai- 
)K)ured abfurd hypothefis, which would de- 
fend this fanciful error, cannot be placed in 
iKi fair a li^ht. And the error confefled, 
and dill retained* is a true VoUairifm. Yet 
the idea of his accuracy which thefe acr 
counts of the Poet mull infpire, will eyea 
be heightened hy the examination of his 
criticifm on the poem. The narrative of a 
voyage conftitutes great part of the Odyfley, 
iand of the Bneid ; and forms the body of the 
Lufiad. Yet the Luiiad, fays Voluire, con- 
.tains nubing of 'what ivaj deemed before tbe 
onlyfubjeS of foetty. It forms, indeed, « 
fort of Efic poetry unbeard of before : But 
here Voltaire's objeftion points out iu 
true praife. i^o beroes^ fays he, are 'wounded 
A tboufand differeut wa^Sf no 'Ufoman enticed 
/iway and tbe world overturned for bet 
enuft'-^ And mod the fate of Helen, and the 
thoufand diiierent wounds defcribed by Ho- 
mer, be copied by every Epic Poet ? If this 
fentence has any meanine, this is included. 
Vet what is this pueriUty oi criticifm in 
'Compariibn of Voltaire's afiertionSf that in 


ihe Lufiad sio bloody nvmrs are fougbt^ no em- 
pire founded. — ^If the deftrudion of Troy be 
allowed to be in the Eneid, there are wan 
enough in the poem of Camoens. The ef- 
fe6l of fire-arms on people who never before 
beheld thofe dreadful engines, and a hoftilc 
jtown burnt by a fleet, are. finely defcribed 
in that part which is called the adion of th^ 
Epic Poem. But Voltaire was as utter a 
fbabger to the firft book of the Lufiad, as 
io the Okb fubjeft of the poem. The found- 
inz of the Port^gjuefe empire in the Ealt.— 
No iatfle fought^ n» empire founded ! What 
infult to tne u^ary worid is this ! A lat^ 
corre^on will never dlA^rove Jiis ignorance 
when he wrote this, ohould a pretended 
critic on Virgil t^U his reader di^ the poef 
conduced Eneas to the mouth of the Thames^ 
coulA we j)elieve he was acquaint wi^ h^ 
Anth^n Yet Voltairf tells us, that Ca* 
moens conduSs tbe fortugu^e fleet to tbe 
tnentb of tbe Ganges round tbe eoafts ofJfrif^ 
'— — Camqens, indeed, conduds h'ls fleet tfi 
.Calicut on the coail of Malabar. Bqt 
thoi|gh the fcene of .the ^£Uon of tjje four 
la^ books }ies upon this coaft, Voltaire wa# 
jdot hfippy enough to dip into any of the 
numerous pafiages which fix the geography. 
He has^ therefiore, given the voyage of 
Gama a dimi^nfion aimoft as much beyond 
the real one given by Camoens, as the Weft 
Indies are diftant fitom England. ' Such er* 
xors are convincing proofs that Voluire only 
dipt here and there into the Lnfiad, even 
after the oiticsfet him right in fope places ; 
jfor this .gro& error is iHll retained. But a 
mifreprefentadon, not founded on ignorance, 
JHOW of^cs itielf. GofflM, iu m ftorm^ {ays 
Voltaire, addreffes bis prayers to Cbriftt but 
*fis Fenut nvbo comes to bis relief — A bold 
afiTertion flill alfo retained, but there is no 
fuch pafiTage in the Lufiad. Gama, in a 
tempeu, prays to *' the holy Power, to whom 
" nothing is impoiGble, the fovereign of 
'' earth, lea, and land, who led Ifrael through 
*' the Waves, who delivered Panl, and who 
^* prote<£ked |he children of the fecond father 
^' o{ the world from the deluge." • But 
Chriit is not once mentioned in the whole 
paflage. To fay that Gama was a good 
2 • ' CatlK^i^. 

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D I S S E R T A T I O N^ 

any farther addition would only inform the reader of what he already 
perceives. Yet in purfuing this One End, collaterial Epifodes not only 
give that variety, fo eflential to good poetry, but, under judicious' ma- 
nagement, affift in the moft pleafing manner to facilitate and produce 

Catholic, and intended ChrHl under thefe 
appcUaiions, is unworthy of poetical criii- 
dfm, for the whole ridicule confifts in the 
oppoiition of the names of Chrift and Venus. 
Such is the candour of Voltaire ! Nor is it 
difficult to trace the fourcc of this unfair re- 
prefencation. Fanfliaw thus tranflater the 
meation of Paul, 

Thou who didA keep and fare thj /ervMt Paul—" 

Moniieur Voltaire wanted no more. Tfy 
fir*vant Paul was to him enoaeh to vindicate 
the ridicule he chufed to beftow. But un- 
happily for the mifgoided aitiCy' the original 
favs only, Tu que iiwafie Paulo -^xhaa. 
-who deliveredft Paul.— And thus we are 
fumiihed with a fore hint of the medium bj 
i¥hich our critic (bdied the Lufiad. To this 
laft unblofhing falfity, that Gama prays to 
Cbrifit is adoed, in the edition of 17689 
** Batcbus li la Vitrgo MarTt ft trowueront 
tout tiaturellemint en/emble, Bacchus and the 
Virgin Mary are very naturally found toge- 
ther." If words have meaning, this informs 
the reader, that they are found together in 
the Luiiad. Yet the truth is, in tne whole 
poem there is no fudi perfonage as the Vir- 
gin Mary. 

After thefe gnyft falfities, Voltaire adds, 
•• A parltr ftneu/emeut^ un mer*veilleux fi 
ahfurde^ Jefigure tout Powuragi aux jeux ae 
leSturs finfis. To fpeak fenoufly, fuch an 
abfurdity in the marvellous, disfigures the 
whole work in the eyes of ienfible readers.*' 
—•To fuch as take Voltaire's word for it, it 
muft indeed feem disfi»ired ; but what lite- 
rary murder is this4 Nor does it end here. 
A fimile mufl enforce the ihameleis mifre- 
prefenution. ** It is like the works of Paul 

f The Arabs have not ooly innumerable ▼olamcs of their own, hut their language is alfo enridied with 
tranflations of fererai Greek writers. The fate of Euclid is well known.. And to mention only two of 
their authors, Ben-Shohna, who died in 1478, a little before the arrival of Gama, wrote an aniverfal hiftory, 
which he calls Rawdbat a'mtnaHir fi Urn eiawail vaiawacbir; that is, the meadow of the eye of antient and 
modem knowledge. And Abal Pharajius, who lived in- the thirteenth century, wrote an hiftory in Arabic^ 
in ten chapters, the firft of which treats of the Patriarchs, from Adam to Mofes; the feoond of the Judges 
and Kings of Ifrael ; the third of the Jewifh Kings; the fourth of the Kings of Chaldea ; the fifth of tl^ 
Kings of the Magi; the fixth of the ancient Pagan Greeks; the feventh of the Romans; the eighth of 
the ConflaotinopoiitMi £mperors; the ninth of the Arabian Mohammedan Kings; and the tenth of the 
Moguls. The iame author aequaints us, that Homer's two Works are elegantly tranflated into the Syriac ; 
which language is After to that fpoken by the Arabs of Melinda. Camoens, who was in the coBntry, knew 
the learning of the Arabians. Voltaire, led by the deiii« to ovudcmo^ was hurried into abfiinUties> from 
which a moments coniidcratioi^ would baTCprdetved him. 


Feroneji, ^voho has placed BenediSine fathers 
and Swrfs foldiers among bii paintings from 
the Old Tejiament.'^ And to this alio is 
added, *^ Le Camouens tomhe prefque toujours 
dans de telles difparates, Camouens aunoft 
contittoally falls into fach extravagancies.^* 
Yet with eooal joltice may this fentence be 
applied to Virgil; and j^culiarly unhappjr 
is the inflance which Voltaire immediatdix 
nves : *' I remember^ faya he, Vafeo de Gasaa 
Jays to the king of Milinda^ O kingf jttdge if 
Vljjfes and Eneas have travelled Jo far^ astd 
undergone fo nuutf hardjhips : as if that JboT'* 
barous African nuas acquainted with Bomer 
emd Firgil** This fentence is ftiU retained ia 
Voltaire's laft edition of his works. Bat, 
according to hiftory, the Melindians were a 
homane and polifhed people ; their build- 
ines elegant, and in the manner of Spain. 
.The roval family and grandees were Mo- 
hammeaan Arabs, deicended of thofe tribes, 
whofe leamine, when it fuits his porpoie, is 
the boaft of Voltaire. The prince of Me- 
linda, widi whom Gama converfed, is thoa 
defcribed by the excellent hiftorian Oforios : 
*< In omni autem fermone princeps iUe now ho* 
** minis barbari fpecimen dabat, fed ingemiuM 
** et prudent i am eo loco dignam pne Je fere* 
« bat — In the whole conveifation the Prince 
** betrayed no fign of the barbarian ; on the 
** contrary, he carried himfelf with a polite- 
** nefs and intelligence worthy of his rank.'* 
—It is alfo certain, that this Prince^ whom 
Voltaire is pleafed to call a barbarous Afri- 
can, had iafficient opportunity to be ac- 
quainted with Homer, for the writing|s of 
'Homer are tranflated into the Syriac, in a 
dialed of which the interpreters of Gama 
talked with the prince of Melinda f. 

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the Unravelmcnt, or Cataftrophe, Thus the anger of Achilles is the 
fubjedt of the Iliad. He withdraws his af&ftance from the Greeks. 
The efforts and diftrefles of the Grecian army in his abfence, and the 
triumphs of Heftor, are the confequences of his rage. In the utmoft 
danger of the Greeks, he permits his friend Patroclus to go to battle. 
Patroclus is killed by Hedor. Achilles^ to revenge his fall, rulhes to 
the field. He^or is killed, the Trojans defeated, and the rage of Achilles 
is ibothed by the (^cquies of his friend. And thus alfo the fubjeA of 

" Hie Liifiad, im m^ opinun, fiiysVoltaire, 
h fyU^mMbtrUfsfamu and heauties^ thick 
fiwm mar oiu oMOtber^ and almoft in e*vtfy 
page tittre i/ fometbing t9 langb at^ and 
fomttbing to be delifbted iviibj*" This ien- 
tenoe^ thongk omitted u the Fiench cdi- 
^cm9» had tome feqice* and that ibnrce we 
ftall eafily trace. Nor is the charafter of 
the king of Melinda fo groTsly falfified by 
Voltaire, as the chara£ler of the Lofiad of 
Cmoens is here mifrenrefented. Except 
the polite repartee of Velofo^ (tfiubicb jte 
/• 197*^^ there are not above two or three 
paUkges in the wholepoem which eren bor- 
. der Qpoa conceit. The moft oniibim fim> 
plidty of manly didion is the true charader 
of the Portognefe Lnfiad : Where then did 
Voltaire find t\Ltfal/e nvit^ and fimething to 
Jaugb at almoft in every page ^ If there bo 
a traidation which ftnray deierves this ohM- 
mRcTt we cannot fappoie that Voltaire hit 
tbh character, and at the fame time was fo 
wide of the original^ merely by chance. 
No> he dipt into Fanihaw's Lofiad, where, 
in every page, there are pons, conceits, and 
low quaint expreffions^ uncountenanced 1>y 
the original. Some citations from Fanfliaw 
will foon jnflify this charader of his work. 
Yet, however decxfive this proof may be, it is 
not the only one. The refemblance found by 
Voltaire between Sir John Denham's addreis 
to the Thames, and that of Camoens to the 
nymphs of the Tagos, does not exift in the 
teigmal. ThiikntcTkCt^ Let my JfikJhnuliJtg 
jonr nuawest l^t it be deep and clear as y^ur 
'u;«/fr J— contains indeed the fame allufion as 
diat exprefled in the lines cited by Voltaire 
£x>m Denham. But no fuch iclea or alluEon 
exills in the Portugiiefe. Though Voltaire 
.ftill retains this fentence, its want of authen- 
ticity has been detected by feveral critics. 
But it was left for the prefent Tranflator to 
^fcover the fourceof this wide miftranfla- 
tion. He fufpedled the alluiion might be in 
)?anihaw>. and in Faihaw he found it. The 

nymphaof the Ti^ aic in Sir Richard'Si 
veriion thus addre^ : 

If I In- low, yet tuneful rerft, the praife 
Of ymir Aiveet riTcr always did prodaim, 
Infpire me now with high mod thundering lays, . 
Give me tbcm clear mid ftrmeg like Us ftremn* 

He who has read Camoens and Fanihaw, 
will be convinced where Voltaire found the 
/timet bing f laugb at in every page* He 
who has read neither the oitgioal nor that 
tranilation, will now perceive that Voltaire's 
opinion of the Lufiad was drawn from n 
very partial acquaintance with the unfaith*^ 
fidandunpoeticalverfioB of Fanihaw. , 

And,, as if all his milreprefentations of 
the Lufiad were not enou^^h, anew and' moft- 
capital objeftiott is added in the late editions 
of^ Voltaire. *< Mais de tons Us defauts di 
a poeme, &c. But of all the Amltt of this, 
poem, thegreateftis the want of connedion, 
which reigns in every part of it. It refem- 
bles the voyage which is its fubjed. The 
adventures fncceed one another, (a vjonder'^ 
fkl objiffion) and the poet has no other artt 
dian to tell his tales well." Indeed ! but 
the reader cannot now be furprifed at any of 
our Critic's mifieprefentations, a critic^ wha 
in many infiances has violently condemned 
theLufiad upon circumstancbs wiiiCH| 


After publication of the firft edition of 
the Lnfiad, the Tranflator- was infi>nned of 
Ihfi following anecdote: when Voltaire'a 
Effay on Epic Poetry was at the prefs in Lon- 
don, he happened to flieW^a proof-iKeerof 
it to Colonel Bladon, the tranflator of Cae- 
far's Commentaries. The colonel,. who had. 
been in Portugal, aiked him if he had read^ 
the Lufiad ; Voltaire confefled he had never 
feen it, and could not read Portugoefei The 
colonel put Fanfliaw's tranflation into his 
hands, and in lefs than a fortnight after*. 
Voltaire's Vriti^ue made its appearance. 

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ccvi D' I S S E R 1* a T I O N. 

the Eneid is One. The remains of the Trojan nation, to whom a feat 
of empire is promifed by the oracle, are reprefented as endangered by a 
tempeft at fea. They land at Carthage. Eneas, their leader, relates the 
fate of Troy to the hofpitable queen ; but is ordered by Jupiter to fulfil 
the prophecies, and go in fearch of the promifed feat of that empire, 
which was one day to command the world. Eneas again fets fail, many 
adventures befal him. He at laft lands in Italy, where prophecies of 
his arrival were acknowledged. His fated bride, however, b betrothed to 
Turnus. A war enfues^ and the poem concludes with the death of 
the rival of Eneas. In both thefe great poems, a machinery fuitable to 
the allegorical religion of thofe times is preferved. Juno is the guardia^i 
of the Greeks, Venus of the Trojans. Narrative poetry without fiftion • 
can never pleafe. Without fiftion it muft want the marvellous, which 
is the very foivA of poefy ; and hence a machinery is indifpenfible in the 
Epic poetn. The condudt apd machinery of the Lufiad are fts follow : 
The poem opens with a view of the Portuguefe fleet before a profperous 
gale on the coaft of Ethiopia. The crews, however, ace woro with la- 
bour, and their fafety depends upon thtit fortune in a friendly harbour* 
The Gods of ancient or poetical mythology are reprefented as in coun- 
cil. The fate q£ the Eaftem world depends upon the fuccefs of the 
fleet. But as we trace the machinery of the Litfiad, let uft ren^embejT 
that, like the machinery of Homer and Virgil, it i« alfo allegoricaU 
Jupiter, or the Lor4 of Fate, pronounces that the Lufians Ihall be prof- 
perous. Bacchus, the evil demon or geniua of Mohammedifm, who 
was worfliippcd in the Eaft, forefeeing that his empire and altars 
would be ^overturned, oppofes Jove, or Fate, The celeftial Venus, or 
heavenly Love, pleads for the Lufians. Mars, or divine Fortitude, en- 
courages the Lord of Fate to remain unaltered ; and Maia's fon, the 
Meflenger of Heaven, is fent to lead the navy to a friendly harbour. 
The fleet arrives at Mozambic. Bacchus, like Juno in the Eneid, raifcs 
a commotion againfl the Lufians. A battle enfues, and the victorious 
fleet purfue their voyage, under the care of a Mooriih pilot, who advifes 
them to enter the harbour of Quiloa. According to hiftory, they at* 
tempted this harbour, where theirHeftruftion would have been inevitable ; 
but they were driven from it by the violence of a fudden tempeft. The 
poet, in the true fpirit of Homer and Vwfgil^ afcribes this to the cct 
leftial Venus, 

whofe watchful care 

Had ever been their guide — — 

They now arrive at Mombafla. The malice of the evil daemon or genius 
of Mohammedifm, ftill excites the arts of treachery againft them. 
Hermes, the meflenger of heaven, in a dream, in the fpirit of Homer, 
wariis the hero of the* poem of his danger^ and commands him to fteer 


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for Melinda. There ke arrives, and is received by the prince io die 
mod friendly maimer* Here the hero receives the ^rft oertain intelli* 
^ence or iyope of India. The prince of Melinda^s adnxiration of .the 
foitftode^iM proweit of hts guefts, the firft who had ever daved to pafy 
die mifcmwwqii ocea^iiy Cape Corrientes, (fee p. 113.) artfully prepares 
the veader for a long epifode. The poem of Vir^i .contains the hiftory 
'of the J^oman empire to his owa ticne« Camoem perfoived this^ aii4 
trofl in his fieps. The hiftory of Porfii^, which Gama relates to the 
king of MeKnda, is not ^mly neceflkry to give their new aUy an high 
idea of die iLuiian prowefe and fpirit, but aHb naturally leads to^itnd ao- 
<co«mts for the voyage of Gama : the events which, in its oonfequences^ 
<ftims up >tfhe Pornaguefe honours* It :is as Teqnifite for Gaou to tell thp 
Wt of his nation to the king -of MeUnda^ as it is for Eneas to relate to 
Dido the caufe of his voyage, thedeftniftion of Tooy. Pfeafed with th^ 
^mb of their *nation, the ^ng of Melinda vows lafting friend&ip with 
•the Lufiaos, and gives them ^a £aitdiful pilot. As they &il acrpfs the 
j^at Indian ocean , the machinery lis. again .employed* The eVil daemon 
•implores Neptune and the powers of the fba to deftroy 
^he fleet. The :£iilors on the night wMh fortify their courage by re* 
bating the valiant adbs of tiilnr countrymen ; and an epifode, in- the .true 
^poetical ijfpirit of ^hivalry^is introduced. . Thus Achilles in his tent is re- 
vprsfcmted as-linging to his lyre thepraifesof ;herQes. And in the £ptc 
•conduA, this narwrtive.'tad the tales told by Jjlnftor, either to refb'ain or 
-inflame the rage of fhe^Gfecian chirfs^rare certainly Ae fenle. 

The accumulation of • the tempeft in the meanwhile is finely defcribed* 
it now defcends. tCelefiial Venus perceives the danger <rf her .fleet* 
^Sbe is introduced by the appearance of her.flBr,.a ifa;oke of poetry whioh 
would have fhined in the Eneid. The tempeft is m its utmoft rage^ 

'The &y and ocean blending, each on fire, 
Seem'd as all nature ftruggled to expire. 
When now theflhrer ftar of Love appeared j 
Bright in her eaft her radiant front Ihe reared; 
Fair through the horrid ftorm the gentle ray 
AnnouiYc^d the promife of the^diecrfuLday. 
Fpdm hor bright throne Celeflial Love beheld 
The tempeft burn ■ . ■ 

And in the true fpirit of Homer^s allegory (Ste the nete^ p. 258^ fl« caHs 
her nymphs, and by their miniftry;ftills the tempeft. Gama now arrives 
in India. Every circumAance rifes from the preceding one ; and, as 
fully pointed out in the notes, the condmd: in every circumftance is as 
cxaftly-Virgilian, as any two tragedies anay'poifibly be alike in adherence 
to the rules of the drama* Gama, h^yjixg aooompliihed his purpofe in 


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India, fets fail for Europe, and the machinery is for th^ laft time erri- 
ployed. Venus, to reward her heroes, raifes a Paradifaical ifland in the 
lea. Voltaire, in his Englilh Effay, has faid, that no nation but the Por- 
tuguefe and Italians could be pleafed with this fiction. In the French he 
has fupprefTed this fentence, but has compared it to a Dutch brothel al* 
lowed for the failors. Yet this idea of it is as falfe as it is grofs. Every thing 
in the ifland of Love refembles the fiatae of Venus de Medicis. The de- 
fcription is warm indeed, but it is chafle as the firft loves of Adam and Eve 
in Milton ; and entirely free from that grolTnefs, {See the note^ p* 408.) 
often to be found in Dante, Ariofto, Spenfer, and in Milton himfelf. Aftet 
the poet has wcplained the allegory of the ifland of Love, the Goddefs 
of the ocean gives her hand and commits her empire to Gama^ 
whom flie conducts to her palace, where, in a prophetic fons, he hears 
theadtions of the heroes who were to efl:ablifli the Portuguefe empire in 
the Eaft. In Epic condud nothing can be more mafterly* The funeral 
games ift honour of Patroclus, iafter the Iliad has turned upon its great 
hinge, the death of Hedior, arc here mofl: happily imitated, after the 
Lufiad has alfo turned upon its great hinge> the difcovery of India. 
The conduA is the fame, though not one fcataire is borrowed. Ulyfles 
and Eneas are fent to vifit the regions of the dead ; and Voltaire's hero 
muft alfo be conveyed to Hell and Heaven. But how fuperior is the 
fpirit of Camoens ! He parallels thefe ftriking adventures by a new 
'fi&ion of his own. Gama in' the ifland of Blifs, and Eiieas in Hell, 
are in Epic conduct exadly the fame; and in this unborrowing fame- 
nefi, he artfuUy interweaves the hiftwy of Portugal: artfulfy as Voltaire him- 
felf c(i>nfefles. The epifode with the king of Melinda, the defcription of 
•the painted enfigns, and the prophetic ^ng, are parallel in manner and 
purpgfe with the epifode of Dido, the fliield of Eneas, and the vifion in 
Elyfium. To appeafe the rage of Achilles, and to lay the foundation 
of the Roman empire, are the grand purpbfes of the Iliad and Eneid ; 
the one effected by the, death of Hedtor ; the other by the alliance of 
Latinus and Eneas, rendered certain by the death of Tumus. In like 
manner, to eftabliih the Portuguefe Chriftian empire in the Eaft, is the 

gand defign of the Lufiad, rendered certain by the happy Return of 
ama. And thus, in the true fpirit of the E^popoeia, ends the Lufiad, 
a poem where every circumftance rifes in juft sradation, till the whole is 
fummed up in the moft perfedt unity of Epic adion. 

The machinery of Homer, {See the notey p. 258.) contains a moft 
perfedb and mafl^rly allegory. To imitate the ancients wa^ the pre- 
vailing tafte when Camoens wrote ; and their poetical manners were 
•every where adopted. That he efteemed his own as allegorical, be 
affures us in the end of the ninth book, and in one of his letters. But 
a proof, even more determinate, occurs in the opening of the poem. 
Ca(ftera^ the French Tranflator, by his over refinement, has much mifre- 


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D I S 3 E R T A T * I O N* 


{>refented the allegoiy/of the Lufiad* Mars, who never appears but 
once in the firft book, he tells us, fignifies Jefus Chrift. This explana- 
tion, fo open to ridicule, is every way unneceffary ; and furely never en- 
tered the thought of Ctfmoens. It is evident, however, that he intended 
the guardian powers of Chriftianity and Mohammedifm under the twor 
principal penonages of his machinery. Words cannot be plainer : 

« • ' 

Where'er this people ihould their empire raife. 

She knew her altars fliould unnumbered blaze ; 

An4 barbarous nations at tier holy flirine 

Be humanifed and taught her lore divine : 

Her fpreading honours thus the one infpir'd. 

And one the dread to lofe his worlhip fir'd. 

And the fame idea is on every opportunity repeated and enforced. Pa- 
gan mythology had. its Cclcftial, as well as Terreftrial Venus ♦. The 
Celeftial Venus is therefore the moft proper perfonagc of that my tholo^ 
to figure Chriftianity. And Bacchus, tne conqueror of the Eaft, is, in 
the ancient poetical allegory, the moft natural protestor of the altars of 
India. Whatever may be faid againfi the ufe of the ancient machinery 
in a modern poem, candour muft confefs, that the allegory of Camoens 
which arms the genius of Mohammedifm || againft the expedition o( 
his heroes, is both fublime and moft happily interefting. Nor rouft his 
choice of the ancient poetical machinery be condemned without exami- 
nation. It has been the language of poetry thefe three thoufand years^ 
and its allegory is perfeftly underftood. If not impoffible, it will cer- 
tainly be very difficult to find a new, or a better machinery for an Epic., 
poem. That of Taflb is condemned by J Boileau, yet, that of Camoens 
may plead the authority of that celebrated critic, and is even vindicated, 
undefignedly, by Voltaire himfelf. In an elTay prefixed to his Henriade,. 

* The celeftial Venat, acconliiig to Plato, 
was the daughter of Ouranas or Heaven, and 
thence called Urania. The paflkge ftaods 
in the Sjmpofion of that author as follows : 

mfiuUf^ Ov^m Stvy JInf t %» ^ nm%. •tffmtmf 

This Urania- Veansy according to Paa- 
ianius and other writers^ had foroptooas 
temples in Athens, Phoenicia, &c She 
w^ painted in cQinplete armonr ; hei prieft* 
efles were virgins} and np man was a)iof¥«i . 
to approach her flirine.' Xenophon fays. 

ihe prefided over the love of wii<loiit and"* 
virtoe, which are the pleafores of the (oil, 
as the .terreftrial Venas prefidM over the 
pleafores of the bodv. 

II Far ieveral collateral proofs, te the 
note, p. ac5. and text, in Lufiad VIH*" 
where mcchos, the evil dsqaMxi, tdtes the 
fbras of Mohammed, and appears in a* 
dream tok a prieft of the Koran. ^ ^ 

t On account of his io>C^* But magkr 
was the oopoiar belief of Tailb's a^, and > 
hu afibraed him a £ne machinery, thou|;h ^ 
his vfe of it is ibmetiaaes highly blameaUe ; ' 
as wherf he makes on enchanter oppofe the : 
arch-angel Michael armed with the aatho* t 
rity of the Trae God, 4rc ter . ^ 

ee 1/ 

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ccx D I S S E R T A T I Q N.^ 

J> mt £ jfmidntritf^Snys ht^ dans nOtripoifif, nejgt^fif fn kM^y 6? mn 
y Epoufe de Neptum^^* the word Amphitrite in ogr poetry i\ffxAt% only 
^< the Sea, and not the wife «f Neptune." Attd why may not the 
word Venus in Camoefia iiflRtfy divine Lovt> und not the wife of Vul** 
oaa ? ^ LoT«/' ikys Votofre, la the fame efls^, ^^ h49 his lurrowa, and 
^< Juftice a balance, in our moft chriilian wrltiilgSy in our puintingt, iq 
*^ ourtapeftry, without being efteemed as the leau mixture of Paganifm.'* 
And if this crittcifm has juftice in it, why tiot apply it to the Lufiad, 
as well as to the \ Henriade ? CandoUr mil not only apply it to the 
Lufiady but will alfo add the authority of BoileaKU He ii giving rules 
for an Epic poem : 

Dans k vajle^ rick ^tm^kngm 4SioKf ; . , 

4$^ foutient par la fahkj et vtt de pRm. 

La pQur nous indnuUer tout tfi mis in upige: 

f-out prmd un corpSp un€ ame^ un ij^it, un vifag/s ; 

Chaqni vertu dtvuut mc dmniti ; 

Minerve efi la prudenci, & Fmus la h^autL 

O rfefi plus la vc^ur qui produit le touneri, 
. ,' C^ift J:^pit^ ^rwi pour effrawr la terre. 

Un oragt terrible aux yeux aes matelots, 

Cejt NepiwUy en courroux, qui gourmande ks fiats • •. • «^ 

Sans tons ces arnemens le vers tombe eu langueur ; 

JLa poejie efi nwrie^ ou rampe fans vigueur : 
, JLe poete tCefi plus qu^un orateur timtdij 
. ^'un JToid beftorien fune fable infipide^ 

Rvcry idea of thefe lines ftrongly defends the Lufiad. Yet^ it muft not 
bet concealed^ a diftindioq fcJlow? which may appear ag^inft it* 
Boil^cau requires a prc^ane fubjeA for the Epic Mufe. But his reafoa 
for it is not jufl: : 

' ' ' . T)e la foi d'un Chitien let myjteres terrihkt 
i ■ . . . . jy^rnemtf^s eg(^is ne font point Jujceptibles* 

^'Tlm, wiMf^dMHenrbdeM tokedfl- alitktrall. HicfitanialFadiar j»dMfiHir 

lended» ^oiroiv* of CnpSd eoMrey no mix* J«r«9 who if repicfisii&ed m the fuprtme Fmh 

tare of Pftgabififii. But wktn tk» khuid «ff $her in the Ml book^ {S$. zt. Pvrtugms^.y 

Love hsk^mt la&aA k to be^oondeiiined,mr ' and in book 9; IL ilL mAy faid to ha^^ 

honnite critic Attft fidkole %^ v(t^ dieft ofdawwd VoBof to be the good gtatM of thr 

ybtf arrows — C*efi la qut Vntm^ mJh des Ldfitaniant. Them k QOt a wrad aboot the 

€ihJtiU dm Bert Eiemelr tf femtii^ ift memi ' affjfanct of bit cotm/el^ that was iatrodnoed^ 

t^i da fieches d$Cnpid9n,'-\x, is there that by Volteire, iblely to.thraw ridicule upon 

'Wnns, ftided by i^e cmnftfek of theBtemat a»aneffOry, which^- by tlie-bye» when tiled 

Father> and at the fame timet fecondod by in the Henriade, has not the leaft £uiky air 

thearrewe of Cupid, renden the Nereidaa hisopiKlon ^ but is there tvery way in the- 

amorous of the Porti%(iefe.'^-^lM ^thif> tmeftyle of poetjy. 

\ of his lateft additions^ is as unlucky as 


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D I S S E R T A T I O N. 


Vevkngiie d l^ejprit rfcffre ie tous cotes 
^le penitence n faire^ 6f tdurmejts mentis : 
Et ie vos fi&km k melange cmtpabU 
Menu a fis vMSs Jorme lair 4e la fable. 

The nr^Jleres tcrrihlet afford; indeed, no fubjeft for poetry. But the Bible 
offers to the Mnfe Something befides penitence and merited torments. The 
Paradife Loft, and the Woffks of the greateff Painters, evince this. Nor 
does thi$. criticifm, falfe as it is, contain one argument which excludes 
the heroes of a Chriftian nation from being the fuojeft of poetry.. Mo- 
dern fubiefts afe indeed condemned by Boileau ; and ancient fable, with 
its UlyiTes, Agamemnon, Jtc.-^— *»d»fi heureux femblent nes pour les vers — 
are recommended to the poet. But, happy for Camoens, his feelings 
direfted him* to another choice, for, ill contradiftlon of a thoufand* 
Boileaus, no compofitions are fo miferably. uninterefting as our modern 
poams, where the heroes of ancient fable are the perfonages of the 
adtion. Unlefs, therefbre, . the fubjoft of Camoens may thus feem con- 
demned by the celebrated French critic, every other rule he propofes is 
in favour of the machinery of the Lufud. And bis o\jrQ example proves, 
that he thought the pagan machinery not hTipro|>^ in a poem where the 
heroes * are modern. But there is an effential diftinftion in the method 
of ufing it. And .Camoens lias ftridly adhered to this effential differ- 
ence. The condttft of the Epic poem is twofold^ the hillprical and 
allegorical. When paganifm was the popular belief, Diomed might 
wound ]y[ajrs or J Vgnus ; .but when the names of thefe Deities bccam^^ 
merdy allegoHcal^ foch alfo ought to be the aftions afcribed to them. 
And Camoens has ftriftly adhered to this rule. His heroes ate Chriili* 
ans ; and Santa Fe, Holy Failh, is often mentioned in the "hiftorical parts 

• He ufcs tlve Pagsm mjth,Q]ogy m ki$ 
poem on the paffage of the^ine by the 
French army in 1672. 

t Thas it was the l^ef of the Irft ageS- 
of Chriftianity, that the Pagan Godi wttt 
fallen angels. Milton, with admirable 
judgntenty has ado()ted this fyftem. His 
Mammon, the architedl of Pandaemonium, 
ke ^fo calls Vulcan : 

Nor was his name unheard or nnador*d 
In antient Greece, and in Auibnian land. 
Men caird hini Mii|cibcr : and how he fell 
Fn>*ii ^icsy'ii, they fabled^ throv»n by^ngry 

jOfC*' ■ 

On X^mTtos^ th' F^ean iflje j Thus they jrelsne 
Erring ; for he ^ilh this rebellious rout' 
Fen long beibM. 

Moloch and Vulcan are therefore mentioned 
together with *grcat propriety in the Para- 

dise Loft. The belief of the firft Chrif- 
tians, with refpe^ to daemons, was una- 
bated ift the age of Ca»i0ens i for the oradee 
^ MPagin deities wait tboa believed to have 
^ea smi^ ^ ^3 ^'i'i^^'* Batchus might 
therefore in a Chriilnn poem of fuch ages^ 
reprefent the Evil d^mon ; and it was on 
this principle thatTafiby»fr no impropriety^ 
In'dtfi^ Pkto hit king of hell, (he gran J 
foi o/MMMiiMt^ tad making kht talk of tho 
birth of Chrift. In like manner, when 
Camoens /ays that the. Chriftian. al tor raifed, 
(book h. J to Accelre the Lflian's, was'^iie 
liltdioh df Sacckus t liefap ab mofetbaii: 
wM ivyp. W^^M<^ to (he popular belief] 
of the heathen joracles« and no more tfuin ' 
what poetry allows when a ftorm is aftribcd; 
to Neptune, w ariows gtve« f6 Cupisl. 

e e 2 where 

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ccxu D IS S E R ,T A T I O N/ ' 

where his heroes fpeak, and aft. But it is only in the allegorical parts 
where the pagan or the poetical mythology is introduced. And in his 
machinery, as in his hiftorical parts, there is no mixture of Pagan and 
Chriftian perfonages. The deliverance of the Lufian licet, afcribed to 
the celeftial Venus, fo ridiculed by Voltaire, is exadly according to the 
precepts of Boileau. It is the hiftorical oppofition or concert of 
Chriftian and Pagan ideas which forms the abfurd, and disfigures a 
poem. But this abfurd oppofition or concert of perfonages has no place 
in the Lufiad,, though it is found in the greateft of modern poets.. 
From Milton both the allowable and blameable mixture of Chriftian and 
Pagan ideas may be fully exemplified. . With great judgment, he ranks 
the Pagan Deities among the fallen angels. . When he alludes to Pagan 
mythology, he fometimes fays, ^^ as uibles* feign;*' and fometimes he 
mentions thefe deities in the allegory of poetical ftyle j ^ thus, 

WTien Bellona ftorms,. 
With all her battering engines bent to rafc 
Some capital city — — 

And thus, when Adam fixules on Eve ; 

as Jupiter 

On Juno fmiles when he impregns the cloudt 
That Ihed May flowers — 

Here the perfonages are mentioned expfefsly in their allegorical capa* 
city, the uie recommended by Boileau. In the following the blameable 
iiiixture occurs. He is defcribing Paradife 

Univerfal Pan 

Knit with the Graces and the Hours in dance 
Ixd on th' eternal fpnng. Not that fair field 
Of £nna> where Proferpin, gathering flowers^ 
Hcrfelf a fairer flower, by gloomy Dis 
Was gathered : which coft Ceres all that pain 
To feek her through the world ■■ 

■ might with this Paradife 

OfEdcnftrive — 

The mention of Pan, the Graces and Hours, is here in the pure alle* 
gorical ftylc oi poetry. But the ftory of Proferpin is not in allegory ; 
it is mentioned in the fame manner of authenticity as the many Scripture 
hiftories introduced into the Paradife Loft* When the angel brings 
Eve to Adam, fbe appears 

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■ in naked beauty more adorn'd 
More lovely than Pandora, w^iom the Gods 
Endowed with all their gifts, and O too like 
In fad event, when to th* unwifer fon 
Of Japhet brought by Hermes <he enfiijtr'd 
Mankind with her fair looks, to be avengpd' 
On him who had Hole Jove's authentic fire. . 

Here we have the heathen Gods, another origin of evil, and a whole 
firing of fables, alluded to as real events, on a level with his * fubjedt* 

. Nor is poetical ufe the only defence of our injured author. In the 
age of Camoens, Bacchus was eficemed a real daemon : and celefiial 
Venus was confidered as the name by which the Ethnics expreffed the 
divine Love. But if the cold hyper-critic will (till blame our author 
for his allegory, let it be repeated, that of all Chriflian poets, Camoens 
is in this the lead reprehenfible. The Hell, Purgatory, and Paradife of 
Dante, forni one continued unallegorical texture of Pa^n and Scriptural 
names^ defcriptions, and ideas. Ariofto is continually in the fame faulty 
And, if it is a fault to ufe the ancient poetical machinery in a poem 
where the heroes are Chriftians, Voltaire himfelf has infinitely more of 
the melange coupahle than Camoens. The machinery of his Henriade is^ 
as confeued by himfelf^ upon the idea of the Pagan mythology. He 
cites Boileau^ 

Ceji d^un fcrupuk vain faJkrmer fottemenfj 
Et vouhir aux kHeurs plain fans agrimenty 
Bien-tot ils defendroni de peinare la prudence^ 
De donner a Thimis ni bandeau, ni balance • • . • • 
Et par-tout des difcours, comme un idolatrie, 
Dans leur faux zele irant cbajp^t VaUegcrie. 

But he fuppreffes the vcrfes which immediately follow, where the intro- 
duftion of the true God is prohibited by the critic, 

Et fabukux Chritiensy n^alhns point dans nos fongeSy 
Du Dieu de viriti faire un Dieu de menjbnges. 

Yet, the God of truth according to theChriftian idea, in direft viola-^ 
tion of this precept, is a confiderable perfonage in the Pagan allegorical 
machinery of the Henriade. But the couplet laft cited, though as diredt 
againft the Henriade as if it had been written to condemn it^ is not in 
the leaft degree applicable to the jnachinery of the Lufiad ? a machinery 

* Nor are thefe the only inftances ; the death t>f Hercules^ and feveral others sit Milton^ 
fall under die cenTure of an injadidoiu mixtore of iacred and profane aay thology and hiftorjr^ 


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D r S. S E R T A T I O N- 

infinitely fuperior irt every refpeft Wthat of » Voltaire, though Camoens 
wrote at the revival of learning, tre criticifm had given her bejR: rules to 
the modern Mufe. 

The poem of Camo«hs, indeed, fo fully vindicates itfetf, that this 
defence of it perhaps finiy feem unneceffary. Yet one confideration will 
vindicate this defence. The poem is written in a language unknown in 
polite literature. -Few arc Able to judge of the Original, and the unjuft 
clamour raifed againft it by Rapin || and Voltaire, has been received in 

• The machitiery 6f theHeftriade h bitcfly 
thus : The ibul of St. IxSttis tRs the pairt of 
Vehoi in the Eneid, and alivays procedt.the 
hero. When D'Aumale j5 wounded, and in 
danger of being killed. La Difcorde Tees it, 
AAd covering him with h* rron immenfi hn- 
fitmttMe ^t/tiht^^ fliei awa^ «rith him to 
the gices 6f Paris, where fht cUfes hit 
wounds. She then c6infbrts Mayenne, the 
Chief #f the League fcg^inft Henry. ^ She 
then Dies tn a whir! wind to the Vatican, 
tirhere (he mevts La Poiidqie. They then 
£nd Humble Rdigloii vt a deftit, aftd 
cloathing thenfelves in her facred vefhnents, 
Return to Paris, where they riAb abdut in a 
Hdody chariot, aldttg Witft the wthdrs of 
the League. Thefe foon after are repre- 
fented as at a magical facrifice, an obvious 
imitation of that of Camoens, Lci£ad VIIL 
where they have a Jew for their prieft ; and 
Henry appears to them riding hi a chariot ' 
of vi£lory. St. Louis then i&ti Hentyy in 
a dream, through Heaven and jlell. La 
Difcorde goes in fearch of Love, who is her 
brother ; and Love takes a journey tofrance, 
where, by the charms df MiditmoSftHt 
D'Etrce, he entices Henry to negled the 
war. St. Louis then feiios tho genius of 
France to roufe Henry. He return* to the , 
iiege of Paris, but, on the point of carrying 
the city by florm, the angel of France pre- 
vents him. D'Autealc, on the part of the 
League, fights a duel ; and dli tltt monfters 
of hell fly to his aOifbnce. But the heavens 
adwopfttp and an angei defcnnds on the 
throne of, the air, with the olive of peace, 
and th«?Wdrd of <3od*i vfengeance. D*Au- 
mkk falls, and the tufetnal Motiflers fiy 
•way. But St. Lo«tt witinpt aUow'Henry^ 
to take the city. The 6aint joes to the 
tnronr of God, "and prays for Henry*s con- 
verfion. The Eternal confents ; Truth de- 
,lbmds from he^ren tor the Hem,' vho tiimt 
Rothan Catholic St. Loiiii then appeurt^ 
with an olive bough in his hand> and leads 

Henry to the gates of Paris, which now 
open at his call, and receive him in the 
name of God. And thus the maohinerx 
and the poem conclude toother. ^ 

Nor is the ridicule of this machinery more 
evident, than the tvant of unity of atftroA 
which charaaerifes the HeftHade. Heniyl 
. jou^iey to Bncland, tliough it fills iieaf 
three parts of the poem, has no conneftion 
with the other parts of the aftion ; and the 
events do Acrt arife fit)m each other ; for St. 
Lnnil pretentk the efeAs of every viOory. 
<And the catlijlrophe is brought about by 
Hcniy*s converfion, mdependent of everv 
exertion of liis generalfliip or valour, whicn 
are properiy thfc fobjeft of the poejn. 

II It is an unhappy thinf w write in an 
unread tongue. Never was author fo 
miCreprefented by ifnorance as the poet of 
A)rtugal. Rapin, that cold-blooded critic, 
tdJs us, that to wtitc H good Epic, ** lij^aut 
difir*ytr di U prop^rtUn dams U dejfein^ it is 
neceffaty to obferve proportion in the dcfign, 
luflnefs in the thought, and not to fall into 
rambling.*'— He then aflerts, that Camoens 
tret^ffes againft all Aefe jnles— that \m 
wants difccrnment and conduft— that he 
thought jX nothing but to exprt fs the prifc 
of his nation, Ibr his ilyle, he iays, tfi far 
y fafifiiuxi fierce and ffilted. In another 
. place he fays, " pocticiil didion ought to 
be clear, natural, and hJitftioniouj, andr 
Obfblrity 14 its gitateft blemifh," — to 
which, having named Camoens, • he adds, 
'* ,fit vers Jont fi Dhjturs\ qi^iU fourroitnt 
pttjftr pourdes myftcres — his verfes are ft) ob- 
fcure that they may pafs fbf myfl<»rteA."*-. 
Perhaps 4w 0ld French veKion miy defend 
this^haraaer ; but oortaiih it is froA hence^ 
. that Rapin never read the original. Per- 
fpiciiity, elegant fimplicityi and the inoft 
natural unllrained harmony, is the juil 
•diai-afterifttc of the ilyte of Camoens. The 
npoeal is to the world. And ^ iirft Lin- 
guifi of the age, has given the ftyle of Ca- 

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Europe as its trf e charader. Lord Kaimes^f, and other a\)thor$y v^ry 
cordially coademn it9 mixture of Pagan and Chrillian mythology ; even 
condeo^n it in terms^ a9 if the Lufiad, the poem which of all other 
modern ones is the mod unexceptionable in t^is» were in xhh mixture 

m<Kns a vfry dilENaent cbanAcr from this 
of tUfin : Camoinjitim l^ufitmHum^ ai^uspwju 
adto *OMupa i(fiy amppUtmt W nibil ^t piffit 

kq^tt^ 4U /BfiorSf MS nihil fingi poffii magnifi- 
€fi$ffusf JoH i«9 Pa«ieo« A£at. CommeiK. 

MontefqgioA'i high idea of die Lufiad it 
cstfdp. 31 1. WeAall paly add the f«f- 
fragf of di4 great Cerv^ntec, wko» » ^ 
Xk>ti Qwcoti, C* iv. 1. 6* moll warmly «x- 
pitflet tu« idea of tke oxce Uencc of the 
gmm pi CamocM. 

t Lntd JUima th«s followt Voltaiiv : 
** Portagalwaarifing in power and fpleador 
fit *wq$ bAfimng fo th$ virj JUfi Jtws 
tf ifecUmJlon) ** whefi CaBK>cni wmte the 
" I.j]fi«d» mi wiiih 'afipeft to the JWifie of 
'* verlt it ha< merit* The author howe?)er 
*' if iarftom ihiai^g ip poiotof tfJUf^^ 
mtfier/j if^/criptini, mmJ UundUfi n)tari$$ff^ 
lm»tv»9 an hii (hmrA&mftUi* U$ k^ 
gi^iH iit • imm fimifi fi&imi im p^ty, 
4ni 0CimfJiMgt$ Fghain tbi fi9fj rf /«#« 
u §sfi0l l# th4h^ ^/Hrititn p4ru of. VirgiU) 
'* He nake# a ftraagc jiunble of Heohfn 
«« asd Chriaian Deitiei* '' Gama/* fh- 
•* fervet Volt««re, ** is a ftonn widftfts 
** his pr^tn to Chrift» bat it ij Vciioe who 
** comes to his relief.'' Vokaii«'i obfisr- 
•« Taaon i( bot too well founded ("mm J is i/ 
•W///» in tbo nmm jf trmh I) ** In the 
** firft book;, Jove ioramoos a comcil of 
«< die Godft which is defcribed at mot 
<« lengthy Ah- no earthly porpofe but to iliew 
/< tba« he favemod the PoFCaao^: Ba<. 
«< chas» on the other haodj dechuM againft 
«< them on the Mowing account, tlut he 
« huBufelf had gained tmmotial glory os 
•* conqaerof of India* whidi would be 
«< edipfed if the Indies (hould be conqocNvl 
•« a fecond nmn by the Portogaeie. A 
«< hioorilh commander having received 
•^ Gamn with fmiles, but with hatred in 
^* his heart* the poet brings down Bacchus 
<* from heaven to conirm the Moor in his 
«« wicked porpofes, which would have been 
^ perpetrated, had not Venus interpofed in 
** Uama's behalf. In the fecond canto 
<< Bacchus fci|ns himfelf to be a Chrifiian, 
** in order iro deceive the Portuguefe^ but 

<* Veoosimplofes her father Jupiter to pro* 
«« tea them." 

Such is the view of the Luiiad a^ven by n 
profeBed Critic. It is impoflible to msike 
any remark on U without »vii^ offence to 
Falfii Delicacy. But to that goddeft the 
Tranflator of the ^^rtd Caaioans wiQ ofer 
no facrifice. We have fully proved, and Ba* 
oon has hee» cited to explain the. philofo-^ 
phical reafon of it, that the fpirit of poetry 
deman^A fooifthing fiipamatural. Luc^n 
has be^ ffvcrely.ccoAnodf by the greateft 
of anctent a^M nio4ani critii^« fcr mt want 
of poetical doathtng or aUe^ory. The ipi* 
lit of poetry exiils in peribniicatioa i 

Tout ffind un ewpSf um ame^ vn ej^rit, itm 

and an alkgwical machinery if eflcntial co 
. the Epopceia. In this manner Virgil and 
Hoflvr ooodttft their poems. {Sm tin mu^, 
p. ac8.) But our ctiik pereeives nodisag. 
of this hind in Camoens. Thoogh the 
whole coadad of the Lufiad depends upon 
the cooncil hrid by Jove, upon the aH^^- 
<ai parts taken by the peHonagm of the 

Her rprcading honours thus the one iofjpir*4y 
And one the dread to lofe his Worfhip it'ii^ 

and choBgh this allegory is finely fuftained 
throughout the whole poem» whcreCeMial 
Love is ever mindful (Jr#B. 9.) that Jove or 
iaie hod decreed tlmt her altatv ihould 
.be reared in confe^uance of the/uccefs of 
her heroes; thoogh all this is truly Homaiif,. 
is what the world ever t&^tptid. the trite 
Epic condud, ov^f critic can fee no /tf/v^ 
purpofe in the council of Jove, but to (hew 
that he favoured the Lnfians; no reatei for 
the oppofition of Bacchus, hot that ha had 
been conqueror of India^ and was averfe it 
ihould be conquered a feooad time. In the 
fame ignocance of the Epic condud \t the 
vacant account of Bacchus and the Moor. 
But let our critic be toki, that thioagh the 
fides of Camoens, if his bl^ wiH avail, he 
has murdered both Homer ^nd Virgil. .What 
condemns the council of Jove in the Lufiad». 
condemns the councils of Jove in tu^k mc^ 


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the moft cgrcgioully unfufFcrabte — Befides, whatever has the fandion of 
the celebrated name of Voltaire will be remetnbered, and unlefs circum- 
ftantially refuted, may one time, perhaps, * be appealed to, as decifive, 
in the controvcrfies of liteniry X merit. 

•dels of the Epopceit||. What condcaini 
Bacchus and the Moor, condemns the part 
of Juno in the Eneid, and every interpofition 
of Juno and Neptune in Homer. To make 
the LMans believe Xhat Mombafia was inha- 
bited by ChrifHans, the Moors took the Am- 
bafladors of Garaa to a houfe, where chejr 
fhewed theat a ChrilHan altar. This is 
hiftory. Camoens, in the triie fpirit ^the 
Epic poetry, afcribes this appearance to die 
fllufion of Bacchus. He^or and Tunms 
are both thus decayed. . And Bacehus, as 
• akeady proved, was efteemed a ftUea angel 
-when our poet wrote. Nor are the ancients 
alont thos reprobated in the fentence pai&d 
upon Camoens. I( his machinery muft be 
condemned, with what accumulated weight 
mull his fentence fall upon the gieateft of 
our modem poets ! Bat the myftery is eafily 
. explained : There are a race of Critics, who 
, cannot perceive die noble profopopeia of 
MilCDo*s angels, who prefer Fohair^s Hin- 
riade to the Paradifi Lofl^ who would reduce 
a Vir^l CO a Lucan, a Camoens to a mere 
l&iflonan ; who would drip poetry of all her 
ornaments, becaufe they cannot iee then» 
of all her paffions^ becaufe they ^nnot feel 
them; in a word, who would loive her 
nothing but the neatncfs* the cadence, and 
the tinkle of ver(e« 

• Voltaire's defcription of the apparition 
near the Cape of Good Hope, is jnft as 
wide of the original as bombaft is from the 
true fttblime : yet it has been dted by feve- 
ral writers. In Camoens a dark cloud ho- 
rviers over the fleet, a tremendous notfe is 
^efard, G^ma exclaims in amaaement, and 
the apparidon appears in the air, 

— — rifing thro* the darKea*d air, 

Appall'd we ikw an hidaoiis Phantom shu«.— 
Every part of the defcripdon in Camoens is 
fublime and nobly adapted for the pencil. 
Tai Voltaire*s laft edition, the paflage is dius 
fendered— «' Cefi unt fanUm qui/^eQn/t 

—it is a phantom which rifes from the 
bottom of the fea, his head touches the 
clouds ; the tempefts, the winds, the thun- 
ders are around him, his arms are ftietcfaed 
afar over the furface of the waters"— -Yet 
not one pidurefque idea of this is in die 
Original. If the phantom's arms are 
itretched opon the furfiice of* the waters, his 
fhottlders, and hb head, which toodies ^e 
dottds, mufl only be above die tide. Yer» 
' though this imagerie, with tempefls, winds, 
and thunders banging around him, would be 
truly abfnrd upon canvas, a celebrated lu- 
lian writer has not only cited Voltaire's de- 
fcription, as that of tne Original, but has 
mcitaded that of the Frenchman by a fbx>ke 
of his own. The feet of the Phantom, fays 
Sign&r AUarettSf are in die imfiitfcoaubw 
abyfft of tne fea.'' (Sm bis tntuijt m iVinif- 
Hn^s Theory of Light mnd Onlomrs) Atod 
certainly, if his (houlden pd head reached 
from the furfiice of the waters to tiie dottds, 
the length which the Signor has giten to his 

C under the water was no bad calcdaidon. 
is^Algarotd the only abfnrd retailer of 
Voltaire's mifreprefentations. An Engliih 
Traveller, who lately publifhed an accouhc 
of Spain and Portugal, has quite compleated 
the figure. *• Sa bras /*itendent am Lin /mr 
ia /ur/ace des eanstf fajrs Voltaire ; and our 
Traveller thus tranHates it, <* His arms ex- 
lead over the mtboU furface of the waters.*' 
And thus the buiiefque painter is fiuniihed 
with the fineft defign imaginable for the 
mock fublime. A ^nre up to the arm-pits 
in the water, its arms extending over the 
vjhele forfaoe of the fea, its h^ in the 
doods, and its feet in the unfathomable 
abyfs of the ocean ! Very fine indeed, it is 
impofiUe to mend it farther. 

t As we have paid attention to the Uric* 
tures of Voltaire, fbme is ahb due to the 
paifes which he beftows upon the Lufiad. 
Though he &lfe!y afTerts that it wants con- 

i It is truly aftoniflmig, that one who )iaf read the Epic poets ihoidd have made this objeAion. A j5dbo6^ 
boy iiecdi not to be told how often a council of the God^ occurs in tlie U ud, Odyfley, and Encid. A pait 
at Mn Pope's aotc on the fifth Odyiley, may with propriety be here ciicJ. " This book, as well as tlye 
'* firil,** fays he, ■' opens with an aflembly of the Gods. This is done to givt an air of importance to bi^ 
** poem, and to prepare the mind of the reader toespc^ crcry thiny that is ^rcat and n^lfc, whca Heaven 
'' U engaged ifibthc^arc and protciCU#a of bis heroes/' . ' . i < • * 

* ' . nedionj 

Digitized by 




Other .views of the cpndud: of the now offer themfelves,. Be- 
fides the above rpiiiarks, many obfervations on the machinery and 
poetical condud, are in their proper places fcattered throughout the 
notes. The exuberant exclamatiops of Camocns are there defended. 
Here let it onhr be added, that the unhy of aftion is not interrupted by 
thefe patenthdesy ahd that if Milton's beautiful complaint of his blind* 
nefe be not an .imitation of them, it is in the fame manner and fpirit. 
Nor will we fcruple 139 pronounce, iliat fuch addreffcs to the Mufc Would 
have been admired in Homer, are an interefting improvement on the 
£popcsia, and lyili certainly ht imitated, if evet the world fliaU behold 
another real Epic poem. 

Th(B Lufiad, feys Voltarre. contains ^ firi of Epk poetrf unheard af 
iefore. Ho heroes are wounded a thoufand different ways ; no woman enticed 
fwqy and she world overturned for iw' ««/&.— But the very want of diefe, 
in place of fupportmg the objeftion intended! by Vxjkaire, points out the 
happy judtment and peculiar excellence .of 'Camoeas* If Homer has 
givtrh mT all the fire and hurry of battles,- he has akb. given lis all the 
•iihrnterefting tirefome detail. What reader but tnuft' Me tired with (l^c 
deaths of. a thoufand heroes, who are never ifenti^ned befone nor after- 
ward in the poem. Yet iri every battle we are Wearied out with £aik 
-GazefU Jctutns of the flain and wounded ■ 

^B^i^m^ U^WfitSriCy ore at Zsv( xv^os ]g(Jw«y; 
^Atrcratov fi^v ^fWT^> 5 AvrvvoaVy i^'Otrnjv, 

Ahrvfmy r Q^ov re^ ^ ^Ixnomv iKveXfl^^itiYiv 

T^e oi^ oy nyBfioyocc A«i/awy sT^r jxvrdt^ ^'ureiicL 

XL Litu XL Iin« 299^ 
Thu$ iloaitated by- Vir^l, 

Csedicus Alcathoum obtruncat, Sacrator Hyda' „ 
iParthenlumque Rapo, & pr^yruni viribus Orlen 
Mefiapus Cioniumque, Lycaoaium^ue JElricetem z 


fliedtoii» ke immedifttely adds, ^ T^it oIm 
frowvi enfiit que J^ouvra^i ifi fUin tle$ 
^randes i^tf»//j— This only proves, in fine, 
fliat die work is fall of grand beaatie$, fince 
thefe two hundred yean it hai been the de- 
light ff an ingenkmt natii>n«''«--The££tioA 

of the apparitnn, he i^wns, will pleafe In 
every agej and of the epifode of Inez, he 
fays, tl y afiu d*tndroits dans FirgiU fUu 
4rttemdriffkiUs'ii mltne tc^its r^ There are 
^feiv pacts of Viigil more tender or bet^r 

f f Ilium 

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Ilium, infraenis equi lapfu tellure jaccntem; / 

Hunc, peditem pedes. Et Lycius prbcefferat Agis, 
Quern tamen haud expers Valerus virtutis avitae 
Dejecit : Atronium Salius ; Saliumque Nealccs — 

. Mn. 1. X. 747. 

' * • ' ." ' 

With fuch catalogues is eyery battle extended; and what can be more 

tirefome than fucn uninterefting defcriptions an^ their imitations ! If 
•the idea of the battle be raifed by fuch enumeration, ftill the copy and 
original are fo near each other, that they can never two fepa- 
rate poem?. Nor are the greater parts of the battles of the. Eneid 
' much more diftant from thofe of the Iliad. Though Virgil with great 
*art has introduced a Camilla, a Pallas, and a Laufus, flill in many parti- 
culars, and in the fights there is, upon the whole, fuch a famenefs with 
• the Iliad, that the learned reader of the Eneid is deprived of the plea- 
fure infpired by originality. If the man of tafte, however, will be 
pleafed to mark how the genius of a Virgil has managed a war after a 
Homer, he will ' certainly be tired with a dozen of Epic poems in the 
. fame ftyle. Where the fiege of a town and battles are the fubjeft of an 
Epic, there will of neceffity, in the charadlers and circumftances, be a 
refemblance to Homer ; and fuch poem muft therefore want originality. 
Happy fqr Taflp, the variation of manners, and his mafterly fuperiority 
over Homer in defcribing his duels, have given his Jerufalem an air of 
novelty. Yet with all the difference between Chriftian and Pagan he- 
roes, we have ^ Priam, an Agamemnon, an Achilles, &c. armies flaugh* 
tered, and a city befieged. In a word, we have a hahdfome copy of the 
Iliad in the Jerufalem Delivered. If fome inntations, however, have 
been fuccefsful, how many other Epics of ancient and' modern times 
have hprried down the ftream of oblivion ! Some of tbeiii authors had 
poetical merit,, but the fault was in the choice of their fubjecfts.. Sa 
fully is the ftrife of war exhaufted- by Homer, that 'Virgil and Taflb. 
could add to it but little* novelty ; no wonder, therefore, that fo^many- 
Epics on battles and fieges have been, fuffered to fink into utter negled*. 
Camoens, perhaps, did not weigh thefe circumftances >^- but the flrength. 
of his poetical genius, diredtedhim^ He could not but feel what it was. 
to read Virgil after Homer ; and the original turn and force of his mind 
led him froiii the beaten track' of Helens and Lavinias, Achillefes, and 
Hedlors, fieges and flkughters, where the hero hews down anddrives to 
flight whole armies with his own fword. To conftitute a poem worthy 
of the name of Epic in the higheft and ftrSfteft fcnfe,^. fbme grand cha- 
ra&eriftics of fubjedt arid' condiift, peculiarly its own, are abfolutely 
neceflary. Of all the modems, Camoens and Milton have alone attained 
this grand peculiarity nn an eminent degree. Camoens was the firft gc* 
niprre and fuccefsful poet who wooed the Modern Epic Mufe^ and Ihe 


Digitized by 




YC 'him the wreath of a firft Lover < J fort of Epic Poetry unheard <jf 
^efare; or, as Voltaire- calls it in his laft edition, une nouveUe effhce d^Epo-, 
pie. . And the grandeft fubjeft it is (of profane hiftory) which the 
world has ever beheld *• A voyage ef^eemed too great for man to dare ; 
the adventures of this voyage, through unknown oceans, deemed unna* 
viable } U^e Eaftefn World happily difcovercd, and for ever indiffolubly 
joined and giyen to thcWeftern; the grand Portuguefe empire in th^ 
Eafl founded ; the humani^ation of mankind, and univerfal commerce 
the confequence! What are the adventures of an old fabulous hcro*$ 
arrival in Britain^ what are Greece and Latium in arms for a woman, 
compared to this ! Troy is in aihes, and even the Roman empire is n^ 
TDoit. But the efieds of the voyage, adventures, and bravery of th^ 
Hero of the Lufiad, will be felt and beheld, and perhaps increafe in im- 
portance, while the world ihall remain. 

Happy in his choice, h^ppy ^o was the genius of Camoens in the 
method of purfuiag his fubjed. He has not, like Taffo, given it a 
total appearance of fidion ;. nor has he, like Lucan, excluded allegory 
and poetical machinery. Whether he intended it or not, for his genius 
was fufficieiit to fuggeft its propriety, the judicious :precept of Pctronius 
IS the model of the Lufiad, That elegant writer< ptopofes a poem on 
the civil war ; Eece Belli CiviliSj fays he, ingens ppu^r-^ — Nw enim res gefl^ 
vtrjibus comprehendenda funt (quod hnge melius hijlorici, faciunt) fed per amr 
kages Deorumque minijeria^ &? fabukfum fententiarum tormentum pnecipitandus 
iff liber fpiritus : ut potius furentis animi vaticination appareaty quant religic^f 
4)ratumis fub tejlibus /iilrj— — No poem, anticnt or modern, merits tbip 
character in any degree comparative to the Lufiad, A truth of hiftory 
ts. preferved, yet, what is improper fot the hiftorian, the miniftry of 
heaven is employed, and the free fpirit of poetry throws itfelf into fic- 
tions, which make the whole appear as an effufion of prophetic ^ury^ 
and not like a rigid detail of fa^s given under the fanftion o£ witnelSes* 
Contrary to Lucan, who, in the above rules drawn from the riJ^turc of 
poetry, is feverely condemned by Petronius, Camoens condufts his poem 
jber ambages Deorumque minifieria* The apparition, whiph in the nighf 
iiovers athwart the fleet near the. Cape of Qood Hope, jfi the graijdcft 

* The Drama and the Bpopceia are in hatifted. Thete cannot poflibly ht (6 n0f 

sething fo dilforent as in this : The fubicds portant a voyage as diat which gave tbs 

W the Drama are ioexhaaftible, thole of kaftern World to the Weftenu Aad did 

the Epopceia are periiaps exhaufted. He even the ftory of Columbus zfford material 

i^ho thokis 'war and' the warlike dura&en. ' equal to that ' of Gama, tlie adventures of 

cannot appear as aa x>riginat. . It wjs weQ the hero» and the view of the extent of |J^ 

for the memory of Pope; that he dli not difcoverics, rtiuH now appear as fcrvilc copies 

lyrite the Epic poem he intended. It would of the Lofiad. The view of Spanilh A«ie- 

liave been only a copy of Virgil. Camoens rica, given in the Juracama^ is not onjy a 

'and Milton have bwn happy in the novelty mere copy, but is introduced evea by'thf 

^ their fubjc^; and the/c they have .ex- very machinery of Camoens. 

Digitized by 




iiaion in human cotnpoikion ; the ihrentiptt hit owti ! Itt the Iflaftd 
t)f Venus, the ufc of which fi^ton in an Epit poem iJ alfo his own, 
ke has given the coiftplcaeeft dTeffiblfage (rf all the floWeri which havd 
ever adorned the bowtf ii of lOve. And ntv^r was the fitMtih dnliHl ifd- 
Ticinatio more coitl^kMoufly diQ)Iay*d thtH itt the prajphetlc fong, the 
View of the fpheres> ehd of the globe df the catth. T«(RfS hnrtatiod 
df the Ifland of Vewas is Mt e^uat tct the orfgillal? and tkburfi ^ Vtf- 
girs myrrles » d'ipoppifig Wo^ ate n^Hfhlttg lo Tfeflb^ fecBafrted forcft,*' 
vhat afc aH Ifcieno** inchamiftefits td At grandeur and hoffor of the 
appearance, prophec7> wid evanlihttient tft thefpeAffe df Caittoen* f J-^ 
It has been long agreed a JAoUg^ tht critics, that the iblenflfntty of feHgfotrt 
obferVattces gives great dignity tathe hlftdrieal Narrative of the Epcpefeia^ 
Camoens, in the embfti^katiott of the fleet, and ill i*cvefal other pkcey, 
is peculiarly happy in the dignify of ifefigie/ui Irlhkfiotis. Manners and 
charader are Mo tetpakiiA Iti the Epk poetfii But all the EpicS Hvhich 
fcave appeared, are, exe^^t two^ mere copies of the Iliad in thefc; 
Every one has its AgaiDemtton, Achilles, A}ax, and Ulyflfef, iti catet, 
furious, grofs, tinA ihtelligetst Kefo^ Camoens and Miltoh happily left 
this beateUr ttack^ this eKha(tifted fieUt, and have givetl US pictures of 
toahners unknown in the Iliad, the Eneid, and all thofe poems whidi 
may be clafled with the Thebaid* The Lufiad abounds wirfi piAure^ 
Df manners, from thofe of the higheft chivalry j. to thofe of the fudeft, 
(Serceft, and moft innocent barbatirm* In th^ fifth, fixth, and hinth 
tooks, Leonardo and Velofo are painted in ftronger colonrs than any of 
the inferior charaders in VirgiU But ftriking- charafter, indeed, ia not 
th^ eiccellence of the Eneid. That of Monzaida, the fKend of Gama^ 
h much foperior to that of Achates. The bafe, ielfifli, perfidious, and 
tttiel charader of the Zamorim and the Moors, are painted in the 
ftxHigeft ccJours ; and the cbarafter cf Gama himfelf, is that of the fi* 
niihed hero. His cod command of his paftons, his deep fitgacity, his 
fixed intrepidity, bis tendemefs of heart, hi^ Wianly l)iety, and his high/ 
^nthufafm In the love tf his country* aK all difplayed in thefnperlative- 
degree^-— — And to the oovel^ty of the manners of the Lufiad, let thr 
novelty of fire-arms alfo be added.^ It ha^ been faid, that the buckler,, 
the bow^ and the fpear, muft ever continue the arms of poetry* Yet,, 
^lowevet unfticcefsful others may have been, Camoens has proved that 
Ifoe-arms may be introduced with the greateft dignity and fioudft ^&& ipi 
ikt Epic Poem. 

As the gMMid inteiefl: of commerce and of mankind forma the fu^jeft 
^ the Lufiad, fo< with great pi^priei7j^ at nece^ry accompanimeus t6» 

~^' Btt htaoenwt Cbhealrv aad SLomance. gal veating their murmurs man tbe beadii 

t The Ldiad it alib rendered poetical b; when Gama ^ts iail, diiplay the riehoefi 

^er fiftiona^ The elegant faqrr on \dnt «f OOr Author's poetical geniBi> and ara 

Sebaftian, under the name of Aafeon ; 4n9 not inftrmr to any thing of the kind< in- 

ibe fpofoposoda. of the-xofulaoe of Eoan»> the Ciaffici- 

Digitized by 


D I S S .E R TAT 1 OH. #cui 

the voyage of his Hero^ the Antkor has j^:v«o pdetical fdAiffes of the 
four parts of the worlcL In the third book a view q( Europe ; in the 
fifth a vieNV of Afdca.; and in the tenth, a pifture of Afia and America. 
Homer and Virgil haaic beea highly praifed for theis jjudgment in their 
feiedtion of fubjeds which interefied their countrymen ; andStatius has 
been as feverely condemned fot his uninterefting choice. But though 
the fubjedt of Camoens. be particularly interefting to his countr}'men, it 
has alfo the peculiar happinefs to foe the Poem of every trading nation. 
It is the Epic Poem of the Birth of Commerce. And in a particular 
manner the Epic Poem of that country which has the comtroul and pof- 
ieffion of the commerce of India. 

.An unexhaufted fertili^ and variety of ppetical defcription, an unex* 
baufted elevation of fentiment, and a copflafit tenor of the grand fen* 
pKcity of di^on^ complete the chara^r of the Lufiad of Camoens : A 
poem, which, though it has hitherto received from the public moSt un^ 
merited negleft, and from the critics moft flagrant uijuftice, was yec 
better underftood by the greateft poet of Italy. Taffo never ^d hi» 
judgment more credit, than when he^ confefled that he dreaded Camoens 
as a rival ; or his generofity more honour, than when he addrefled' thi^ 
elegant Sonnet to the Hero of the Lufiad : 


Vafco, le cui felici, ardite antenne 
) In oontro al Sol, cbe na ripoieta il giiQriw 
Spte^r le vele, e fer ceii ritorno, / 
I/Qve egli par che di cadere accenne ; 

t Non pitk di te per afpro. mar ^ftenne 

Quel,; che fece at Ciclope oltragg^o,. e fcosno i 
Ne chi torbo I'Arpte nel fuo fo^^tomo ; . * 
Ne di4 l^id bel foj^etto a coke pemie. 

Et hor quelhl del colto, e buon' Lxnp, 
' Tant' oitre ftende il gforiofo vote 
Che i tuoi ifialmati legni andar men lunge* 
Ond^ a quelli, a cui s'aibia ii lioilra polo, 
£t a chi ferma in contra i fuoi vefUgi, 
per t\A dpi corfb tuo la feoia ag^unge. , 

S a » N E T. 

Vafco, whoie bold and hap^ bowfprit bore : . 

Againft the rifirig morn; and, homeward fraught^ 
Whofe fails came weftward with the day,, and brought 
The wealth of India to thy wmdA^l^i 

Digitized by 



Crisis ERT AT I O n; 

Ne'er ilid the Greek fuch length of feas explore^ 
The Greek, who forrow to the Cyclop wrought; 
And he, who, Viftor, with the Harpies fought^ 
Never fuch pomp of naval honours *orc. 

Great as thou art, and pcerlefs in renown, ' , 

Yet 'thou to Cambens ow*ft thy noblcft fanic; ' ; 

Farther than thou didft fail, his deathlcfs fong 
Shall bear thi^. dazzling^ fplendor of thy name ; 
. And under many a iky thy aftions crown, - ,- 

While Time and Fame together ^Ude along* 

. It only remains to give fome account of the VcrjSpn of the LiiiiacJ^f 
which is now offered to the l^ublic. Befides the Tranflatlons men-;) 
tioned in the life of Camoens, M. Duperron De Caftera, in 1735,' 
cave in French profe a loofe unpoetical paraphrafe * .of the Lufiad*; 
Wdr does Sir Ricljard Fanfliaw^s Englifli vcr6on, publilhed during thcj 
ufurpation of Cromwell, . merit a better charafter. Though ftanza be- 
rendered for flanza, though at fixft view it has the appearance, of being. 

* Caftera was every way unequal to hU 
tal:. He did not perceive hu ao^jhor's 
beauties. He either iuppr^fles or lowers the 
moft poetical paifa^es, and fubftitutesFfSQdi 
dnfel and impertinence in .their place: . In 
the neceflary lUoftratiotts in tbe notes, thd 
citations mm Caftera will Ymdicate this 

Soon after the firft ptiblication of the 
En^lifti Lofiady a new French pmfe tranf- 
lation of Csynoens was publiihed by M. 
de^ La Harpef. He confeire9 diat he re- 
ceived a literal tranflation of his 'Aathor, 
from a perfon well acquainted widi th^Oii-' 
ginal. This, he fays, he propbied to ani- 
mate with the fire of ppedy^ and he owns • 
lie has ibmetimes abridged h»' text. His 
ftyle, however, is much Jefs poetical than 
cvenCaftera's, whom h? feverely condemns. 
A literal profe tranflation of poeiiy is an 
attempt as abfard as to tranfhte nre into 
water* What a wretched figure do the moft 
elegant odes of Horace make in a literal 
profe tranflation ! And no literal tranflation 
for the ufe of fchool^ was ever^nore unlike 
the Original, m fpirit, yigpnr, and elegance, 
than the fometinfts literal, and fometimes 
mangled verfion of M. de La Harpe, whidi 
ieems to^be publiflied as a facrince to th^ 
wounded vanity of 'his admired Voltaire. 
La Harpe ftands forth, againft €afttra, as 

the defender of Voltaire's criticifm on the 
Liifiad. Caftera, indeed, has fbmetimes 
abfnrdty defended his Author ; but a tranf- 

• later ot the Lufiad, who could not perceive 
it^c manypoh mifreprefentations of Vol- 
' 6ure^ moft have hdrried over his Author 
widi YeryUtHe ettendon. He adopts the 
. ipirit of aU Voltair6's obje^ons, and com- 
mends only where he commends. Want of 
unity in the Epic oonduft is Voltaire's very 
rafli chara^r of Camoens. And La Harpe 
as raihiy'afierts, that the poem ends in the 
feveiith book, when Gama arrives in India. 

: But he nMgkt as well Juive aflTerted, that the 
Eneid ends with the landing of Eneas in 
Italy,* Both heroes hifire much to accom- 
plilh after their arrival in the defired coun- 
try. And the return of Gama, after having 
fubdued every danger, is exadly parallel to 
the death of Tumus. And this^ Return, 
- without which Gama's enterprize is inoom- 
.plete, is managed .by Camoens, at the 
dofe of iii po^, iA 'cne concife and true 
fpirit of Virgil. A tranflator of the Lufiad, 
wti^ could not perceive this, is indeed moft 
inginiomjly fuferjiciai. But La Harpe's fen- 
cence bffthe Pandife Eoii; which])s 
" dign€ d*um fycU de harharie — worthy of 
an age. of barbarity," will give the Englifli 

' 'reader a jaft idea of his poetical tafte. 


Digitized by 


.D I S Si E R T A T I O N. 


. exceedingly literal, thiis veriion is neverthelefs exceedingly uofaithful. 
Uncountenanced by his origioal, Fanfliaw— /f«»j with many a dead-born 
jejt^ — ^Nor had he the leaft idea of the dignity of the Epic f jftylc, or 
erf the true fpirit of poetical tranllation. For this, indeed, no definite 

. rule can be given. The Tranflator's feeliiigs alone muft diceft him ; 
for the fpirit of poetry is fure to evaporate in literal tranilatiom. 

X Pope, Odyff. xx. 

t Richard Fanihaw, Efq; afterwards Sir 
Richard, was Englifli AmbafTador, both at 
Madrid and Lilian. He had a tafte.fbr 
Hteratare, and tranilated frosi the Italian 
feveral pieces, which were of fervice in the 
•tefinemeot c£ our poetryw Thongh bis La* 
' fiady hy the dedication of it ta IVilliam 
* Ear] o{ Strafford^ dated May I, i6^Cr ieeAis 
as pubiiihed by himfelf, we are tdd by the 
Editor of his Letters, that '^ during the 
*< unfettled tiines of our Anarthy^ fome of 
*' his MSS. falling by misfortane into un- 
*' ikilful hands, were printed and publifhed 
'* without his confent or knowledge, and 
'^ before he could sive them his laft finiih- 
*' ing ftrdcet: Su<± was his tranllation of 
" the Ufiads^ 

The great refp^£t dne to the memory of 
.^ a gentleman, who, in the unpropitious age 
of a Cromwell, endeavoured to cultivate 
the Eneliib Mufes, and the acknowledge- 
ment of hia friend, that his Lufiad received 
not his finilhin^ ftrokes, mav ieem to de- 
mand that a veil ihoold be tnrovva over its 
iaults. And not a blemiOi fhould have Been 
pointed out hy the prefent Tranflator, if the 
xeputation ot Camoens were unconcerned, 
and if it were not a duty he owed his reader 
to give a fpecimen of the former tranllation. 
We have j>roved that Voltaire read and drew 
his opinion of the Lufiad frooi Panftiaw. 
And Kapin moft probably drew his from 
the fame fource.. rerfpicuity is the charac- 
i^ftic of Caokoens ; yet Rapin fays, his 
verfes are fo obfcure they appear like mvf- 
teries. Fanfhaw is indeed fo obfcure^ that 
the prefent Tranflator,. in dipping into 
him, into parts which he had even theit 
tranilated, has often been obliged to have 
recourfe to the Portngueie, to difcover his 
meaning. Sancho Panz^ was not fonder 
of proverbs. He has thruft many into his 
Ver£on. He can never have enough of con- 
ceits^ low allufions, and expreffions. When 

nthering of flowers, ** 4u iomnaf a^an- 
Zattdo" u fimply mentioned (C. 9. ft. 24.) 
he gives it, gatbir'd fivwen by pecks* And 
dke Indian Regent is avaricious (C. 8. ft. 95 .} 

Murnhg a ketter fenrry thence to get. 

Bat enough of thefe have already appeared 
in the notes. It is necefTary now to give a 
few of his ftanzas entire, that thh reader 
may ifbrm nr idea of the manner and Q>irit 
of the old tnmilatio^ Nor fkafl we i^lea 
the fpedmens.^ The noble attitude of Mars, 
in die firft book, is the firft ftriking defcrip* 
tion ID dte poem^ and is thus rendered^ 

Lifting a little up his Helmet-f^ht 
('Twas adamant) with confidence enoagh. 
To PTC his votr hun&lf he placed right 
Before the tbrooe of JoTe» arm*d» valiant, tough l 
And (giving wfth the butt-end of hik pyke 
A great thumpe on the floor of pureft (hifie) 
The heavens did tremble, and Apollo's light 
It went and came, Uke colour in a fright. 

And the appearance of Indians .in* caaofi^ 
. approaching th^ fleet, is the wi^ next de* 
fcnption woich occurs i , 

For ftreight out of that Iflc which icem*d moft.necr 

Unto the continent. Behold a number 

Of little Boats in companie appeer, . 

Which (dapping all wings on) the bng 84»'fbBd«r t 
, The men.are rapt with joy, andwith the mder 

Excefs of. it, can x>nly look,. and wonder.. 

What nation*s^ this, (within themfelvestheyfigr) 
What rites, what lawi, what kihg do they obey ; 

Their coming thus : In boats with fins ; nor flat. 
But apt t' o*re-<et (as bciog ptncht and long) 
jtnd then tky*d fwim ftke rait \ The^yie^ of mat 
Made of palm-leaves wove cunoufly and.ftrong. 
The mens complexion, the felf-fame with that 
Hv t gave the earth's burnt ports (from heaven flung) , 
Who WM move brave than wUe ; That this is true 
The 1^0 doth know and Lampetufii rue. 

, It may be neceilkry to add, the .veripn 
of Fanfhaw, though the Luiiad ver^ parti- / 
cularly requires them, was given, ta the 
Public without one note. 

Not in thf Ongiaal. 


Digitized by 


ccxxW B I S: S E' R T A T 10 N. 

Licrral trkofatbii<of -pderrf 4s in realhy a falecirm« You may con* 
\ftrue ycttr authpoc^ iodeedj -bat if .wiiih fame I'ranilatars you boaft that 
you have Jeft ^our author to fpeek for himfelf, that you have iieither 
added nor diminiihed^ you reality ^rofsly abufed him, and deceived 
youtfeifL Your iioeiul trMfbdon can have mo claim to the origioal fieii- 
cities of exjireffioci^ the cncDgy^ elegance^ aiul fre of the origtnal 
poetry. It may bear^ indeed, a refemblance, but fuch a one as a corpfe 
-fii .the ibpukhre bead to ihe fofiner man when he moved in the bloom 
dad vigour erf lik. 

Net wrhnm ^verh curabis redderty fidis 
Imerpv^s ■■ 

--ytm the tafte df the Augiiftah ^; None but a Ppet can {ranflate a Po^t. 

*Thc freedom which thw pr<eci?pt:,^ive3, will, tbexCforQ, in a poet's hii^ds, 
>iioCioiiiy ia&ife the ^enengy^ele^gifice^ u^ fire of his author's poetry iaco 
l^is rmx\ v»erfon, but wi^l -give it'alfo the fptritof an^niginah 

He who can conftrue may perform all that is claimed by the literal 
Tranflator. Qe who atteisnpts tjie manner of tranilation prefcrlbed by 
Horace, ventures upoii a taik of geeiMS. Yet, h^wev^r darii^* the 
undertaking, and however lie tnay have faiJed in it, the Tranilator 
acknowledges, that in this fparit he endeavoured to give the Luiiad }n 
•Etiglifli. Even farther liberties,, in one or two inftances, fccmed to him 
advantageous-^— — But a miAutenefs-^ in tbe mentioa of thcfe will not. 

^ Some liberties of a lefs poetical ..kind, 

' aiMvC'VCJ'y fMNBfc *to -'be mcv^ioiied* In 

Hamer aad WgU's lilb of (bin wtAttM, 

Dryden and Popd Inrve enitted Several 

names which jwcould bave rendered EngUfli 

▼erfification dull and drefome. Sevjeru 4I- 

Infions to antieat hiftory and fable liare ((x 

: Aisjeafonfaefiaahrid^^. e.^. Inthejuayer 

of iGama <Bo«k 6.) tiiemmtiim of^PaiiU 

** thoQ-wlwdefiveredftAmU anddefeodedil 

Jiim from q iii£kfand$ and wild watves^<- 

Das /cyrtes .annofys ii on^as Jtas* ** 

is Qomttod. Uai«r«vier eaKetiant in ibe cri- 
ginal, tiM jpi^yer in 'fi»gifi(h, f«di is 4>e 
dtfiereooeor lansoages^ woqld lofe both its 
dignity. and acSuiTi .if burxhjcned with a 
famerepii^ienitiQO. N9r.ktih0<ricic, if 
he £nd the mQaoinf -of -Camoeos in (bme 
infbmces altered, imagine t|iat he, has 
'fettkd a blonder 'lA i4ie Tranflator. He 
who dnifes to ice a flight ^ten^n of this 
kind, niH Sndan idAiuice, which will give 
kim an idea of o^ers, in Can. 8. ft. 48. 
and another in Can. 7. ft. 41. It was not 
to grati^ the Dull Few, whole greateft^plea- 

ftre In reading a tranftation is to fee what, 
the aothor exaftly fays ; it was to give a 
poem that might, live in the Engliih lan- 
guage which was the asibhion of me Txanf- 
lator. And for the fame zeafon he has 

,not confined himielf to the Portaguefe or 
^panifti pronunciation of proper names. It 
is ingenioufly obferyed in the Rambler, that 
Milton, by the . introdn^ion of proper 
names, often sives. 'great digni^ J^e' V* 
▼eife. Regarolef^, dierefore, of Spanifh 
proQonciation, the Tranllator has accented 
Qranada, Bvora, Hz. in the jnanner which him to give moft digniw to Eng- 

' fiik verfificaiimi. In the worcfsq^la he has 
even reje^ed the authority of Milton, and 
fcdlowed die more fonorous nfage of Fap- 
ihaw. Thus Sir Ridiard : *' Againft S(9^ 
ffda*i tattered fort.*' And thus M&ton : 
" Jnd Scfula thought Ophtr-^*' Which 
is the moft fonorous there can be no diipute. 

' If the Tranflator, however, is found to have 
treipafted againft good tafte in theie liber- 
ties in the pronunciation of proper names, 
he will be very willing to acknowledge and 
corre^ his error. 


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. in thefe pages, appear with a good grace* Ht fliall only add, in this 
new Edition, that fome of the moft eminent of the Portuguefe Literati, 
both in England, and on the Continent, have approved of thefe free- 
doms ; and the Original is in the hands of the world. 

It is with particular pleafure that the Tranflator renews his acknow« 
ledgments to thofe Gentlemen who have patronifed his work. On his 
firft propofals to give the Luiiad in Engliih, the ingenious Mr. Magellan, 
of the family of the celebrated Navigator, was zealous to promote its 
fuccefs. To many Portuguefe Gentlemen he owes the affiftance of books 
and information, conferred in the mod liberal manner : and their ap- 

grobation of his firft Edition reconciles him to a review of his labours, 
oth to public and private libraries he is much indebted ; particularly to 
the valuable colledion of Thomas Pearfon, Efq; of the Eaft India Com- 
pany's fervice. The approbation expreffed by feveral Gentlemen of the 
Eaft India Company, on the appearance of the poem on the Difcovery 
of India in its Engliih drefs, gave the Tranflator the fincereft fatisfac- 
tion. To Governor Johnftone, whofe anceftors have been the hereditary 
patrons of the anceftors of the Tranflator, he is under every obligation 
which the warmeft zeal to promote the fuccefs of his undertaking can 
poffibly confer. To this Gentleman, in a great meafure, the appearance 
of the Lufiad in Englifli is due* To the friendfliip of Mr. Hoole, the 
elegant Tranflator of TaflTo, he is peculiarly indebted. To James 
Bomell, Efq; he confeflfes many obligations. And while thus he recoi- 
leds with pleafure the names of many Gentlemen from whom he has 
received affiftance or encouragement, he is happy to be enabled to add 
Dr. Johnfon to the number of thofe, whofe kindnefs for the man, and 
good wiflies for the Tranflation, call for his fincereft gratitude. Nor 
muft a tribute to the memory of Dr. Goldfmith be negle&ed. He faw 
a part of this verfion ; but he cannot now receive the thanks of the 
Tranflator. The manner in which his Grace the Duke of Buccleueh 
took the Englifli Lufiad under his patronage, infinitely inhanced the 
honour of his acceptance of the Dedication. 

But, though previous to publication the Tranflator was thus. flattered 
with the approbation of fome names, for whom the Public bear the 
greateft refpeft ; though he introduced to the Englifli Reader a Poem, 
truly Virgilian, he conteflfed he had his fears for its fate. And however 
the approbation of fome of the greateft names in the Englifli polite lite- 
rature may have fince gratified his faultering hopes, the confcience of his 
inability, and the charafter of the age, gave no falfe foundation to his 
uneafy apprehenfions. We are not, indeed, in the condition of ancient 
Rome, when, in the declenfion of her literature, the Latin tongueVas 
defpifed, and the Greek only admired. Yet, though a mafterly treatife 
in fome branches of literature would immediately receive the reward 
due to merit; ere the juft reputation of his poetry be fixed, the 

g g Author 

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ccsnrv D I S S E R T A T I O !?• 

•Author perhaps *n^ he wkwcfriic applaufe of !theaf«orjd^aottot come, 
(Longnfter 'ShiAEdpeare -wrote, and thirty years after the ParadifeLdl 
wai publSSiedy Shgftfl>ury ipronounced that the lEnglifli Mufes were 
lifping in their cradtes. And Temple^ a much greater authority in 
poetical tafle, -^fteems Sidney the greateft of all modem poets. J^or 
was'His -negkA 'of Milton fingular« Even though that immortal Au- 
^fhofSs reputation -be noMrfixed, I have known a ;leanmed gentleman who 
eodld not endure a line of the Paradife Loft ; who y^t, with feeming 
capture, would repieat v^ole pages of Ovid. There is a dharm in the 
found of a language which is not debafed by familiar ufe. And as it 
was in falling Rome, nothing in his vernacular tongue will be highly 
efteemed by the Scholar of dull tafte. A work which claims poetical 
merit, while its reputation ia uneftabliihed, is beheld, by the great ma* 
jority, with a cold and a jealous eye. The prefent age, indeed, is happily 
aujpicious to Science and the Arts; but Poetry is neither the genera) 
tafte, nor the faihicmable favourite of thefe * times. Often, in the 
difpirited hour, have thefe views obtruded upon the Tranflator. While 
be has left his Author upon the table and wandered in the fields, thefe 
views have cloathed themfelves almoft imperceptibly in the fianza and 
allegory of Spenfer. Thus connected with the Tranflation of Camoens„ 
unfiniihed as they are, they ihall clofe the Introdudion to the Engliik 

Hence, vagrant Minftrel, from my thriving farm. 
Far hence, nor ween to (hed thy poifon here : 
My hinds defpifb thy lyre's ignoble charm ; 
Seek in the Sloggard's bowers thy ill-carn*d cheer : 
There while thy idle chaunting foothes their car. 
The n<»ciou6 thiftle choika their fickly corn > 
Their apple boughs, ungrafrd>. four wildings bear,. 
And o'er the ill-fenced dales with fleeces torn 
Unguarded from the fox, their lambkins ftray forlorn. 

* ** Poetry makes a principal amiifemeiit rions cntertsdnmfinty diev at firft rival Poelryr 

among unpolifhed nations s bat in. a coimtry . and at length fopplant her ; they engrofs all 

verging to the extreines of refinement, that fiivoor once Ihewn to her, and thoiighr 

fainting and 'Mofic come in for a ihare. hat younger fifters, feiae jnpon thr.eider'^ 

«As tHite offer the feebl« mind a left kbo« .hir Aright.''«^G0/i^if^r 


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Such niis: witkers^tbe ne^casd 6>Hf 
When to the fong the Ul'-ftarr'd fwain attends* 
And well thy o^cQd repays thy worthlefi toii& 
Upon thy houfqlefs head pale w«nt defcends 
In bitter (hower : And taunting fcorn itill rends^ 
And wakes thee trembling from thy golden dream : 
In vetchy bed, or loathly dungeon ends - 
Thy idled life W hat fitter may befeem. 
Who poifons thus the fount,, ihould drink the poifon'd ftream. 

And is it thus, the heartTftung Minftrel cry'd. 
While indignation (book his filver'd head. 
And is it thus, the grofs-fed lordling's pride. 
And hind's bafe tongue the gentle Bard upbraid ! 
And muft the holy, fong be thus repaid 
By fun-bafk'd ignorance, and chorliih fcorn I 
While liftlefs drooping in the languid (hade 
Of cold negle£k, the facred Bard muft mourn. 
Though in his hallowed bceaft heaven's pureft ardours burn ! 

Tet how fublime, O Bardj the dread beheft. 
The awful truft to thtfe by heaven aiQgp'd ! 
'Tis thine to humani^ the favage breaft. 
And form in Virtue's mo^rfd the youthfiil mind ; 
Where lurks the latent ipark of geaen)u& kind, ^ 

'Tis thine to bid the dormant ember bla^e : . 
Heroic rage with gentleil worth combined . 

Wide through the land thy farming power difplays. , 
So fpread tkA oHye bon|[h^.te<iif0ll:P«^n Phjaebus. rays. ^ \ 

-: * g g ^ And 

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Gcijcviii D 'l -S S E R t A T I O- N. 

When Heaven decreed to foothe the feudt that tote 
The wolf-eyed Bafons, whofe unlettered rage 
Spurn'd the fair Mtife ; Heaven bade on Avon's ihore- 
A Shakefpeare rife and foothe the barbarous age : 
A Shakefpeare rofc; the barbarous heats afwage 
At diilance due how many bards attend } 
Enlarged and libera} from the narrow cage 
Of blinded zeal new manners wide extend. 
And o er the generous breaft the dews of heaven defcend. 

And fits it you, ye fons of hallowed power, 
Te hear, unmoved, the tongue of fcom upbraid 
The Mufe negledted in her wintery bower ; 
While proudly flourifliing in princely (hade 
Her younger fifters lift the laurel'd head— 
And {hall the pencil's boldefl mimic rage. 
Or fofteft charms, fore-doom'd in time ta fade^ 
Shall thefe be vaunted o'er th* immortal page. 
Where paffion's living fires bum unimpaired by age F 

And fhall the warbled ftrain or fweeteft lyre, 
Thrilling the palace roof at night's deep hour ; 
And (hall the nightingales in woodland choir 
The voice of heaven in fweeter raptures pour I 
Ah no, their fong is tranfient a; the flower 
Of April morn : In vain the fhepherd boy 
Sits liftening in the filent Autumn bower ; 
The year no more reftores the fliort-Uved joy; 
Aiid never mor« his harp fhall Orpheus' hands employ* 

^ . Eternal 

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Eternal Silence in her cold deaf ear 
Has clofed his ftrain ; and deep eternal night 
Has o'er Apelles* tints, fo bright while-crc. 
Drawn her bltok curtains— never to the fight 
More to be given But cloath'd in heaven's own light 

Homer's bold painting (hall immortal fhine ; 
Wide o'er the world (hall ever found the might. 
The raptured mufic of each deathlefs line : 
For death nor time may touch their living foul divine. 

And what the ftrain> though Perez fwell the note. 
High though its rapture, to the Mufe of fire ! 
Ah what the tranfient founds, devoid of thought. 
To Shakefpeare's flame of ever-burning ire. 
Or Milton's flood of mind, till time expire 
Foredoom'd to flow ^ as heaven's dread energy 
Unconfcious of the bounds of place ■' 



by Google 

( ctxxif )- 

A P P E N I> IX. 

-C0pia ddi Patentes dos Vict Itets^ i^Cofi^ 
Generaes da Mia, tonfarme fi achao no 
Conceibo UltramarM -ik tlfion, 

" T^ N.... por gra^deLDeo$Rtyde- 
I 3 », Portugal c dos Algarves, (Taquem 
ed'alem-marem Afriea, Se^or de Gohie, e 
da Conqaifta, Navegacio e Commercio da 
Ethiopia, Arabia, Pcriia, e da India, lie, 

*« Fa90 fabcr aos que ^fta mintai Carta* 
Patente virem, que atendehdb a qualidade, 
merecimento, « mais {MUtes tf^e concdrrelki' 
na peiToa dc N.... Hci por Dcm dc o no* 
mear (como por efta ndxneio) no>ni]*tfgo 
de Vice-Rey, e Caphao^eneral de mar e 
terra, dos Eiladoo da India, e flias depea^- 
dencias, por temoo de trez ahnos, t o mail 
que £u for fervido, em ^uanto l&e nio no<- 
mear fucceflbr ; e com o dito govertto avera o 
foldo de. 24^000 crarados pagos em cadahuih 
anno na forma das minhas t>ir dens : e gozara 
de todas as honras, poderec, oiando> jturif- 
di^io, e al9ada, que tem, e deoue gozarao 
OS providos naditoGovemo ; e ao mais que 
'por minhas ordens Ihe for ooncedido, £omo 
Vice-Rey e CapitaO-eeneral, meu I agar- 
tenente, e imediato a rainha Real PeSba. 
Peloque mando ao Vice-Rey feu anteceiTor, 
'Ott a peflba que eftiver govemando, de pofTe 
do mefmo Governo geral do Eflado da In- 
dia ao dito N. . . . £ outrofim ordeno a todot 
OS Officiate de Guerra, Jufti9a, eFazenda, que 
cm tudo Ike obedejae, e cnmprao faas or- 
dens, e mandados, como a feo Vice-Rey e 
Capitio^general : c o Tizoureiro, pu Rece- 
bedor da minha Fazenda, a quern o recebi- 
raento das rendas da India tocar, Ihe fara 
pagamento do refertdo (bldo aos quarteis, 
por efb Carta-Patente fomente, fem para 
silo fer necefTaria outra Proviziio minha, a 
qual fe regiflara para o dito eBfeito AOs livros 
da foa deipeza, para fe Ihe levar em conta. 
£ o dito F... juraraem minha Chancellaria, 
na forma coHumada, deque fe fara aflento 
nas coftas defla minha Carta-Fatente \ e an- 
tes de^pardr defta Corte, £ua em minhas 

HeaM ttiilo^ p^6' e' ofh^a^efCi pelo dito 
Governo do^ Eftado da lodia^ e fuasrCoA^ 
qnMlis dtop^MM: fe f^brfifmeza de tudb 
Ihe mandev.paifar efb Carta-Patente par 
iMollkftfgAad^ efMtadsrct^AO'SeUotjrande 
de minhas Armas, Bdc* 
m&at m ddade di tifbbtf, CTr. 

£1 Rey. 


I. ds Vice-Reys -Ja India tinhao hmna 
jiirii<U9aa ivft€am» dma f« t# d<l UaM 
Patentes: e erid unicamente fujeitos, no fim 
do fe»govtnio, a hmnt devai(^de reaidcib* 
cia, que El Rey mandava tirar do feu pro« 
<«dimeAt)0, • por htmi Mimftro clTil» Ne>fU 
deva9a deviao jurar todas as Ordens do Elta- 
do; pKncipiandcKfi pda CiiM^f ji (ou Icjaf 
Concelbo Municipal J \ e continuando-fc pe- 
los -OAciaes das mail raplrfifOtM civil, oo<> 
mo a Rela9uo <le Goa, os Minifhios e Offidaes 
da Fad»d«, oaGeiielaiieOAdaiaMilitare% 
'fem except de peflba alguma. 

Efla deva9a era remetida em direitura a 
lifboa. Porem, fe o novo Vice-rey [tendo 
precedido queixas a Corte do feo anteceflbr] 
trazia ordens particalares ; podia mandalo 
logo prezo a Lifboa, achando-o culpado. 

2. Na India avia alem do Vice-Rey e de 
dons Secretariot de Eflado, os Tribunaes fe- 

Snintes em Goa : a Inquieicao para as couzas 
a Religiao : o Tribunal ao Ordinario para 

05 mais Negocios Ecdeziailieos : uma Junta 
das Mifibens, indeptndente do Biipo, mas 
fijeita a iafpecao dos Vace-Reys, na qual 
Junta ppezidia o Superior dos Jezuitas : hu- 
ma Rela9ao (tribunal fuperior de Judicatura) 
Com hum Chanceller-m6r para os negocios 
civis, com i^pelafio para o Tribunal fn- 
premo do Reino (em Portugal) : hum Con* 
celho da Faaenda, e o Senado da Camera. 

3. O Vice-Rey eraRegedordasJuilicas,& 
como tal eraPrezidcnte da fobredita Rela9ao, 

6 do referido Conoelho da Fazenda : nfo fe 

Klendo difpender couza algama fem horn 
pacho, 00 jxwtaria do memo Vice-Rey. 


Digitized by 





.aava f«m Umiucao fobr&.osMilitarcs; con- 

r feriA Patm^ ate o ^poilo de Capitaeoi bda- 

ifive : iKMueav^ uKcrkumente todos «» mail 

Poftos fopmores ; e coi^eria todos ot Go« 

vecnQs d^ foa depeadenday que nlo via* 

h .0 providos pela Corte. Nos cazos crimi- 

aaes, afim dvis, como aiilit^s, a Rela9 o 

jcc Goerra da Ia4ia tiahaoo 

dirdto Apremo de vida e inorte : e o Vke- 

Rey, cDoio.Presideate, tiaha o diretto 4e 

td^zenipate aos cazos de ig^dade de votos. 

4. Alem dos referidos eft^biecinieattM, o 

6eaado da Camera tinha as laeimos diieitos 

:de policia, qae tern todos os do Reiao : e 

alem diAb o diveko de reprezeata^ao a o* 

tmefflioVioe-Rey; e de fe-queixar,eBiCorpO' 

deTribnaal* eai dircitim a fiia Mageftade a 


5.. Qsnado avk vacaacia de Vice-Reys, 
per auiKa de jmorte» o ArcebiffW, o Chaa- 
oeier da Relaf oo, e o. Official MiUtar de laaior 
;^alrnie» itoaiavao ogoverno do Eftado; e 
•xeicitav^ promiTcaaiaeate todas as faa- 
.^oeiif, aQgnaado todte jaatos at ordeas 
.fue davao. 

j6> O Coouiiercio da Afia perteada ia- 

tJkirameiWKe.a 31 R^f e ^do fe nizia por con«- 

• ta daConMs tm aavios propcios : para o qae 

tiahao eilabeleiflido, per paste de meima 

iCoroa, e:a fa^caftar difoeat^ Feit^as em 

r todos OS KilaMecimeiitDs da Afia, wimm- 

. lb-ados por F<»tores e OffigiaU da: Faaea^a 

iRqaly .debaixo da jarUdigao dos Vice-Rey^ ; 

OS qaais dav|o coatas ao4m de 3 aaaos da 

iuaAdmsnillra^aOy ac^C^ifDelho da Faa^da 

da ladia : e eile ^ dava ao Coacelho-Ulua^ 

anarino de Liiboa» |ia.i5;qj»iatan)on9ao. Efle 

. COBiercib fe f^^a psn fro!tas> q^.partiilo da 

Indiat.edepozitayao,tudo aofAmMOfieaf Reaps 

. 4$, Caza 9&m chaoMa (da ladia) em tiiboa:. 

v^Qode fe v^ndia por coota da Fazeada Real* 

: aos nadoaa^s, c aos eftra^jdjros. 

7. 0»Vice*Biey»obitiveriea.libcnladede 

ftzcrfoiXQaierdo para o Reiao;. porem a.o 

podi<o.«xceder de homa porc2.o linvLtadfiy 

Aue fe Ibes arbitroo. A meioia facoldade 

it efteiyleo .aodepois diffo a muitas outras 

peflbas, tanto d^is, cemo qiUitares; poie.n 

^ €Oiiv.gniides UfaiUfoeas a v^^ieryas ; efoep* 

..taando fewpra^s .pedxaa predozas, peroks 

.aa^ar, C190 coqierdo fe deu excloziva^ 

< aieata as RauAas de For lagal, para feo patri- 

.noaio: aiSm como taobem o da pimeata. 
O coaierdo dos outras eTpeciarias, do ia*> 
litre, fimdal9, e porcelaaa, fempre foi le- 
acervado a Coraa. 

8. Prohibio-fcr em fim aos Vice-Reys a 
,a todos OS Oficiaes Civis e Militares de fa- 
•zerem oomoierdo algum por bama Lei 
que foi pioaurfgada no anno de 16B7. 

9. O govprao da India foi alterado no 
aano de 1773. Abolio-fe o Vice-Reynado» 

•ficaadoemCapitaensGeneraes. Den-feonia 
nova forma ^ arrecada^ ao da Fazenda, efta- 
belecendo-fc bqm Erano Regio, no forma do 
Erario de Lifboa. Abolio-fe a Inquiaicao, 
e o Tribunal de Relacio : ficando a aomi* 
aiib-a^AO da Jufti^a* naamios dos Ouvidorcs 
Qeraes, com appcUa^ao para Liiboa. Mao- 
dou-fe eflabeicer no memio Ellado o mefino 
regalamento oiilitar, que fe pra£lica em 
Portugal : e pa^ar as tropas por conta da 
Com em dinaeiro ; por ^uanto efta defpei^ 
-era feiu d'aates pelps Capitaeos que exerci2^o> 
.sponopolios onerozos, pagando aos folda* 
doro fiiftenlo e o iardfoiento por f^a oonta* 

Ccpj of the Kin£$ Letters Patent^ gi'Uin t$ 
the Fice-Reys^ fupreme Comm^mlers ef 
Portuguefe Baft Indiat according to ike 
oftigifial kept in the King\ Office, called 
ConcelhoUitramarino, in Lrjbon. 

*• Don N. by the grace of God Kin^ 
of Portugal and Al^arves, on this fide of the 
fea, and on that of Africa ; Lord of Guinea, 
and of the Conqneft, Navig^tjon, ^pd Com- 
,merce of Ethiopia,. Arabia,. Perfia, an4 
India, &c. 

" Be it known to all to whom this my 
Letter Patent may come, that, attentive to 
the qualities, merits, and talents of N. I am 
plealed to name him (as I do hereby) to t^e 
office of Vice-Roy and Gencraliffimo of the 
fea and land, in the States of India, and de* 
pendencies thereon, for the fpace of three 
years,,and till fuch time after asl fhall appoint 
another to fucceed him ; and on account of 
this government I appoint him a falary of 
24,000 • jcrjixados, to be p|iid to him every 
. year according to' ^his my commiffion ; and 
he fliall enjoy all the honours, powers, com- 
mand, jurifdidion, and authority, which 
,now holds the prcfcnt Vice-Roy, and for- 
jnerly did his predcceflbrs in the fame gp- 
.vemment,.andbelides whatever further grants 

^.Two-5M9AMid. fia^Ma^^red sad fixty-(ix poaods (Urliii(. 


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I may allow to him as Vicc-Royi Gene- 
raliffimo, and my Locam-tenens immediafe 
' to my Royal Perfon. On account of which 
1 order the till now Vice-Roy of India, or 
whofoever holds in his dead tne government 
of that State, td deli\'er np to the faid 
N. the fame government at his arrival. ' And 
moreover I order all the officers of War, of 
the King's-bench, and of the Exchequer, to 
obey him in every rcfpc£^, and execute his 
orders or commands, as their Vice-Roy and 
Generaliflimo : and the Lord Treafurcr or 
high Receiver of the Revenue in that State, 
fhall make him payment of the aforefaid 
Salary quarterly, according; to this prefent 
Letter Patent, without watting for any fur- 
ther orders of mine ; which payment being 
regiftered in the book of the expences of 
State, fhall be reckoned as one of them. 
And the faid N. ihall fwear in the High 
Court of my Chancery in the accuftomed 
form ; an atteftation of which ^all be taken 
' on the back of this Letter Patent : And be- 
fore his departure from ihore, he fhall fwear 
obedience, and do homage on my Royal 
hands, for the faid government of India and 
its dependencies : and as a teft and con- 
firmation of the whole, I have ordered this 
my Letter Patent to be pafTed, which ihall 
be figned by me, and fealed with the Great 
Seal of my Arms, &c. 
Given at Lifbon, &c. 


' I . The Vice-Roys oT India held a fupreme 
jurifdi^on, as appears by their Letters Pa- 
tent, and were only fubjedb at the end of 
^heir government to an Inqued on the 
difcharge of their official duty and perfonal 
behaviour, which the King always ordered 
to be made by a Civil Magiflrate. Into 
this Inqnefl were to be fworn all ranks of 
the State, the Members of the Supreme 
Council of the India adminiftation, and 
thofe of all the other Councils and Courts, 
the King's Bench of Judges at Goa, the 
Miniflers and Officers of the India Exche- 
quer and King's Revenue, as well as all the 
Uenerals and Military OfHcers of the State, 
without exception of any perfon Toever. 

The refult of this general inqueft was to 
be fent dire^y to the King's Council at 
Lifbon: and there to be judged accordingly. 
But if the new Vice-Roy, in confequence of 
Mny complaints having been made to the 

King'ff Privy Council againft his predecelTor, 
had got particular orders from the king, he 
' then could, on finding him guilty by the 
aforefaid inquefl, commit him to prifon, and 
fend him under confinement to Lifbon, to 
be judged by the King's Privy Coondl, or 
by the King himfdf. 

2. There were in India, befides the Vice- 
' Roy and two Secretaries of State, who afted 

with him as a kind of Privy Cooncil^ the 
following Tribunals in Goa, viz. The In- 
quifiti(m of the af&irs of Religion: An 
Ecdefiaflical or Spiritual Court, with the 
Bifhop at their head, for the afiairs which 
, fall under the cognizance of the Church : A 
Board or Council for the Propagation of the 
Gofpel, without any dependence upon the, 
Bifhop, but only fubjefled to the infpedion 
of the Vice- Roys, of which Council the 
Superior of the Jefuits was Prefid^nt : The 
King's Bench, confifUng of a Chancellor 
and a certain number of hi^h Judges, named 
by the King, for die Civil alfairs, from 
whom there could be 'no appeal but to 
the fupreme King's Bench of the high 
Judges at Lifbon : A Council or Court of 
the Excheauer, for the King's Revenue : 
And a kina of a Court, [/ike tbi Common 
Council of Loriilon] but very few in num- 
ber, for the police of Goa. 

3. The Vice-Roy being, on account of 
his office, a kind t)f High Chancellor of" the 
State, was in confeqnence thereof Prefident 
of the fupreme King's Bench of high or 
great Judges, and of the Court of the 
Exchequer already mentioned : nor could 
anv expence or difburfement be made by 
this lafl, widiottt confent and permiffion 
iigned by lumfelf. He, as a Locum-teness 
of the King, had an unlimitted authority 
and command over the whole military de* . 
partments: he conferred all the militaiy 
Commiffions in the Army, not above thofe 
of Captains ; and even appointed any fu- 
perior Officers, till thefe offices were filled 
up by the King's nomination ; and, finally, 
he nominated and gave all other commiffions 
and charges under Mm, which were not 
provided by the King. In all criniinal cafes, 
both civil and military, the above King's 
Bench of high Judg^, and the Council 
of War» or Court Martial, held the decifive 
authority of Life and Death: BottheViee- 
Roys had the caftin^-vote, as Preftdents of 
both, in cafe of a» equality of votes. 

4. Befidct 

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' 4. BefiicB die afen&ki dMldMflini^ 
in^Uy die M«nicijpal CottrC, under the 
bane of Senaee of die Ctmirth {^^ich 
^»€t9 like ihe Common Ctmncii tf t$nd$9r^ 
Hnugi imhfnfid #f mmck fmjtr mimbers\ 
WB5 YcAtd mttk me fame «iidKnity and ex-^ 
dufivc poiiPtr» in.Mgtrd to siatters of po^- 
]ice» as that of Portugal ; k kad iMb Ikt 
lighit of addreCng aiid petidotting the Vice- 
ftoyt, sokI «9«a of applTing b^ codwicm 
ooniant, t% a ctvU body, for ntdrcfs, 10 th^ 
Sing hkoTelf, aft Ufbon, 

5. dn the death of the Vice-Roy» dunng 
iiii goyerameot, the Archbilhop of Ooa» the 
Chmcellor of the tLiog'a Bench or Coaadl 
of jollice, and the Militarf Officer of highell 
tanik iukI of oldeil commiflionV were to tak6 
the govammeiit of dM Stale, and toonerdft 
coi^kitlyallitafaaddons; all thioe fignin^ 
t o gtd w i whatever orders they ga^e. 

6. The whole Comneroe oTAiia bekmg- 
ed felely to the King ; and was carried on, 
•n aoeoiuit of the Crown, in the King*s 
Aipe« To thiaebd there weM eAahliflied 
diicKot faOoricsi^ by the authority and at 
Aeexpenofe of the C#owb» in all die fettle- 
Meats ^ A'fia, wMi oroper Cficers and 
Clerks, aD4er the juiiftliftion of the Vice- 
Hoys ; who at the end of every three yean 
ieei« to i«nder aa accoeat of their manage- 
Aent 10 the India Exchequer, by which it 
was feat to the high CMneil Uftramarioe at 
LiAoar in the aeict R mntMn. This Com- 
fliercse was carried on by fleets, wUdi failed 
ffom India,- and depofited thek cifjoes in 
fke Royal warehoofes of the Eaft India 
Soefe at LiAon ; from whence tkey were 
Md on behalf of the Royal Revenue, both 
an dM Portognefe and to fbreitiiers§. 

7. In courfrof time the Vice -Roys oB- 
liined iea«e to trade, on dieir own accoont,. 
from lieklia to Portugal ; bot they were nor 
aliowtd to^eiBoeed a timltted and detemined 
yxtion. Afterwards the fame power was 
CKMnded «o many other peribns^ both <S 

tkedviiandoFdiemttiiiiffptofeffodt Inft 
this was to be dond witka gneat fimitatknls 
end retri^ofis. Tkecanimtroe.of precion 
ftoaes, and pearls of emery &oe, was alwayi 
ex ce pt o d . Thetradeof theie, aadof pep» 
per, wu the esBcMve right of the Qwent 
of Portegal, as a part of their patrimony f* 
The trade of the other fpices, of nisrc^ 
ftndalo*, and due of porodaine, al^^ya 
was iderved to the Crown. 

8. In fine, the Vioe4loys jq/S India, and 
all Offioert, both dvil end military, were 
prohibited tarrying on any kind of com«>- 
meroe' between India end Portugal, by a law 
Wkkk was pobUffied in the year 1697. 

9. The go v emmeet of die Portegueft 
EiA Mia wes lately altered, in the yeer 
1773. The dde of Vke-Roy wet ebo* 
filhed, end ehaeged faito diat of Captain«> 
Geoerel. A new twm of levying die D»i> 
ties, and managing the jKing*i Revetiee ivea^ 
cfHabliihed. A new Royal Treafury or 'Bai^ 
theqner wai erefied, like that of liftoa^ 
knownbythenameof Jt^'«/ifref/eer« The 
ooart of Inqoifition wai aboKihed, es weft' 
es die fiipietteTribmial of the Kieg'sBenck,. 
the admieiilratian of Jeftioe beieg pat into 
the hands of Andiftovs-Generali from whoik 
<here mmF be an ftppeal to the High Tii^ 
bnnal at Lilbon. Tke Ame military regi^ 
latiotts, at now pre£tifed in Portugal, weie 
extended to ledia : and the troopi were oiv 
dered to be paid in raftdy money, on account 
Of Ae Crown; die pay of tke SoMieie 
kaving fcMmerly paiRd tiiroogh the handi 
of the Captains, who ekeidfed ooafideivble' 
monopolioB in the manogeoMnt of it, by 

l^ing diem in provisions end elbathi, to^ 
m their ewii vweheofes.- 

Ambitioni of giving kis hiAorical nal^- 
rative die bift eoBfirmedon, the Tranilatcr 
epplied for effifiance to fome gMtiemen, 
who, on dm appeaieeee of die Eng^ 

I Motteoon means here the (bted times la which tfie Pertogoeft tndaa fliips nfed to-feil to Lifbon. 

$ Bcfides dsie £tft-India ware-honfes at Li/bon» there were other vmre-honfes at Antwerp, with a eonfid^, 
eadatHottcpiaiii and AmAerdam, with two rs^Oive Mtort , for thediQio&l ol the IiUBaeoedsfeot m* 
then from I.«MbaB« i * 1 

f The QjaeoM of Pbrtntal bsve a kind of patrimony alligaed to them b^ the 3|st« : it€oo£(bof difitre^t: 
oltKs, towns, and villa^es^ whoft duties and cuftoms. belong to the Queen s houftold or reretme. The^ 
have a Secretary of Sute, with a council of their own, an exdie(|(tierTor their own revenue* : axid all tfTe- 
juftices of peace, radges, and officers of the (^eeA*8 State, ate of hcf majtfty t noodnation. ' 

* A Jdad «f rtd wood, for dying wkh) like the Brazl wood. 



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tiiifiid, iMaoored liitt witli their oondpon- 
dukct. He aktatattd tliat» if poffiUe^ a 
copy of die oomiiuiEoii of the Viceroys^ 
iQighc be procured^ together with an abmft 
ef the laws and conftttntton of Portogiieie 
Afia. And the foregoing papsrt, of which 
he has given a tranfflation» were rendtced to 
Jumfiom the Continent. DurwgtheSpanifli 
^irpation» the affurs of In4ia fell into the 
deepeft anarchy. When John IV* afceoded 
the throne of Portogal* he endeavoured to 
veAoire regularity to the government of his 
eaftem emjnre ; and fWmi the regulations 
of that monarch and his fnoceflbrs ueubove 
NoticUu were carefiiUy extrafied. There is 
«0 copy of the Vioetoy's commifEon of 
•cdder date than the beginning of the reigft 
^ John IV. the former papers relative to 
^e government of India having probablv 
I>een removed to Madrid. But the.commif- 
£on ififelf bears a proof that it was in the 
^mmI fvrm \ and the regulatjons of John» 
.which remain upon record, appear, by the 
iteftimoay of hiftory, to be only a confirma* 
jCiott of the former ^veroment of India, 
.with a great diminution of the Viceroy's 
falary, nid pethajM fome few novel efia- 
|)Bfliments which did not afiedl the fpirit of 
4he oonftitution. By the lateft alterations, 
it appears, that the cooftitution of Li(bon, 
iever was, and is, the grand model of the 
government of Portuguefe A£a« 
r *9* Whatever drcumfiances have a ten- 
ancy to elucidate the mannen and policy 
of former times, or to nve us an accurate 
idea of the energy and Srength of her ▼&« 
rious governments, when Europe began to 
cmer^ from the inaOivity of the Gothic a|^, 
arehighly worthy of the careful inveftkation 
of the philofopher and noliddan. Koufed 
into aaion by Prince Henry of Portugal, 
^e end of the fifteenth and beginning of 
•the fixteenth century became the great aera 
of maritime difcovery. The thm grand 
expeditions were thofe of Gama, Columbus, 
ana Maealhaens. And the objea of all 
was the.&me, the Difcovery of India. The . 
fiice of the various fleets which attempted 
« this arduous undertaking, will give us an idea 
of the ftate of maridme aflairs in the reigns 
'when they were fitted ont. In i486, Bar- 
tholomew Diaz, a Portuguefe captain, with 
' three fliips, attempted the Difcovery of In- 
dia by the coaft of Africa; but, harraflcd 
hj tnnpcfis* his crew mstiniecli and having 

dlfeovered . the river 4il hfame^ on the. 
eaflem fide of Africa, he returned to Europe. 
About 14 years after, tUs expedition, was 
happily completed by Gama ; and the ferae 
with which he went out ii thus circum- 
fbntially defcribed by Heman Lopez de 
Caibmeda, a ootemporary writer, and care- 
ful joomalift of fatts. 
"Emmanuel, eamefl to profecnte what 
his predeceflbr Don John had begun fbr 
the difcovery of India, ordered Feman 
Lorenzo, Treafurer of .the houfe of the 
Myna (&n the goUen eoaftj to build with 
the tin^ber that was boi^ht in Idngjohn's 
time, two (hips, which, after they were 
fiaiihed, he named, the Angel Gabriel, 
being of one hundred and twenty tons 
burthen, and the Saint Raphael, of one 
hundred tons. And to accompany thefe 
(hips, the king bought of a pilot who was 
born in Lagos, named Berrio, a caravel 
of fifqr tons, which bore the nan^ of 
the pilot. Befide thefe, he bought a 
fhip of two hundred tons of one Ayres 
Correa. • • • • Tht king aUb appointed 
Barthdomew Diaz to go . along with 
them in a cuavel to the Myna. . And 
becaufe the fliips of war oould not 
carry provifions luffident for the vovage, 
the long gave orders that the flup of 
Correa fhould be laden with provifions, 
and accompany the fleet to the. bay of St. 
Blafs, where it would be neoeflar^ to take 
in feefli water ; and the ftore flup was to 
be there unloaded and bunt. . The Qzf* 
tain G^eral went in the fhip called St. 
GaMel, having for pilot one Pedro de 
Alanquer, who had Men pilot to Bartho- 
lom^ Diaz, when he difcovered the river 
called El ijo del Ynfame. Paulus de 
Gama, brodier of the Captain Generali 
went in the fliip called St. Raphael ; Ni^ 
colas Coello went, in the caravel, named 
Berrio; and Gonfalo Gomez commanded 
the fbre flup." The number of the crews 
of this fquadron, according to Caftuieda» 
was. 148 men; according to others, 160. 
Gama and his brother, and the ten male- 
fedors who were on board, were perhaps 
not included in Caflaneda's account. 

The voyage of Columbus has been called 
the moft danng and grand ever attempted 
by man. CMumbus himfelf, however, 
feems to have had a very diflerent idea of 
it ; for certain it is, he expeAed to reach 


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India hy the weftwtrd Pf flage in the tjftuct 
of not many weeks. Tbe fqaadion with 
uriucli he attempted thit dHbovery, oonfifted 
of only three Tefleb. Dr. Robmfen calls 
the largeft wUch Colombua commanded, 
'* of no omMinble iNirden ;*' and the two 
others, ** hardly fopierior in bordeft or force 
*Ho large boats." The crew oonfifted df 
ninety men, and a few adventarers. And 
-die expence of fitting oot this eqaipment 
did not exceed 40001. fteriing, for which 
queen Ifabella pawned her jemls. 
' The enteronze of Magalhaens was infi- 
nitely more auiss^ than that of Colombus. 
India and the ccmtment of America were now 
both difcoirered^ and now known to be at 
Vail diftance horn- each other. To find a 
toot to India beyond the great American 
* continent was the bold d^gn of Magal- 
haens ; which he attempted, aocordinf^ fo 
7aria, with 250 mdn and Avt ihips; which, 
with lefpeft to its porpofe. Dr. Robertfon 
calls, ** a proper fqwu&on.'* 

When Uama failed horn Liibon, it was 
unknown that a great and potent Common- 
wealth of Mdiammedan merchants, deeply 
fldUed in all the arts and views of Com- 
merce, were fcattered over the eallem world. 
Gama, therefere, did not (ail to India with 
a warlike fleet, like that which firft fol- 
lowed him, under dahral, but with.a fqvui. 
dron ever^ way ^per for difcovery. The 
Pdrtogoeie hilhmans aicribe the fhipwreck 
of many Portugoefe veflcls on the voyage 
beh^een Europe and India to the avarice of 
their owners, in building them of an enor* 
moos fadk, of 4, $, and 600 tons. The 
fleet of Gama was therefore not only of 
the moft pcrfea fine which the art of fliip- 
bdlding could then produce, but was affb 
fuperior in number, and nearly of die 
dnHi|ht * of water with the vefTels which 
at this dayare fcnt out on voyages of dif- 
covery. The difjpofition of Gama's voyage 
is alio worthy of notice s the captain who 
iiad already paft the great fouuiem pro- 
montary of^ Africa, to accompany him to a 
certain latitude 1 tbe pilot who had failed 
with that captain, to go the whole voyage ; 
the fize of Coello's caravel, proper to enter 
creelu and rivers ; and the appointment of 

die flore-fhip ; are circorallances which dif- 
play a knowledge of and attention to mari- 
time affairs, greatly fuperior to any thing dif- 
covered by the court of Spain in the equip- 
ments of Columbus and Ma^^alhaens. The 
warlike fbength of Gama's fleet was greatly 
fuperior to that of the firft voyage of Co- 
lumbus, and little inferior to that of Ma- 
nlhaens; though Magalhaens, who had 
been in India, well knew the hoflile difpo- 
fition of the natives. In the art of war 
the Indians were mady inferior to the 
Moors, and the Moon were as inferior 
to the Portuguefe. And the fqnadroa 
of Gama not only defeated the whole 
naval force of the firfl maritime ftate of 
India, but in tvery attack was vicarious 
over the fuperior numbers of the Moors. 
Thefe circumflances are deariy evinced in 
our hiflory of the Difcovery of India ; and 
this comptLTztivt difcuffion will not only give 
an accurate idea of the progrefs which the 
Portuguefe had made in navigation, but is 
alfo, perhaps, neceflarv in fupport of the 
reputation of this work. Had an Author 
of^ordinary rank reprefented the fquadron of 
Gama as extrtmefy fiebU^ confifting onlj rf 
Three X *f <^//, 0? neitbtr burthen ner force 
eukfumte H the ftrmce^totf^ condemnation 
of our narrative had been here unnoticed. 
But when a celebrated and juftly admired 
hiflorian, in a work puUilhed about one 
year and an half after the firfl appearance 
of tbe Lufiad, has given fuch reprelentatioa 
of the equipment of Gama, dire&Iy con- 
trary to the light in which it is there 
placed, the foregoing detail, will not ap« 
pear, it is hopdl, an unneoeflary or rode 
vindication. We have followed the ample 
and drcumftantial accounts of the Portu- 
guefe writers, and not the imperfeft and 
curfory abftrads of the Spanidi hiflorians 
when they allude to the affairs of their 
fifbr kingdom. 

*^* To our former accounts of Portuguefe 
Literature let the fbltowing be added: In 
1 74 1, an Heroic Ppem was jpnbliihed in 
Portuguefe by the Count de Ericeyra. It 
is named Henriqueida^ and celebrates the 
efhUifliment of die kingdom of Portugal. 
Though it has fome extravagancies, it 

• Gapt. Cooke*t tme veffeU hiTc, by the Utcft experience, bcea fottod the fittefl for difiroTery. Tbe one 
mm of 4^3 tons Imithea, the other of 336; and buUt to drmw little water. And certain it is that veflels 
«f Cich barthen are aow boilt, which dsaw as little waur as thoie of lao tons in the hifiiacy of flMdera 


% See Hifl. Amerk. toI. i. p. 145. 

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ccmtains an ardent fpirU of true Roetiy. 
And in the preface and notes the author 
has given many judidons criticifnuy and by 
his opinion of Milton dilcovers a ftrea^th 
of mind greatly fuperior to that irivoloaf-- 
nefs, that poverty of taAe, which the Preach 
generally betray, when they critidfe the 
works of that great Poet. The Tr^nHaXor 
^as been favoured with the following ac- 
count pf this noble author by a learned and 
ingenioos gentleman of Portugal ; for whoib 
favours ^ heiie returns his ackaowkdge-> 

^.Dom Francifco Xavier de Menezec* 
^' fourth Count of Ericeyxa, was one of the 
^ moft learned men of this age> and a great 
*^ ornament to Portugal; he waa boni at 
^ Liihon the 20th of January, 1673,. «Dd 
** died in the-Ume dty the 21ft of Decern- 
** ber*i74.^. To the analities of a foldier^ 
*^ a ^litioan, a philofonher^ a mathesuit 
*' dpaa, aahifionanpandapoety hejoined 
**• tbn of a man of honow |uid piobitj^ 




He'«itts iUwaor and oeftftr of the royat 
academy of Portugoefo Hiflory; ho 
fpoke dio Ladn» mndw. IcaUaiw and 
^upges with atmoch eafe and 
as ma otini^ aftd wrote in them 
aU wj4i acoMnqr. AltiMHigh he never 
w«nt eetof Portcml, he was knowe ttd 
admired in all £arope» and obtaiaci 
the t^tMOk and die prakes .of Popelh* 
aoceiit XLU. and LewiaXlV. of Franoei 
es.wdl aafoeae of the moll eaiinent meat 
of thatf^, fodi as Mentori, Banchini^ 
Crefcimbeni, Dnmoni^ Garelli, Le 
Clerc» Bayk, DeTpreaisx, Reeandoc^ 
Bignon, Salaaar^ Fetjoftt Mayiet, &c* 
Widi all dieie he appean to have kq>c t 
literary correfponMoe ; wias memfcer of 
tjie Aroediaa aeademy of Italy, and of ^ 
the Royal Society of London* and mech * 
refpeded by the RoCan academy. Ht 
compofed a great aftmber of excellent 
pieces in profe and verfei many of iwhich 
have been publiihed." 

^ The Read^ i» Jefiied to centA Ae feUpwiiig 

Ite p; tiki. Blie 9^ in phceof Philip 11. read Pbix,ip IIK^— .p. dxxr. Uoe ult. in plaoB Of Vflkb its imMei 
luxuries i^rd^ ftrmsy read -which Us imfwttd humries aford^ a tax which firms,""^ And ia p. 22^. la th« 
*0Mid Macef ihcfirft tnkt^ i^aceof Cofiekas -was mfttd^ read Camoas-woivoT wijtti. 


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L U 

A d; 


« . 

A RMS and the Heroes, who from Liibon's (hotc^ 
Thro' Seas * where fail was never fpread before. 
Beyond where Ceylon lifts her ^icy breaft. 
And waves her woods above the watery wafte. 

* Tie Lufiadi in the origma], 0/ £«/- 
adasy The Luiiads, from the lAtin name 
of P<)m]gal, derived fiom Lufus or Lyias, 
die companion of Bacchus in his travels, 
and who fettled a colony in Lufitania. See 
Flin. 1. iii. c* i. 

* Tbrc* Seas where Jml was never Jf read 
/£/^/.— — M. Dnperron de Caftera, the 
French Tranflator of the Lnfiad, has given 
a long note on this paflkge, which he tells 
m, mnft not be onderilood litoally. His 
argnments are theft : Oar author, fays he, 
could not be ienorant that the African and 
Indian Oceans had been navigated before the 
tines of the Ponugoefc* The Phconicians, 


whofe fleets pafled the ftraits of Gibnltar^ 
made frequent voyages in thefefeas, thoi^ 
thej^ carefully cono^ed the courfe of their 
navigation that other nations might not 
become partakers of their lucrative traffic. 
It is certain that Solomon, and Hiram kiaff 
of Tyre, fcnt (hips to the Eaft by the Red, 
Sea. It is alfo certain that Hanno, a Car- 
thaginian captain, made a voya^ round, 
the whole coail of Africa, as is evioent from » 
the hiihwy of the expedition, written hy 
himfelf in the Punic language ; a Greek 
tranflation of which is now extant. Be- 
fides, Plixyr, Pomponius Mela, Ptolomy and^. 
Straboi allure as, that Mosuunbic and the ad-'' 


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With prowefs more than human forc'd their way 

To the fair kingdoms of the rifing day : 

What wars they wag'd, what feas, what dangers paft. 

What glorious Empire crown'd their toils at laft. 

Venturous I ling, on ibaring pinions borne. 

And all my Country's wars the fong ' adorn ; 

Book I, 

jacent iilands» and ibme parts of India, were 
known to the Romans : and thefe words of 
MacrobiuSy Sed ntc mouftruofis tarnibus ai* 
ftinitis^ inferentes peculis iefticuhs Ca/iorum 
it venenata corpeira Fiperartfm ; quihut ad^ 
fi^fcetU quidquid India nutPif^ wfieliafly 
prove that uey carried on a confiderable 
traffic with the Eaft. From all which, fays 
M. Caftera» we may conclude that the Por- 
tQj^nefe were rather the Reftorers than the 
Difcoverers of the navigation to the Indies. 
In this firft book, and throughout the 
whole Poem, Camoens frequently deicribe^ 
his Heroes as paffing through feas which had 
never before been navigated ; and 

Siuejh dosfeyos fecas/e navega. 

Where hut Sea-monjiers cut the nvaves before. 

That this iappaltion a&rded our author & 
number of poetical images, and adds a ib- 
kmn grandeur So hk-fubje^ aaight perhaps 
with M. Cailera be eileemed a lufficient a- 
pology forthe poetical licence in ioch a v4o* 
lation of hiftorical truth. Yet whatever li- 
berties an Epic or Tragic; Poet may com- 
mendably take in embemihii]g the >a£tions 
of his heroes, an aiTertioo relative to the. 
fccnf whtre his Poejn opeps^ if falf^ muft 
hJ'eqqaSy riidiculous as to calf Vefpanan the 
txft whp had ever aflbmed tjjc title of 
Gselkr. ' Biit it wiH be ftmnd that Camoens 
ha$ not fallen into fuch abAirdity. Ttte 
Poem openj with a* defcription of the Luft- 
timian-fleet, after having doubled. the C^e 
dfljope, iftriving about in the great Ethio- ' 
piian Ocean, iQ far frpm land that it'rcmuird" 
the care of the Gods to condoft it to 
fbipe hofpitablc (hore. Therefore, though 
it is certain' that the Phoenicians pafled^tne 
Ne t!us ultra of the ^ntients j though it is 
probable they traded bn the coaft of Com- 
w^l; 4^4 the.ites of Scill^; diou^h there 

is fome reafon to believe that the Madeiras 
and Carribees were known to them; and 
though it has hten* fuppo/ed that fome of 
their (hips might have been driven by ftorm 
to the Brazils or North-America ; yet there 
U Bot the \mk femdatioR in hiilory to fup- 
pofe that they traded to the Indies by the 
Cape of Good Hope. There is rather a 
demonftration of the contrary ; for it is 
certain they carried on their traffic with 
the EaU, by a much nearer and fafer way, 
by the two ports of Elath and . Eziongeber 
o^ th^, R^d Sea. Neither is it certainly 
known in what particular part, whether in 
the Perlian gulph, or in the Indian Ocean » 
the Tarihifh and Ophir of the ancients are 
£tuated. Though it is certain that Hanno 
doubled the Cape of Good Hope, it is alfo 
equally oertain that his^ voyage was merely a 
coafting one, like that of Nearchus in jJLlex- 
ander's ttme» and thut ho never ventured 
into the great Ocean, or went fo far as 
Garna^ Tne «imion fiiom Macrobws prpvea* 
nothing at all relative to the point in quef- 
tion, f(»r it is' certain that the Romatu vt*- 
ceived the Merchandife of India by the way* 
of Syria and the Mediterranean, in the fame 
manper as t}ie Venetians imported the com* 
modities of the Baft from Alexandria beforo 
the diibovcries of thr Portngucfe. * 'It' re- 
mains, therefore^ that Gama, who failed 
by the Compafs, after having gone furtl^cr' 
than his cotempotary Bartholomew piaz^, 
was literally the firft who ever (Jjread nil in 
the great ibt^hem Ocean, and that th^ Por-t 
tiigucfj were, not the Reilorersr, but laterally 
die Difi;ovjerers of the p^efent rout of Na- 
vigation to the, £ai{ Indies. 

« And- all my Country*: wars. — " Hb in- 
terweaves artftdjy the liiftory of Pbrtugal.'* 


'. '. I • • • ' ■ 

,r ' "■ What 

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bookl the l u s I a d; 

What Kings, what Heroes of my native land 
Thundcr'd on Afia's and on Afrrc's ftrand: 
lUudrious fhades, who levell'd in the duft v « 
The idol-temples and the flirincs of liift i . ! ' ^ /- 
And where, ere;yhile, foul demons were rever'd. 
To Holy Faith unnumbered altars * reared : 
Illuftrious names, with deathl^fs laurels crowned, ' 
While time rolls on in every clirrie renoWnM f 

Let Fame with wonder name the Giseek no more» 
What lands he faw, what toils at fea he bore ; 
No more the Trojan*s wandering voyage boaft^ 
What ftorms he braved on many a.pcrTou^ cca&: 
No more let Rome exult in Trajan'g name. 
Nor eaftern conquefts Ammon'a pride proclairjoi; « 

* To Holy Faith unintfitber^d attars reared. 
——In no period of Hiftory does Human 
Nature appear with more ihoeldiig features 
than in the Spanifh Conqueft of South A* 
merica. To the immortal honouf of die^ 

Jirft Portoguefe Difcoverers, their condu^ 
was in every refpe£t the reverie. To effaip- 
bliih a traffic equally advantageous to the 
natives as to themfelves, was the principle 
they profeffedy and the ftri6left honour, and 
that numanity which iv ever . infe^arable 
from true bravery, prefided over their tianA 
a^ons. Nor did they ever proceod to hoT* 
rilities till provoked, either by the open 
violence or by the perfidy of m^ Natives, 
Their honour was admired, and their friend- 
ffiip courted by the litdiatt Rrinws. To 
ibetitioa no^ more, the nitoe of Gama was 

'^Bear to diem, and the gi«at Alfatuquercjoe 
was beloved as a father, tsA hiy xnelnoiy 
honoured with every token of afiMtion and 
refpeft by the people and princes of India. 
h was owing to Uitt fpirit of honour and 

hunianity, which in the heroical Jays of 
Portugal chara^rifed.^^t ngtiooy that the 

' religion of the PfcA-tdguefc was eagerly enl- 

. braced by many kings and provinces of Af- 
rioaand India; while the Mexicans with 
manly difdain rejected the faith of die ^p^H 
. aiarda, profeffing thQr would rather go to 
hell to efcape thefe cruel Tyrants, than go 
to heaven, where, they were told, they 

• fhould meet them. 'Ztal fordid Cfariftian 
reli^oxi was edeemed, at the time of the 

'Portuguefe grandeur, as the moft. cardinal 
Virtue, and to propa^te ChrKHianityahd 
extirpate Mohammraiim were the moft cer- 
tain propfs of that zeal. . Ifi sdl their e^pe- 
^titms this was profeffedly ^ 'principAt mo« 
tiveof the Lufitanian Monarchs; and C^- 
moens aitdierl(oo4 the aatur? of Epic poetry 
too well to omit. That the .deffgn pt ^is 
Hero" ^i t6 delivei: the Law of heaven' to 
the eaftem world;. a circumilaace wftidi^ 
givi^ a' noble air of importance .and pf in- 
tereftto die bjuiu^eftof w, Poem/ * 

B 2 

A nobler 

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A nobler Hero's deeds demand my lays 
Than e'er adom'd the fong of ancient days ; 
lUuftrious Gama, whom the waves obey'd# 
And whofe dread fword the fate of Empire fway'd. 

And you, fair Nymphs of Tagus, parent ftream. 
If e'er your meadows were my paftoral theme. 
While you have liftened, and by moonfhine feen 
My footfteps wander o'er yout banks of green, 
O come aufpicious, and the fong infpiro 
With all the boldnefs of your Hero's fire: 
Deep and majeftic let the numbers flow. 
And, rapt to heaven, with ardent fury glow ; 
Unlike the verfe that fpeaks the lover's grief. 
When heaving fighs afford their foft relief. 
And humble reeds bewail the (hepherd's pain : 
But like the warlike trumpet be the flraia 
To roufe the Hero's ire; and far around,. 
With equal rage, your warriors' deeds refound. 

And thou, ' O born the pledge of happier days. 
To guard our ireedom and our glories raife, 

' jMJth$M, term — — Zinf SebaAiaii, [ IdvUcy Hunet on die throae of Morocco, 

who came to the throne in hit jmnoritx* horn which he had been depofed by Mnley 

Thoagh thJB waim imagination of Camoens Molncco. On the 4th of Aiigiift, iS?^* 

anticipated the praifea of the future Hero, in thft 2cth year of his age» he gave battlfr 

the youne monarch, like Virgil's Pollio, to the tJiorper on the plains of Alcazar, 

had not the happinefs to fhl£l t& prophecy. This was that memorable engagement, to 

His endowments and enterpri&ig senios which the Mooriih Emperor, extremely 

jKtomiied indeed a gloiioas reim* Ambi- weakened by £cknefs, was carried in h» 

tious of military lanrell, he led a powerfbl litter. By the impetnofity of the attack, 

army into Africa, on pnrpoie to replace the fiift Unc of the Mooriih in&ntry waa 


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Book I, 


Given to the world to fpread Religion's fway. 
And pour o'er many a land the mental day^ 
Thy future honours on thy (hielH behold. 
The crofs, and victor's wreath,, embofl in gold 

broken, and the fecond difordered. Moley 
Molucco on this mounted his horfe, drew 
his fabre, and woold have put himfelf at 
the head of his troops, but was prevented 
bv his attendants. On this a& ofviolence, 
his emotion of mind was fo great that he 
fell from his horie, and one of his guards 
having causht him in his arms^ conveyed 
him to his litter, where, putting his finger 
on his lips to enjoin them filcnce,.he im- 
mediately expired. Hamet Taba flood by 
thecurtains of the carriage, opened them from 
time to time, and nve out orders as if he 
had received them mm the Emperor. Vic- 
tory declared for the Moots, and the defeat 
of the Portugueie was fo total, that not 
above fifty of their whole army efcaped. 
Hieron de Mendoga, and Sebaflian de Mefa 
relate, that Don Sebaitian, after having two 
horfcs killed under hivi, was furroundra and 
taken ; but the party who had (ecured him 
Quarrelling among themfelves whofe pri- 
soner he was, a Moorifh officer ix>dr ap and 
ftrack the King a blow over the right eye, 
which brought him to the ground ; when, 
de^airine-of ran^mt, the others killed him. 
Faria y Soufa, an txaB. andjodidouthif* 
toritati rq)orts, that Lewis de Brite meetioffL 
the Kin^ with the royal ftandard wrapped! 
round him, Sebaflian cried out, " Hold k. 
'* faft, let us die upon it.'^ finto affinned^ 
that after.htt himMf was taken prifon/nv he 
faw the King at a diftaaoe unpurfuedi Don 
Lewis de Lima afterwards met him making 
towards the river ; and this, fays the hii^ 
torian, was the lah time he was ever feen 
alive. About twentv years after this fatal 
defeat there appeared a Granger at Venice, 
who called himfelf SebafUan, King of Por- 
tugal. His perfon fo p^fe^ly refembled 
Seoaftiatt, that the Portuguefe of that city 
acknowledged him for their Sovereign. 
Philip IL of Spsdn was now Mafter.of.the 
crown and Idnedom of Portugal His am« 
baflador at \^nice charged this ftran^ 
with many attrodous crimes, and had in» 
tor^ to get him apprehended and thrown 

into prifon as an impoftbr. He underwent 
twenty-eieht examinations before a com- 
mittee of the nobles, in which he clearly 
acquitted himfelf of all the crimes that had 
been laid to his charge ; and he eave a diilinA 
account of the manner in wnich he had 
pafTed lus time from the fatal defeat at Al- 
cazar. It was.objeaed, that the fucceflbr of 
Muley Molucco fc'nt a corpfe to Portugal' 
winch had been owned as that of the Kmg 
by the Portuguefe nobility who furvived the 
battle. To this he replied, that his valet de . 
chambre had produced that body to facilitate 
his efcape, and that the nobility a£ted upon 
the fame motive : and Mefa and Baena con- 
fefs, that ibme of the nobili^, after their 
return to Portunl, acknowledged, that the 
corpfe was fo disfigured with wounds that it 
was impoi&ble to know it. He fhewed na-'- 
tural marks on his body, which many re- 
memberedM the perfovof the King whofe 
name he aiTumed. He entered into a 
minute detail .of the tranfaiftions that had 
pafled between himfelf and the republic,, 
and mentioned the iecrets of feveral conver- 
fadons with the Venetian ambafiSidors in the-, 
palace of Liiboo. The Committee were 
aften]ihed4.jmd ihewe4 no difpofition to de- 
clare him an Impoftor i the Senate however 
refiifed to difcnft the great point, unlefs re- 
quefted by feme Prince or State in alliance 
with them. This generous part was per- 
fprmed by the Prince of Orange, and an 
examination was made with great folemnity, 
Imt no dedfion followed, only^ the Senate 
fet him at liberty, and ordered him to depart 
their dominions in three days. In his flight. 
he fell into the hands ot the Spaniatds, . 
who conduaed him to Naples, where they^ 
treated him with the moft barbarous: indig- 
nities. After the^ had often expofed him, 
mounted on an ais, to the cruel infults of 
the brutal mob, he wa» fhipprd on board a 
ffalley as a flave. He was then carried to 
St. Lncar, from thence to a cafUe in the. 
heart of Caitile, and never was heard of 
man, Thc-finnnefs of hb behaviour, his 
# Angular 

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At thy commanding frown wc truft to fee. 

The Turk and Arab bend the fuppliant knee : 

Beneath the • morn, dread King, thine Empire lies. 

When midnight veils thy Lufitanian flues ; 

And when defcending in the weftern main 

The Sun ^ ftill rifes on thy lengthening reign t 

Thou blooming Scion of the nobleft ftem. 

Our nation's fafety, and our age's gem, 

O young Sebaftian, haften to the prime 

Of manly youth, to Fame's high temple climb : 

Yet now attentive hear the Mufe's lay 

While thy green years to manhood fpced away : 

The youthful terrors of thy brow fufpend. 

And, O propitious, to the fong attend. 

The numerous fong, by Patriot-ptfTion fir'd. 

And by the glories of thy race infpir'd : 

Book L 

fingular modefty and heroical pftrience, ue 
mentioned with admiration by Le Clcde. 
To the laft he mainuined the tnith of hit 
aiTertions ; a word never dipt from his lips 
which might coontenaace the charge of Im« 
poftnre, or Jaftify the cruelty of Sis perfe- 
coton. An Europe were aftoniihed at the 
Miniftrjr of Spain, who, by their method of 
conda6bng it, bad made an afiair k litde 
to their credit, the topic of genend conver- 
sation ; and their aflertkm, that the nnhap. 
py fnfierer was a magician, was kwked 
upon as a tadt acknowkdgement of the 
troth of his pretenfions. 

' Beneath the merny dremd JCin^, fbin§ 
Empire iiej. -^Vfhcn we confider the glorious 
focceffes which had attended the arms of 
the Portaguefe in Africa and India, and 
^e high reputation of their miUtary and 
luval pnweis, for Portugal was then Em- 

prefs of die Oceaa» it is no matter of won* 
der that the imagination of Camoens was 
warmed with the view of his Country's 
greatnefs, and that he talks of its power 
and grandeur in a ftrain, which mull appear 
9g mere hyperbole to thoTe whoTe ideas of 
Portugal are drawn from its prefent broken 
fpirii, and diminiflied ftate. 

* The ^««— Imitated perhaps from Ruti- 
lios, Qwaking of the Ronum Empire, 

K9l'uifur ip/e tibi^ qui con/pieit emrnia^ PAathf, 
Jtfque tuis prtos in tua c^nJit efuos, 

% or more probably firom thefe lines of Ba- 
channan, addrefled to John III. king of Por- 
tugal, the grand&ther of SehaiUan. 

Inqu^tuis Pbseims ngnis fienfym cadetf^s 
FtM langnmftffh emdtrtt axe dum. 

£i fu^cunpu veigtji iircMMnfdvif Ofymf^ 
AjfiJget rMitms JIamwia wum/ra. tt$U* 


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:BookI- the l u s i a t), ^ 

To be the Herald of my Country's fame 

My firft ambition and my dearcft aim : 

Nor conqucfts fabulbus, nor actions vain. 

The Mufe's paftime, here adorn the ftrain : 

Orlando's fury, and Rugero's rage. 

And all the heroes of th' Aonian page,. 

The dreams of Bards forpafs'd the wcrtd (hall view. 

And own their boldeft fiftions may be tfue ; 

Surpafs'd, and dimmed by the fliperior blaze 

Of Gama's mighty deeds, whioh here bright Truth difplays* 

Nor more let Hiftory boafl her heroes old ; 

Their glorious rivals here, dread Prince, behold : 

Here fliine the valiant Nunio's deeds unfeign'd> 

Whofe fingle arm the falling ftate fuftain'd ; 

Here fearlefs Egas' wars, and, Fuas, thine. 

To give full ardour to the fong combine ; 

But ardour equal to your martial ire 

Demands the thnndering founds c^ Homer's lyre. 

To match the Twelve* * fo long by Bards renovvrn'd> 

Here brave Magricio and his Peers- are* crown'd 

(A glorious Twelve !) with deathlefs laurels, won 

In gallant arms before the Englifh throne- 

Unmatched no more the GaBic'Chafles {hall ftand. 

Nor Caefar's name the ifirft of praife command : 

» To match the T^il^fi kng fy BarJk malices. For the Epifode ef M^mf^jnd 
nno-wH^d — The Twelve Peers of Charlc- hU eleven compaDionv »« die fixth Lufiad. 
B^igae^ often mentioned in the old Eo- 

Digitized by 


8 THE t U S I A d: Book I. 

Of nobler ads the crown'd Alonzos fee. 
Thy valiant Sires^ to whom the bended knee 
Of Tanquifh'd Afric bow'd. Nor Ief8 in famei^ 
He who confin'd the rage of civil flame. 
The godlike John, beneath whofe awful fword 
Rebellion crouch'd, and trembling own'd him Lord. 
Thofe Heroes too, who thy bold flag unfurled, . 
And fpread thy banners o'er the eaftern world, 
Whofe fpears fubdued the kingdoms of the mom, 
Tlieir names, and glorious wars the fong adorn : 
The daring Gam a, whoie unequalled name 
Proud monarch fhines o*cr all of naval fame : 
Caftro the bold, in arms a peerlefs knight. 
And ftern Pacheco, dreadful in the fight: 
The two Almeydas, names for ever dear» 
By Tago's nymphs embalm'd with many a tears 
Ah, ilill their early fate the nymphs fhall mourn. 
And bathe with many a tear their haplefs urji : 
Nor fhall the godlike Albuquerk reftrain 
The Mufe's fury ; o'er the purpled plain 
The Mufe fhall lead him in his thundering car 
Amidfl his glorious brothers of the war, 
Whofe fame in arms refbunds from fky to iky. 
And bids their deeds the power of death defy. 
And while, to thee, I tune the duteous lay^ 
AiTume, O potent King, thine Empire's fway; 


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With thy brave hoft through Afric march along^ 

And give new triumphs to immortal fong : 

On thee with earneft eyes the nations wait. 

And cold with dread the Moor expeds his fate; 

The barbarous Mountaineer on Taurus' brows 

To thy expcdted yoke his fhoulder bows : 

Fair Thetis wooes thee with her blue domain, 

Her nuptial Ton, and fondly yields her reign ; 
And from the bowers of heaven thy Grandiires ^ fee 
Their various virtues bU)om afrefh in thee ; 
One for tlie joyful daiys of Peace renown'd. 
And one with War's triumphant laurels crowu'd : 
With joyful hands, to deck thy manly t^row. 
They twine the laurel and the olive-bough ; 
With joyful eyes a glorious throne they fee. 
In Fame's eternal dome, referv'd * for thee. 
Yet while thy youthful hand delays to wield 
The fceptcr'd power, or thunder of the field. 
Here view thine Argonauts, in feas unknown. 
And all the terrors of the burning zone. 
Till their proud ftandards, rear'd in other ifcies. 
And all their conquefts meet thy wondering " eyes. 

^Thy Gramifires-^Johnin. Kingof Porta- ntive to introduce even a fliortobferratiofi 
" bratedfo 

galy celebrated for aione and peaceful reign ; of his own. Milton's beautiful complaint 

and the Emperor Chanes V. who was en* of bis blindnefs ^as been blamed for the 

gaged in almoft continual wars. fame reafon, as being no part of the fob- 

* — refers* dfvr thee. jed of his Poem. The addrefs of Camoens 

, Ami novum tgrdisftdta te menfihus addas, to Don Sebaftian has not efcaped the fami 

, Arnie novum tardisftdus te menfihus addas, to Don Sebaftian has not efcaped the fam^^ 

pa locus Erjfonen inter cbeU/queJcquentes ^^ft^^C j thooglj in fome mcafurc Wldefer- 

Scarptus. J^caB juftaplus parte reliqtdt, Virc. ^^^'X' ?« ^^^ V?^' ^^ had the art to inter- 

.r J— iby nj^ndering eyes — Some Critics weave thwein fome part of the general ar- 

have condemned VirgU for ftoppin^ his nar- gament of his poem. 

C Now 

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zo T -H E L V SI A P- :BookL 

Now far from latid^ b'er Neptune's dread abode 

The Luiitanian fleet triujUph^nt rode i 

Onward they traced the wid^ and k>nciQinc miun>. r. • 

Where changeful Proteus lead^hb fcalyr:trfcm; 

The dancing vanes, before the ZcjAyra flow'd. 

And their bold keels the trdcklefs Ocean plbw'd ; 

Unplow'd before the greea*tiftg'd billowy rOfe, 

And curl'd and whitened roiEmd the nodding prqws. : : ^ 

When Jove, the God who with, a thought controuls 

The raging feas^ and balances thepoles^ i 

From heav'n beheld,, and wili'd, infofcreign ftate; • ^ 

To fix the Eaftem World's depending fate : 

Swift at his nod th' Olympian herald' flies. 

And calls th' immocta^ fenate of the ftiies ; 

Where, from the fovercign throne' of' earth andiieareb^ :; i V 

Th' immutable decrees of fate iare given. . ' 

Inftant the Regents of the ipheres of light, . . 

And thofe who rule tte paler orbs of nr^li 

With thofe, the gods whofc delegated f¥ray \ r 

The burning South and frozen North obey ; 

And they whofe empires fee 'th0 day^ftar rife. 

And evening Phc^bus leave th^ wbf^^m ikies ; 

All inftant pour'd alopg the milky. Foa4> 

Heaven's chryilal ipavements glittering as they trode t 

And now, obedient to the dread command, 

BefcMre thek awful Lord in order fland. 


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BookL the LUSIAD. ii 

Sublime and dreadful on his rdgal throne. 
That glow'd witli ftars, and bright aa lightning (hone, 
Th' immortal Sire, who darts the thunder,^ fate. 
The crown and fceptre added folemn ftate ; 
The crown, of heaveii's own pearls, whofe ardent rayt, 
Flam'd round his brows, outfhone the diamond's blaze : 
His breath fuch gales of vital fragrance (hed. 
As might, with fudden life, infpire the dead : . 

Supreme Controul throned in his awful eyes 
Appeared, and mark'd the Monarch of the ikies. 
On feats that burn'd with pearl and ruddy gold» 
The fubjed Gods their ibvereign Lord enfold. 
Each in his rank, when, with a voice that ihook 
The towers of heaven the world's dread Ruler fpoke : 

Immortal Heirs of light, my purpofe hear. 
My counfels ponder, and the Fates revere : 
Unlefs Oblivion o'er your minds has thrown 
Her dark blank {hade$, to you, ye Gods, are known 
The Fate's Decree, and ancient warlike Fame 
Of that bold race which boafts of Lufus' name ; 
That bold advent'rous race the Fates declare, 
A potent empire in the Baft (hall rear, 

Surpafiing Babel's or the Periian fame, 


Proud Grecia's boaft, or Rome's illuftrious name. 

C 2 Oft 

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Oft from thefe brilliant feats have yau beheld 
The fons of Lufus on the dufty field. 
Though few, triumphant o'er the numerous Moors, 
Till from the beauteous lawns on Tago's fhorcs 
They drove the cruel foe. And oft has heaven 
Before their troops the proud Caftilians driven; 
While Viiftory her eagle-wings difplay'd 
Where-e'er their Warriors waved the fhining blade.. 
Nor refts unknown how Lufus' heroes ftood 
When Rome's ambition dy*d the worid with bloody 
What glorious laurels Viriatus * gain'd. 
How oft his fword with Roman gore waa ftain'd ; 

Book I 

■ What glorious laurels Viriatus gained. 
— -This brave Lufitanian, wfio was firft a 
flitphcrd and a famous hunter, and after- 
warda a captain of banditti, exafperated at 
the tyranny of the Romans, encouraged his 
countrymen to revolt and fhakc off the yoke. 
Bemg appointed General/ he defeated Yeti- 
Iios the Praetor, who commanded in Lufita- 
nia, or farther Spain. After this he de- 
feated in three pitched battles, the Prxtors 
C. Plautius Hypfxus, and Claudius Unima- 
nus, though they led againft htm ytrs nu- 
raerous armies. For fix years he continued 
riaorioBs, putting the Romans to flight 
wherever he met them, and laying waflc 
the countries of their allies. Manhg ob- 
tained fuch advantages over the Proconfol 
Serviiianus, that the only choice which was 
left to the Roman army was death or fla- 
"^try^ the brave Viriatus, inilead of putting 
them all to the fword, as he could eafily have 
done, ient a depotation to the General, cf- 
lering to conclude apeace with him on this 
fingit condition. That hi fi>ould continue 
Maflir of the Couwtry monv in his power ^ assd 
that the Romans JhomU resuain foffejed of 
the reft of Spaiu. 

The Proconful, who expeded nothing 
but death or ilavery» thought thefe very 

favourable and moderate termr, and* wTthout 
hesitation concluded a peace, which was fooA 
after ratified by the Roman fenate and peo- 
ple. Viriatus, by this treaty, compleated 
the glorious defign he had alwa]^s in view, 
which was to ered a kingdom in the vaft 
. country he had conquered from the Republic. 
And, had it not been for the treachery of 
the Romans, he would have become, at 
Floras calls him, the Romulus of Spain : 
He would have founded a monarchy capable 
of counterbalancing the power of Rome. 

The Senate, IHU defirous to revenge their 
late- defeat, foon after this peace ordered 
<^ Servilius Caepio to exafperate Viriatus* 
and force him by repeated af{>onts to com- 
mit the firil ads of hoftility. But this mean 
artifice did not fuccced. Viriatus would not 
be provoked to a breach of the peace. On 
this the Confcript Fathers, to the eternal 
dif|;race of their Republic, ordered Caepio 
to &dare war, and to produm Viriatus, who 
had given no provocation, an enemy to 
Rome*. To this b^fenefs Csepio added ftUl 
a greater; he corrupted the ambaflhdors 
which Viriatus had feat to negodate with 
him, who, at the inftigation of the Roman, 
treacheroufly murdered their Protedor and 
General while he flept.— Uwiv. Hist. 


Digitized by 


BookL the L U S I a D- 13 

And what fair palms their martial ardour crown'd^ 

When led to battle by the Chief renown'd. 

Who • fcign'd a daemon^ in a deer conceard^ 

To him the counfcls of the Gods reveaVd. 

And now ambitious to extend their fway 

Beyond their conqueils on the fouthmoft bay 

Of Afric*s fwarthy coaft, on floating wood 

They brave the terrors of the dreary flood. 

Where only black-wing'd mifts have hover'd o'er. 

Or driving clouds have failed the wave before ; 

Beneath new ikies they hold their dreadful way 

To reach the cradle of the new-born day i 

And Fate, whofe mandates unrevoked remain,. 

Has will'd, that long fhall Lufus' oflTspring reign 

The lords of that wide fea, whofe waves behold 

The fun come forth enthroned in burning gold. 

But now the tedious length of winter paft, 

Diftrefs'd and weak, the heroes faint at lafl:. 

What gulphs they dared, you faw, what ftorms they braved,. 

Beneath what various heavens their banners waved ! 

Now Mercy pleads, and foon the rifiog land. 

To their glad eyes (hall o*er the waves expand. 

As welcome friends the natives fliall receive. 

With bounty feaft them, and with joy relieve. 

^ JFh/iign*d a ifiempn.'^Sertoms, who fellow him, and horn wbicfr he prttendbd 

•was invited by the Lufitanians to defend to receive the inftroAions of Diana. By- 

ibem agsdnft the Romans. He had a tame this artifice he impofed upon thefuperfiitiom 

white flind» which he had accuilomed t» af thatpcogk*— »Vid.PLUT« 


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14 THE L U S I A D. . Book 1. 

And when refrefhmcnt fliall tHcir Arcngth renew. 
Thence (hall they turn, and their bold rout purfue. 

So fpoke high Jove : Tte Gods in filcnce heard^ 
Then rifing each, by turns, hiis thoughts preferred : 
But chief was Bacchus ' of the adverfc train ; 
Fearful he was, nor fear'd his pride in vain. 
Should Lufus' race arrive on India's ihorc. 
His ancient honours would be known no more; 
No more in Nyfk ' fhould the native tell 
What kings, what mighty hofts before him fell. 
The fertile vales beneath the rifing fun 
He view'd as his, by right of victory won. 
And deenii'd that ever in immortal fong 
The Conqueror's title fhould to him belong. 
Yet Fate, he knew, had will'd, that loos'd from Spain 
Boldly adventurous through the polar main, 
A warlike race fhould come, renowned in arms. 
And fhake the Eaflern World with war's alarms, 
Whofe glorious conquefls and eternal fame 
In black Oblivion's waves fhould whelm his name* 

^ But chief nvasBaechus.^'^^^TlxtVnxifik iec U» J9ur fui les n^ans iu Seigneur 

Tranflator nas the following note on this s^euient ajfemhle denfamt Jon trnut Satan y 

place : Le Camoenj n*a ponrtane/mit in eeU vin^ at^^ tifr. 

aue fui'vre Vexempte de PEcriture^ comnu on ^ No more in Ny/a. -r- An antient city in 

2r 1/oit dans ces faroles du fremiere cbapitre India, faCfcd tO Bacchoa. 
ii Job. Quidani aotem die com vcni&nt, 


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eiookL the lusiad. 

Urania- Venus ', Queen of facred Love, 
Arofe, and fixt her aiking eyes on Jove : 
Her eyes, well pieas'd, in Lufus' ibna could trace 
A kindred likenefs to the Roman race^ 
For whom of old fuch kind regard {he • bore ; 
The fame their triumphs on Barbarians fhore> 
The fame the ardour of their warlike flame. 
The manly mufic of. their tongue the * fame« 
Affeftion thus the lovely Goddefs fway*d. 
Nor lefs what Fate's anblotted page difpfay'd ; 
Where'er this people ihould their empire raife. 
She knew her altars would unnumbered blaze. 
And barbarous- nations at her holy Ihrine 
Be humaniz'd> and taught her lore divine. 
Her fpreading honours thus the One infpired. 
And One the dread to lofe his worship fired. 
Their ftruggling fadions (hook th' Olympian ftate 
With all the clamorous tempeft of debate. 


' Uranta- Venus, We have already ob- 

ferved, that an allegorical machinery has 
always been efteemed an efTential requifit* 
of the Epop<sia» and the reafon upon which 
it is foanded has been pointed out. The al- 
legorical machinery of the Lufiad has now 
commenced ; and throughout the Poem the 
Hero is guarded and conducted by th« CeleCi 
tial Venus, or Divuie Love. The true poeti- 
od oolourin? is thus fupported and preieiv- 
cd: but in Qluftration of this, fee the pre- 
face, and the note on the allegory of Ho- 
mer, near the <nid of the Sixth LiAad. 

• For 'wkm •/ •/^•--Sce die note in the 

Second'Book on the fbllowiiig pdBge: 

As njiben in Ida*t bower Jhe ftooJ of yore, &c^ 

' Tbi manlj mufic oftbeir tongue t be fame* 

■ Camoens fays^ 
E na isngea, na qual quando imagina, 
Compoucet corrup^ao ere qui be Laoina* 

Qualifications are never elegant in poetry. 
FanfluKw's tranflaMn, and & onginal, both^' 
prove this. 

■ tbeir touguo 

jmcb fist thinki Lutin mtb fmaU drofi 


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l6 T H E L U S I A D. Book L 

Thus when the ftorm With fuddcn guft invades 

The antient forcft's deep and lofty (hades, - 

The burfting whirlwinds tear their rapid courfe. 

The fhatter*d oaks crafh, and with echoes hoarfe 

The mountains groan, while whirling on the blaft 

The thickening lea^ves a gloomy darknefs caft. 

Such was the tumuU in the bleft abodes. 

When Mars, high towering o'er the rival Gods, 

Stcpt forth ; ftern fparkles from his eye-balls glanc'd ; 

And now, before the throne of Jove advanced. 

O'er his left fhbulder his broad fliield he throws, 

And lifts his helm above his dreadful brows : 

JBold and enrag'd he ftands, and, frowning round. 

Strikes his tall fpear-ftafF on the founding ground ; 

Heaven trembled, and the light turned pale' — Such dread 

His fierce demeanour o'er Olympus fpread : 

When thus the Warrior,-— O Eternal Sire, 

Thine is the fceptre, thine the thunder's fire. 

Supreme dominion thine 5 then. Father, hear. 

Shall that bold Race which once to thee was dear. 

Who, now fulfilling thy decrees of old. 

Through thefe wild waves their fearlefs journey hold, 

Shall that bold Race no more thy care engage. 

But fink the vidims of unhallowed rage { 

' aHtf ibi light turned paU Tlie the happieft manner of Camoens, 

thought in the Original has fomething in it O Ceo tnmio^ t Apollo detotiuulo 

wildly, greats though it is not exprefled in Hum pouco alux ptrdee^ comoinfiado. 


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Booi^I. THE L U S 1 A D. 17 

Did Bacchus yield to Reafon's voice divine, 
Bacchus the caufe of Lufus' fons would join ; 
Lufus, the lov'd companion of his cares. 
His earthly toils, his dangers, and his wars : 
But Envy ftill a foe to worth will prove. 
To worth though guarded by the arm of Jove. 

Then thou, dread Lord of Fate, unmoved remain. 
Nor let weak change thine awful counfels ftain. 
For Lufus' Race thy promised favour fliew : 
Swift as the arrow from Apollo's bow 
Let Maia's fon explore the watery way. 
Where fpent with toil, with weary hopes, they ftray ; 
And fafe to harbour, through the deep untried. 
Let him, impower'd, their wandering veffels guide ; 
There let them hear of India's wifli'd-for fhore. 
And balmy reft their fainting ftrength reftore. 

He fpoke : high Jove affenting bow*d the head, 
And floating clouds of neflar'd fragrance ftied : 
Then lowly bending to th' Eternal Sire, 
Bach in his duteous rank, the Gods retire. 

Whilll thus in Heaven's bright palace Fate was weigh'd, 
Right onward ftill the brave Armada ftray'd : 

D Right 

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i8 THE L U S I A D. Book L 

Right on they ftecr by Ethiopia's ftrand 

And paftoral Madagafcar's ^ verdant l^nd. 

Before the balmy gales of cheerful fpring. 

With heav'n their friend, they fprcad the canvas wing ; 

The fky cerulean, and the breathing air. 

The lading promife of a calm declare. 

Behind them now the Cape of Prafo bends. 

Another Ocean to their view extends. 

Where black-topt iflands, to their longing eyes, 

Lav*d by tl;ie gentle waves % in profpeft rife. 

But Gam A, (captain of the ventVous band. 

Of bold emprize, and born for high command, 

Whofe martial fires, with prudence clofe allied, 

Enfilred the fmiles of fortune on his fide) 

Bears off thofe (hores which wafte and wild appeared. 

And eaflward (UU fiDr happier climates fteer'd : 

When gathering round and blackening o'^r the tide, 

A fleet of fmall canoes the Pilot fpied ; 

Hoifting their fails of palm-tree leaves, inwove 

With curious art, a fwarming crowd they move : 

Long were their boats, and (harp to bound 'along 

Through the dafh'd waters, broad their oars and ftrong : 

'^••* JnJ paftoral Maiagafcar — Called by « Lan/d hy the gentle w«a;«— The Oriri- 

the ancient Geographers Menntliia, and nal feys, tkc Sea fliewcd them new lilands^ 

Cema Ethiopica ; by the natives, the Ifland which it encircled and laved. Thus rendered 

of the Moon; and by the Portugtiefc, the by Fanfhaw, 

lOe of St. Laurence, on whofc fcftival they Nettune dlfcloi^d new ijles which he did flay 

difcovtied it» jSwf, and with hit bilh*wt danc't the hay. 


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Book I- -T H E L U S I A D. 19 

The bending rowers on their features bore 

The iwarthy marks of Phaeton's ^ fall of yore ; 

When flaming lightnings fcorch'd the banks of Po, 

And nations blacken'd in the dread overthrow- 

Their garb, difcover'd as approaching nigh. 

Was cotton flrip'd with many a gaudy dye : 

*Twas one whole piece ; beneath one arm, confin'd -, • 

The reft hung loofe and fluttered on the wind ; 

All, but one breaft, above the loins was bare. 

And fwelling turbans bound their jetty hair : 

Their arms were bearded darts and faulchions broad. 

And warlike mudc founded as they row'd. 

With joy the failors faw the boats draw near. 

With joy beheld the human face appear : 

What nations thefe, their wondering thoughts explore. 

What rites they follow, and what God adore ! 

And now with hands and kerchiefs wav'd in air 

The barb'rous race their friendly mind declare. 

Clad were the crew, j^nd ween'd that happy day 

Should end their dangers and their toils repay. 

* '■ of Phaeton's faH — landed at Epirus, from whence he went t5 

Popuhas inter frondu umBramque firarum ^^^^ "^^^^^t- ^^^J'^^^^^^'^'^ ^T*^^?^* 

Camnum molli pluma duiij/e feneaam, of ApoTfo. One day in the heat of fummer, 

rj,, ,.-,,,, , ' * and pluiiged into die river, where, together 

ihe hiftoncal foimdattpn of the &ble of with their mafter, they periAcd. Cygnus, 

rnaeton u this : Phaeton was a young en- who was a Poet, celebrated the death of his 

lerpnfing Pnnce of Libya. Croffiag the . fnend ia verfe, finm whcacc |he ftMe. 

Mediternme«» in queft of adventures, he vid. Plutar. in vit. Pyrr. 

D a The 

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20 THE LUSIAD. Book 1- 

The lofty mafts the nimble youths afccnd, 
The ropes they haule^ and o'er the yard-arms bend ; 
And now their bowfprits pointing to the fhore, 
(A fafe moon'd bay,) with (lacken'd fails they bore : 
With cheerful fliouts they furl the gathered fail 
That lefs and lefs flaps quivering on the gale i 
The prows, their fpeed ftopt, o'er the furges nod. 
The falling anchors dafh the foaming flood : 
When fudden as they ftopt, the fwarthy race 
With fmiles of friendly welcome on each face. 
The (hip's high fides fwift by the cordage climb : 
Illuftrious Gam A, with an air fublime, 
Soften'd by mild humanity, receivc9> 
And to their Chief the hand of friendfhip gives ; 
Bids fpread the board, and, inftant as he faid. 
Along the deck the feftive board is fpread : 
The fparkling wine in chryftal goblets glows. 
And round and round with cheerful welcome flows. 
While thus the Vine its iprigtitly glee infpires,. 
From whence the fleet, the fwarthy Chief enquires. 
What feas they paft, what vantage would attain. 
And what the fhore their purpofe hop'd to ga^n I 
From fartheft weft, the Lufian race reply. 
To reach the golden eaftern fhores we try. 
Through that unbounded fea whofe billows roll 
From the cold northern to the fou^ern pole ; 


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Book I. THE 1. U S I A D. 21 

And by the wide extent, the dreary vaft 
Of Afric's bays, already have we paft ; 
And many a iky have feen, and many a fliore,. 
Where but fea-monfters cut the waves before. 
To fpread the glories of our Manarch's reign. 
For India's fhore we brave the tracklefs main. 
Our glorious toil, and at his nod would brave 
The difmal gulphs of Acheron's black wave. 
Arid now, in turn, your race, your Country tell. 
If on your lips fair truth delights to dwell. 
To us, unconfcious of the falfehood, fhew. 
What of thefe fcas and India's fite you know^ 

Rude are the natives here, the Moor reply 'd. 
Dark are their minds, and brute-defire their guide : 
But we, of alien blood and ftrangers here. 
Nor hold their cuftoms nor their laws revere. 
From Abram's • race our holy Prophet fprung. 
An Angel taught, and heaven infpir'd his tongue;. 
His facred rites and mandates wc obey,. 
And diftant Empires own his holy fway.. 
From ifle to ifle our trading veffels roamr . 
Mozambic's harbour our commodious home- 
If then your fails for India's fhores expand,.. 
For fultry Ganges or Hydafpes' ftrand,. 

^Fr^JbramUrac. our holy Propbtt ffrung. Mohtamed, who.was defccnded fram. 

Uhmacl, the fca of Abraham hy Htgar. Herd 

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Book L 

Here (hall you find a Pilot fkiird to guide 
Through all the dangers of the perilous tide^ 
Though wide ^read fhelves and cruel rocks unfeen. 
Lurk in the way, and whirlpools rage between. 
Accept, mean while, what fruits thefe iflands hold. 
And to the Regent let your wifli be told. 
Then may your mates the needful ftores provide. 
And all your various wants be here fupplied. 

So fpake the Moor, and bearing fmiles untrue. 
And figns of friendfliip, with his bands withdrew* 
O'erpower'd with joy unhoped the Sailors flood. 
To find fuch kindnefs on a fliore fo rude. 

Now (hooting o'er the flood his fervid blaze. 
The red-browM fun withdraws his beamy rays ; 
Safe in the bay the crew forget their cares. 
And peaceful reft their wearied (brength repairs* 
Calm Twilight ' now his drowfy mantle fpreads. 
And (hade on (hade> the gloom (BU deepening (heds« 

' Calm Twiligbi now 'Camoe&s, ifi 

t&is paflage, has imitated Homer in the 
flsanner of Virgil : by diverfifying the fcene 
lie has made the defcription his own. The' 
paflage alludfcd to is in the eighth Iliad s 

12$ y or* cf v^«»J c»r^« f asiMSf uf»Jf\ aiKim 

Thus elegantly tranflated by Pope: 
jis *wbin the moon, refulgent lamp of nighty 
0*er Jbia*ven*j ckar enutre fpreads her facte 

When not a breath diflurbs the deep ferene^ 
And not a cloud f^ercafts the folemn fcene % 
Around her throne the w'vid tlanets roll. 
And ft ears unnumhtf^d gild the ghwing pole-^ 
G*er the dark trees a yellower verdure fied^ 
And tip with ftlvere<uery snountain^s head; 
Then Jlnne the vales 9 the rocks in prof pe^ rife 9 
A flood of glory burfts from all the files : 
The confcious fnuains rejoicing in the fights 
Eye the blue vault, and blcfs the ufeful light* 


Digitized by 


Book L THE L U S I A D. 

The Moon, full orb'd, forfakes her watery cave. 

And lifts her lovely head above the wave. 

The fnowy fplendors of her modeft ray 

Stream o'er the gliftening waves, and quivering play 

Around her, glittering on the heaven's arch*d brow. 

Unnumbered ftars, enclofed in azure, glow. 

Thick as the dew-drops of the April dawn. 

Or May-flowers crouding o'er the daify-lawn : 

The canvas whitens in the filvery beam. 

And with a mild pale red the pendants gleam : 

The mads' tall Hiadows tremble o'er the deep ; 

The peaceful winds an holy iilence keep ; 

The watchman's carol echo'd from the prows^ 

Alone, at times,^ awakes the ftill repofe. 


Aurora now, with dewy luftre bright^ 
Appears, afcending on the rear of night* 
With gentle hand, as feeming oft to paufe. 
The purple curtains of the morn fhe draws; 
The Sun comes forth, and foon the joyful crew. 
Each aiding each, their joyful taiks purfue. 
Wide o'er the decks the Spreading fails they throw i 
From each tall maft the waving dreamers flow ; 
All feems a feftive holiday on board 
To welcome to the fleet the ifland's Lord^ 


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24 THE LUSIAD. Book I. 

With equal joy the Regent fails to meet^ 

And brings frefli cates, his offerings, to the fleet : 

For of his kindred Race their line he deems. 

That favage Race who rufli'd from Cafpia's ftreams. 

And triumphed o'er the Eaft, and, Afia won. 

In proud Byzantium fixt their haughty throne. 

Brave Vasco hails the chief with honeft fmiles. 

And gift for gift with liberal hand he piles. 

His gifts, the boaft of Europe's arts difclofe. 

And fparkling red the wine of Tagus flows* 

High on the fhrouds the wondering failors hung. 

To note the Moorifli garb, and barbarous tongue : 

Nor lefs the fubtle Moor, with wonder fired. 

Their mien, their drefs, and lordly (hips admired : 

JVIuch he enquires, their King's, their Country's name. 

And, if from Turkey's fertile (hores they came ? 

What God they worfliipp'd, what their facred lore. 

What arms they wielded, and what armour wore ? 

To whom brave Gam A; Nor of Hagar's blood 

Am I, nor plow from Izmael's fhores the flood ; 

From Europe's flrand I trace the foamy way. 

To find the regions of the infant day. 

The God we worfhip ftretch'd yon heaven's high bow. 

And gave thefe fwelling waves to roll below ; 

The hemifpheres of night and day he ipread. 

He fcoop d each vale, and rear'd each mountain's head : 


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Book I. THE L U S I A D. 25 

His Word produced the nations of the earth » 
And gave the fpirits of the iky their birth « 
On Earthy by Him» his holy lore was given^ 
On Earth he came to raife mankind to heaven. 
And now behold, what moft your eyes defire. 
Our fhining armour, and our arms of fire ; 
For who has once in friendly peace beheld. 
Will dread to meet them on the battle-field. 

Straight as he fpoke the warlike Stores difplay'd 
Their glorious (hew, where, tire on tire inlaid. 
Appeared of glittering ftcel the carabines ; 
There the plumed helms, and ponderous brigandines ; 
0*er the broad bucklers fculptur'd orbs emboli. 
The crooked faulchions dreadful blades were croft : 
Here clafping greaves, and plated mail-quilts ftrong. 
The long-bows here, and rattling quivers hung. 
And like. a grove the burnifli'd fpears were feen. 
With darts, and halberts double-edged between ; 
Here dread grenadoes, and tremendous bombs. 
With deaths ten thoufand lurking in their wombs ; 
And far around of brown, and duHcy red. 
The pointed piles of iron balls were fpread. 
The Bombadeers, now to the Regent's view 
The thundering mortars and the cannon drew ; 

E Yet 

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%£. THE LUSIAD^ Eook L 

Yet at their Leader'^ nod^ t\» ibofi of flgmie 
(For brave and generous ever are the fame). 
Withheld their hand^]^ Qor gav« the ftfed» of fir4 
To roufe the thunders of the dreadfuJt tire. 
For Gama's foul difdain'd the pride of ihew 
Which ads the lion o'er the trembling roe. 

His joy and woader oft the Moor expreft. 
But rankling hate lay brooding in his breaft; 
With fmiles obedient to hi^ will's coatroul^ 
He veils the purpofe of his treacherous ibuL: 
For Pilots^ confcious of the Indian i):rand> 
Brave Vasco fues, and bids the Moor command 
What bounteous gifts fhall recooipenie their toils j 
The Moor prevents him widi afienting fmiles, 
Refolved that deeds of death> not words of air. 
Shall firft the hatred of his foul declare : 
Such fudden rage his rankling mind pofTeft, 
When « Gama's lips Mcffiah's name confefL 

% When Gama^t Ups UegiuVi mtm eonfift, ^ Zacocia (gorernor of M baambic] made 

«— Thi«> and of coofeouence, the reafon of no doubt but our people were of ibme Mo- 

the Moor's hate, together with the fine de- kammedan country .--The mntoal exchange 

fcription of the armoury, is entirely ooiittol of good offices between our people and thefe 

by Camera. The original is, the Moor iflj^ers pciomifed a long continuance of- 

conceived hatred, " kDOwin|; they were friendihip, but it proved otherwife. No 

'' followers of the truth which the Son fooner did Zacoda underftand the ilraagert 

** of David taught." Thus rendered by were Chriftians, than all his kindnefs was 

Fanfikaw, turn^ into the moft isvtter hatred ; he began 

Knonving th»j foll^ that un,rring light, Z "^T^;^ S'll'f ^°"*0 A "^^ 

'' nunfis Eptfi. dt Ribus Eman. Regis Lu/tt. 

By ^iB Solomon muft be imderftood, not g^fiis* 

tiw Mefliah, as meant by Camoens. 


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Book L THE L U S I A D. 27 

Oh depth .of heaven's dread will, that rancorous hate 
On heaven's bcft lov'd in every clime ihould wait ! 
Now fmiling round on all the wondering crew. 
The Moor attended by his hands withdrew : 
His nimble barges ibon approach'd die land. 
And (houts of joy received him on the ftrand. 

From heaven's h^h dome the Vintage-God beheld, 
(Whom ^ nine long months his father's thigh conceal'd) 
Well-pleafed he mark'd the Moor's deteraxined hate. 
And thus his mind revolved in £elf-debate : 

Has heaven, indeed, fuch glorious lot ordaia'd I 
By Lufus' race fuch conquefts to be gain'd 
O'er warlike nations^ and on India's fhore. 
Where I, unrival'd, <:laim'd the palm before ! 
I, fprung from Jove ! and ihall thefe wandering few. 
What Ammon's fbn unconquer'd left, fubdue ! 
Ammon's brave fon, who led the God of war 
His Have auxiliar at his thundering car ! 
Muft thefe poffefs what Jove to him deny'd, 
PoiTefs what never fboth'd the Roman pride ! 

^ Wbcm ninf hng months hisfirti^t tbigh m am of Mmmt Meros, which in Greek 

tMcuU^d. According to the Ambi«ii»« i^pufieft a tWgii. Hence the febJe. 

Bacchctt was DOttrilhed daring hi< lofiHKy im 

E 2 Muft 

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28 THE LUSIAD. Book I. 

Muft thefc the Victor's lordly flag difplay 
With hateful blaze beneath the rifing day, 
My name difhonour'd, and my vi6torie« ftain'd, 
O'erturn'd my altars, and my ihrineg profaned I 
No — be it mine to fan the Regent's hate; 
Occafion feized commands the action's fate. 
'Tis mine — this Captain now my dread no more. 
Shall never fhake his fpear on India's fhore. 

So fpake the Power, and with the lightning's flight 
For Afric darted thro' the fields of light. 
His form * divine he cloath'd in human ihape. 
And rufh'd impetuous o'er the rocky cape ; 
In the dark iemblance of a Moor he came 
For art and old experience known to fame : 
Him all his peers vnth humble deference heard. 
And all Mozambic and it's prince revered : 
The Prince in hafte he fought, and thus exprefl: 
His guileful hate in friendly counfel dreft : 

And to the Regent of this ifle alone 
Are thefe Adventurers and their fraud unknown P 

; '\Hisfarm dMmi he tloutVd in human fiap i ■ ■ ■ 

AkSo^ tor*vamfaciim etjmriatia membra 
*" " r «uuitMs/tfi i 

Exuit : in Hfultms/efe transformut aniksf 

Stfr$ntem ohfccenum rugis arat*. ■ ViR# *fiN. 7. 


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Book I. THE L U S I A D. 29 

Has Fame conceal'd their rapine from his car ? 

Nor brought the groans of plundered nations here ? 

Yet ftill their hands the peaceful olive bore 

Whene'er they anchored on a foreign (hove r 

But nor their feeming, nor their oaths I truft. 

For Afric knows them bloody and unjuft. 

The nations fink beneath their lawlefs forcci 

And fire and blood have mark'd their deadly courfe-^ ' 

We too, unlefs kind heaven and Thou* prevent, 

Muft fall the vidims of their dire intent. 

And, gafpirig in the pangs of death, behold 

Our wives led captive, and our daughters fold. 

By ftealth they come, ere morrow dawn, to brings 

The healthful beverage from the living fjpring r 

Arm'd with his troops the Captain will appear ; 

For confcious fraud is ever prone to fear. '* i 

To meet them there, feledt a trufty band» 

And in clofeambufh take thy filent ftand ; 

There wait, and iiidden on the heedlefs foe^ 

Rufii, and deftroy them ere they dread the blow^- 

Or fay, fhould fome efcape the fccMt fnarc: ] 

Saved by their fate, their valour, or their care^ 

Yet their dread fall fhall celebrate our ifle. 

If fate confent, and thou approve the guile.. 

Give then a Pilot to their wandering fleet,. 

Bold in his art, and tutor'd in deceit.;. . 


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30 T H E L U S I A D- Book L 

Whbfe Jiand adventurous {hzll their helms mi^uide 
To hoftilc fliorej, or whelm them" in the tide* 

So fpoke the God^ in femblance of a fige 
Renown'd for coimfel »od the craft of age. 
The Prince with tranfport glowing in his face 
Approved, and cav^t hun in a kind embrace; 
And inftant ftt die word hjjs bands prepare 
Their bearded darts and iron fangs of war. 
That Lufus' fons might purple with their gore 
The chryftal fountain which they fought on (horc : 
And ftill regardful of his dire intent^ 
A fkilful pilot to the bay he feat. 
Of honeft mieo, yet praQdfad in deceit, 
Who far at difbnce on the l^acfa Aiould wait. 
And to the 'fcaped, if .fymc ibould 'icape the fnare. 
Should offer friendfhip and' the pilot's care ; 
But when at fea, on, rocks ffaould da(h their pride^ 
And whelm their lofty vanes beneath the tide« 

Apollo now had left Hk watery bed, 
And o'er tlie .mountains of Arahia fpread 
His rays that glow'd with g6ld i Whefa Gam a rofc. 
And from his bands H *nifty fqnadron chofe : 
Three fpeedy barges brooghft ithcir calks to fill - 

From gurgling fountain, ferthe chryftal rill : 
: - Full-arm'd 

Digitized by 


BookL the L U S I a D. 31 

FuU-arm'd they came^ for brav« drfcnce prepared. 

For martial care is ever on the guard : 

And fecret warnings ever are impreft 

On wifdom fuch as waked in Gama's breaft. 

And now, as fwiftly fpringing o*cr the tide 
Advanced the boats, a troop of Moors they fpy'd j 
O'er the pale fands the fable warriors crowds 
And tofs their threatening darts, and fhout aloud. 
Yet feeming artlefs, though they dared the fight. 
Their eager hope they placed in artful flight. 
To lead brave Gam a where unfeen by day 
In dark-brow'd (hades their filent ambufh lay. 
With fcornful geAures o'er the beach they ftrjde,. 
And pufli their levell'd fpears with barbarous pride ;; 
Then fix the arrow to the bended bow„ 
And ftrike their founding fhields, and dare the foe^- 
'With generous rage the Lufian Race beheld. 
And each brave breaft with indignation fwelFd, 
To view fuch foes like fnarling dogs difplay 
Their threatening tuiks, and brave the fanguine fray : 
Together with a bound they fpring to land. 
Unknown whofe ftep firft trode the hoftile ftrand. 

Thus ^, when to gain his beauteous Charmer's fmile„ 
The youthful Lover dares the bloody toil, 

* Thusy nuhen /• gaim his leauttous Char* ' This fimilie is taken from a favourite cx- 

mtr^s/miUf ercifcin Spun,, where it is ufual to fee 

The youthful Lover daru tU bUody toil^^"^^ yoon^ Gentlemen of the bed families, adorn* 


Digitized by 


3t T H E i L U S I A D. Bqok I. 

Before the nodding Buirs,ftefn front he ftands> 

He leaps^ he wheels, he fhoUts, and waves his hands : 

The lordly brute difdains the ftripling's rage. 

His noftrils fmoke, and, ieager to engage. 

His horned brows he levels with the ground. 

And fliuts his flaming eyes, and wheeling round 

With dreadful bellowing ruflies on the foe. 

And lays the boaftful gaudy champion low« 

Thus to die fight the fons of Lufus fprung. 

Nor flow to fall their ample vengeance hung : 

With fudden roar the carabines refound. 

And burfting echoes from the hills rebound j 

The lead flies hiffing through the trembling air. 

And death's fell demons through the flafhes glare. 

Where, up the land, a grove of palms enclofe. 

And caft their fhadows where the fountain flows^ 

The lurking ambufli from their treacherous iland 

Beheld the combat burning on the ftrand : 

They Tee the flafh witli fudden lightnings flare. 

And the blue fmoke flow rolling on the air: 

They fee their warriors drop, and, ftarting, hear 

The lingering thunders burfting on their ear. 

Machete, appear the candidates ot tame in oinou. lu ^'-F*-/ r*T;^^ :;^ X;' r-voiir and 
the lifts of the bQll.fight. Though Ca. a fure ^^^^'^f'li^'f^^^ '^" favour and 
moens in this deCcription of it ha. givqi good opinion of the Ladici. 

the viaory to the Bulb it very feldom &> 


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HookL the L U S I a D. 33 

Amazed, appaird, the treacherous ambufli fled. 

And raged 'i and curft their birth, and quaked with dread. 

The bands that vaunting fhew'd their threatened might. 

With flaughter gored, precipitate in flight; 

Yet oft, though trembling, on the foe they turn 

Their tycs, that ired with luft of vengeance burn : 

Aghaft with fcaf- and flern with defperate rage 

The flying war with dreadful howls they wage. 

Flints", clods, and javelins hurling as they fly. 

As rage and wild defpair their hands fupply,. 

And foon diiperA, their bands attempt no more 

To guard the fountain or defend the fhore : 

O'er the wide lawns no more their troops appear r 

Nor fleeps the vengeance of the V idtor here ; 

To teach the nations what tremendous fate 

From his dread arm on perjur'd vows fhould wait. 

He feized the time to awe the Eaftem World, 

And on the breach of faith his thunders hurl'd. 

From his black fhips the fudden lightnings blaze» 

And o'er old Ocean flafh their dreadful rays : 

* ■ e mal^izia Jiamfuifiuis itfipta wUntf fiff tirmm 

O 'velbi innte^ t a may^ fue ofilh$ criu* mniftrat. ViRO. M>n* !•' 

Thus traoflated by Fanfluw, ,'^« SP«»*^ Commentator on this Plact 

_,..,,,, relates a reiy extraorduuuy mftance of the 

a-L* TnT^l i'i^ *ir '"l ^'^' r f^^ -'^ mimftrans. A Portagnefe Sol. 

n old DiwU and tht Dam tkat gavi tbm ^^^^ ^t the fiege i>f Din in the Indies, being 

-^^* ' furromided by the enemy, and having no 

"» FUmsf cMif andjavdias bwrlini of thty ball to charge his mqlkety. polled out one of 

Jh^ his teeth, and with it fopplied the place of. 

Jtsragi^ lie. a ballet. 

F WhUe 

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34 THE LU8IAD. Book L 

White clotids on clouds inroird the fmoke afcends. 
The burfting tomult heaven's wide concave rends ; 
The bays and caverns of the winding fhore 
^Repeat the cannon's and the mortar's roar : 
The bombs« far-flamiogj hifs along the fky. 
And whirring through' the air th« bullets, fly : 
The wounded air with hollow deafen'd founds 
Groans to the direful ftrife^ and trembles round. 

Now From the Moorifii town the iheets of fire, 
Wide blaze fucceeding blaze, to heaven afpire^ 
Black rife the clouds of fmoke^ and by the gales 
Borne down, in ftreams hang hovering o'er the vales ; 
And flowly floating round the mountain's head 
Their pitchy mantle o'er the landfcape (pread. 
Unnumber'd fea-fowl rifing from the fhore. 
Beat round in whirls at evejy cannon's roar : 
Where o'er the fmoke the mails' tall heads appear. 
Hovering they fcreaoi, then dart, with fudden fear ; 
On trembling win^ far round and round they fly. 
And fill with difmal clang their native flcy. 
Thjtf fled in rout confos'd the treacherous Moors 
Frem^ field to field, then, hail'ning to the fhores. 
Some truft in beats their wealth and lives to fave. 
And wild wiih dread they plunge into the wavei. 


Digitized by 


Book I. THE LUSIAD. 35 

Some ipread their arms to Cvntn, and fome beneath 
The whelming billows, ftruggling, pant for breathy 
Then whirled aloft their noftrils fpout the brine ; 
While fhowering flill from many a carabine 
The leaden hail their fails and veflels tore^ 
Till ftruggling hard they reach'd the neighb'ring fliOre t 
Due vengeance thus their perfidy repay'd. 
And Gama's terrors to the Eaft difplay'd. 

Imbrown'd with duft a beaten pathway ibews 
Where 'midft umbrageous palms the fountain flows > 
From thence at will they bear the liquid health; 
And now fole mafters of the iiland^s wealth. 
With coftly fpoils and eaftern robes adom'd. 
The joyful vidors to the fleet returned. 

With helVs keen fires, flill for revenge athirf{:> 
The Regent burns, and weens, by fraud accurfl:^ 
To ftrike a furer, yet a fecret blow. 
And in one general death to whelm the foe. 
The promifed Pilot to the fleet he fends. 
And deep repentance for his crime pretends. 
Sincere the Herald feems, and while he (peaks. 
The winning tears fteal down his hoary cheeks- 
Brave Gam A, touched with generous woe, believes, 
A^d from his hand the Pilot^s hand receives : 

F 2 s A dreadful 

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36 THE L y S I A D. Book L 

A dreadful gift ! inftruftcd to decoy. 

In gulphs to whelm them, or on rocks deftroy. 

The valiant Chief; impatient of delays 
For India now refumes the watery way ; 
Bids weigh the anchor and unfurl the fail. 
Spread full the canvas to the rifing gale i 
He ipoke ; and proudly o*er the foaming tide. 
Borne on the wind, the fuU-wing'd veflels ride ; 
While as they rode before the bounding prows 
The lovely forms of fea-born nymphs arofe. 
The while brave Vasco's unfufpeding mind 
Yet fear'd not ought the crafty Moor defign'd : 
Much of the coaft he afks, and much demands 
Of Afric*s fliores and India's fpicy lands. 
The crafty Moor, by vengeful Bacchus taught. 
Employed on deadly guile his baneful thought ; 
In his dark mind he planned, on Gama*^ head 
Full to revenge Mozambic and the dead. 
Yet all the Chief demanded he rcveal'd. 
Nor ought of truth, that truth he knew, conccal'd : 
For thus he ween'd to gain his eafy faith. 
And gained, betray to flavery or to death* 
And now fecurely trufting to dellroy, 
As crft falfe Sinon fnarcd the fons of Troy, 


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Book I. T H E L U S I A D. 37 

Behold, difclofing from the flcy, he cries. 

Far to the north, yon cloud-like iQe arifc : 

From ancient times the natives of the (horc 

The blood-ftain'd Image on the Crofs adore. 

Swift at the word, the joyful Gam a cry'd. 

For that fair ifland turn the helm afide, 

O bring my veflcls where the Chriftians dwell. 

And thy glad lips my gratitude (hall tell : . 

With fuUen joy the treacherous Moor comply'd. 

And for that ifland turn'd the helm afide. 

For well Quiloa's fwarthy rate he knew. 

Their laws and faith to Hagar's offspring true ; 

Their ftrength in^ wjir, through all the nationjs round. 

Above Mozambic and her powers renown'd ; 

He knew what hate the Chriftian name they bore. 

And hoped that hate on Vasco's bands to poun 

Right to the land the faithlefs Pilot fteers. 
Right to the land the glad Armada bears ; 
But heavenly Love's fair Queen % whofe watchful care 
Had ever been their guide, beheld the fnare. 

^ But heofvenly Levels fair ^j^in — When fpokc the Arabic language, Gam a was 

Gam A arrived in the Baft, the Moon were obliged to employ them .both as Pilots and 

the only people who engrofled the trade of Interpreters. Tlie circumftance now men- 

thofe parts. Tealons of fuch formidable tioned by Carooens is an hiflorical truth. 

rivals as the rortugncie, they employed The Moorifh Pilot, fays De Barros, in- 

every artifice to accompliih the deftruftion tended to condu6l the Portuguefe into Qui- 

of Gama's fleety for they forefaw the con« loa, telling then) that place was inhabited 

iequences of his return to Portugal. As the by Chriftians ; but a fudden dorm arifing. 

Moors were acquainted with thefe (bas and drove the fleet from that fhore, where death 


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^;J« THE L U S I A D. 

A fudden ftorm (he raised ^ Loud howi'd tlie blaft^ 
The yard-arms rattled, and each groaning mail 
Bended beneath the weight. Deep fank the prows. 
And creaking ropes the creaking rc^s oppoTe ; 
In vain the Pilot would the fpeed reftrain ; 
The Captain (houts, the Sailors toil in Tain ; 
Aflope and gliding on the leeward fide 
The bounding veiTels cut the roaring tide : 
Soon far they pall; and now the flacicen'd fkil 
Trembles and bellies to the gentle gale : 
Till many a league before the tempeft toft 
The treacherous Pilot fees his jHirpofe croft : 
Yet vengeful ftill, and ftill intent on guile. 
Behold, he cries, yon dim emerging ifle : 
There live the votaries of Mefiiah's lore 
In faithful peace and friendihip with the Moor, 
Yet all was falfe, for there Meffiah's name, 
Reviled and fcorn'd, was only known by fame. 
The groveling natives there, a brutal herd. 
The fcnfual lore of Hagar's fon preferred. 

Book L 

or flavery wonld have been the certain fate 
of G A M A and his companions. The villany 
of the Pilot was aftenKnaids di&overed. As 
Gama was endeavouring to enter the port 
of Mombaze his fliip ftruck on a (and bank* 
and Ending their purpofe of bringing him 
into the naibonr defeated, two o7 the 
Mooriih Pilou leaped into the iea and fwa» 
a(hore. Alarmed at this tadt acknowledge- 
aent of guilt, Gama ordered two other 

Mooriih Pilots who remained on board to be 
examined by whipping, who, after fome 
time, made a full confeffion of their in- 
tended villany. This dtfcovery greatly en- 
couraged Gama and his men, who now iiv- 
terpt^ed the fiidden fiorm which had driven 
them from Quiloa as a miiaculous interpo- 
sition of die Divine Pxovidenee in their fk- 


Digitized by 


Boor L THE L U S I A D. 3f 

With joy brave Gama hears the artful tale. 
Bears to the harbour, and bids furl the fail. 
Yet watchful ftill fair Love's oeleftial Queea 
Prevents the danger with a hand unfeen ; 
Nor paft the bar his ventVous vefTels guides : 
And fafe at anchor in the road he rides. 

Between the ifle and Ethiopia's land 
A narrow current laves each adverle ftrand ; 
Clofe by the margin where the green tide flows, 
Full to the bay a lordly city wfe : 
With fervid blaze the glowing Evening potirs 
It's purple fplendors o'er the lofty towers ; 
The lofty towers with milder luftre gleam. 
And gently tremble in the glafly ftream. 
Here reign'd an hoary King of ancient fame ; 
Mombaze the town, Mombaze the iiland's name. 

As when the Pilgrim, who with weary pace 
Through lonely waftes untrod by human race. 
For many a day difconfolate has ftray*d. 
The turf his bed, the wild-wood boughs his fliade, 
O'erjoy'd beholds the cheerful feats of men 
In grateful profpeft rifing on his ken : 
So Gama joy'd, who many a dreary day 
Had trac'd thr vtd:^ the lonsfome watery way. 


Digitized by 


40 THE L U S I A D/ Book I; 

Had fccn new ftars,- unknown to Etirope, rift. 

And brav'd the horrors of the polar ikies : _ _. 

So joy'd his bounding heart, when proudly rear*d, .. // 

The fplendid City o'er; the wave appear 'd» . f 

Where heaven's own lore, he trufted, was obey'd, ... .«. . 

And Holy Faith her facrcd rites difplay'd. :,: •.. r '. ! : • 

And now fwift crowding through the homed bay 

The Moorifh barges wing'd their foanay way : ' • / ( ^ .. *:: 

To Gama*s fleet with friendly fmiles they bore ' 

The choiceft produ<5fc8 of their cultured fhore. 

But there fell rancour veil'd its ierpent-head. 

Though feftive rofes o'er the gifts were ipread. • ; < 

For Bacchus veil'd, in human fhape, was here. 

And pour'd his counfel in the Sovereign's ear. 

O piteous lot of Man's uncertain ftate I 
What woes on life's unhappy journey wait ! 
When joyful hope would grafp it's fond deiire. 
The long-fought tranfports in the grafp expire. 
By fea what treacherous calms, what rufhing ilorms. 
And death attendant in a thoufand forms ! 
By land what ftrife, what plots of fecret guile, 
How many a wound from many a treacherous fmile ! 
O where ihall Man efcape his numerous foes^ 
And reft his weary head in fafe repofe ! 


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L U S I A D. 


' I ^ H E fervent luftrc of the evening ray 

^ Behind the wcftern hills now died away. 
And night afcending from the dim-brow'd eaft. 
The twilight gloom with deeper (hades increaft ; 
When Gama heard the creaking of the oar. 
And markt the white waves lengthening from the fhore. 
In many a ikiiF the eager natives came. 
Their femblance friendihip, but deceit their ainu 
And now by Gama's anchored (hips they ride. 
And, Hail illuflrious Chief, their Leader cried. 
Your fame already thefe our regions own. 
How your bold prows from worlds to us unknown 

G Have 

Digitized by 


42 THE LUSIAD- Book 11. 

Have braved the horrors of the fouthern main. 

Where ftorms and darknefs hold their endlefs reign » 

Whofe whelmy waves our weftward provirs have barr'd 

From oldeft times, and nc*cr before were dar'd 

By boldeft Leader : Earneft to behold 

The Wond'rous Hero of a toil fo bold. 

To you the Sovereign of thefe iflands fends 

The holy vows of peace, and hails you Friends, 

If fricndfhip you accept, whatever kind heaven 

In various bounty to thefe fhores has given. 

Whatever your wants, your wants fhall here fupply. 

And fafe in port your gallant fleet fhall lie ; 

Safe from the dangers of the faithlefs tide. 

And fudden burfling florms, by you untry'd } 

Yours every bounty of the fertile fliore, 

*Till balmy refl your wearied AKngth roilore* 

Or if your toils and ardent hopes demand 

The various treafures of the Indian flrand. 

The fragrant cinnamon, the glowing clove. 

And all the riches of the fpicy grove ; 

Or drugs of power the fever's rage to bound. 

And give foft Itngour to the fmartiog wound i 

Or if the fplendor of the diamond's rays. 

The fapphire's azure, or the ruby's blaze. 

Invite your fails to fearch the Eaflern world. 

Here may thefe £iils in happy hour be furl'd : 


Digitized by 


BookIL the LUSIAD. 

For here the fplendid trcafurcs of the mine. 

And richeft offspring the fields combine 

To give each boon that human want requires. 

And every gem that lofty pride defires : 

Then here, a potent King your generous friend. 

Here let your perlous toils and wandering fearches end. 


He faid : Brave Gam a fmiles with heart (incere, 
And prays the herald to the king to bear 
The thanks of grateful joy : But now, he cries, 
The blackening evening veils the coaft and ikies. 
And through thefe rocks unknown forbids to fteer ; 
Yet when the ftreaks of milky dawn appear 
Edging the eaftern wave with filver here. 
My ready prows ihall gladly point to (hore i 
Aflured of friendihip, and a kind retreat^ 
Affured and profFer'd by a King fo great. 
Yet mindful ftill of what his * hopes had cheer'd. 
That here his nation's holy (hrines were rear'd. 

* What his h§fes had chm^d^"*^ 

After Ganft iukI been dnvm frooi 
Quilosi by a fodden ilonn, the sArinccs of 
the Mozambic piloe that die dty was chiefly 
ifdiabited by Ch]iftiana» flraigly inclined 
him to enter the harbowr of Mombose; 
'* Nee nUnm locnm (fays Otamt) magis op* 
portonum carandis at^ retdendis aegrotts 
pofie reperiri. Jam eo tempore boaa pars 
^rum, qui cnmGama conlcendttrant, variu 
moihis confmnpta fuerat, et qui eviUeianty 
erant gravi invaletadine debilitati. * . . • 
TeUos abundat fmaibus tt oleribasi et fro- 

gibas» et peoomm et armentoram gregiboi » 
ec aquis duldbos. Utitur prsterea mira ex- 
litemperie. Homines vivuntadmodum laate» 
et domos more noftro cdificant. — Mifit rex 
ttondo8> qni Gamam nomine illius £ditta^ 
rent. • • • Ainnt deinde regionem illam 
Hft opnlentiiBmam> earumque rcrum om« 
nioffl pleniflimam, qnarum gratia multi in 
Indiam nangabant. Regem aded efle in 
iUos voluntate propenfum at nihil eflet tarn 
diffidle, qood non fe eorom gratia fadarum 
poQicerctor/* Ofir. 

o z 


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44 T H E L U S I A D. 

He afks, if certain as the the Pilot told, 

Meffiah's lore had flourifh'd there of old. 

And flourifli'd ftill ? The Herald marked with y>Y 

The pious wifli, and watchful to decoy, 

Mefllah here, he cries, has altars more 

Than all the various fhrines of other lore. 

Overjoyed brave Vasco heard the pleafing tale. 

Yet fear'd that fraud its viper-fting might veil 

Beneath the glitter of a (hew fo fair ; 

He half believes the tale, and arms againft the fnare; 

Book U. 

With ^ Gam A faiFd a bold adventurous band, 
Whofe headlong rage had urg'd the guilty hand r 
Stern Juftice for their crimes had aik'd their blood'. 
And pale in chains condemned to death they flood ; 
But fav*d by Gam a from the fliameful death. 
The ^ bread of peace had feal'd their plighted, faiths 

^ Emnt enim in ea dafle decern ho- 
mines capite damnati, quibas fuerat ea lege 
vita concefla, ut quibufcunque in lodfr a 
Gama relidi foiiTenty legiones laftrarent^ 
kominamqne mores et infUtttta cognefce- 
icnt. Q/or. 

Doling^ the reign of Emmanuel, and his 
predeceifop John If. few criminals were exe* 
cuted in Portagal. Thefe ^reat and politi- 
cal princes employed the lives which were 
forfeited to the public in the moft dan^xo'ts 
midertakbes of^pnblic utility. In their fo- 
seign expeditions the condemned criminals 
were fent upon the moft hazardous emer* 
gencies. If death was. their fate,, it was the 
punifhment they had merited : if fuccefsfiil 
in what waa required, their crimes were 
expiated ; and often^ as in the ^age of 

Gama, they rendered their comitry tha 
greateft atonement for their guilt, which 
men in their drcumftances could poffibly 
make. BtMea the merit of thus rendering 
forfeited lives of fervice to the community^ 
the Portuguefe Monarchs have the honour^ 
of carrying this idea ftiU farther. They, 
wene the firft who devifed that moft political 
of all pnniihmeBts, tranfportation to fo- 
reign fettlements. India and the Brazils, 
received their criminals ; manv of whom 
beoune afterwards ufeful members to fo- 
dety. When the fubjeA thus obtruder 
the occafion, a ihort digrefiion, it is hoped, 
will be pardoned. While every feeline. 
breaft mull be pleafed with the wifdom a^a. 
humanity of the Portuguefe monarchs, xn« 
dignatioQ and regret muft nk on the view 


Digitized by 


Book II. THE L U S I A D. 45 

The defolatc coaft, when ordered, to explore. 
And dare each danger of the hoflile (hore : 
From this bold band he chofe the fubtleft two. 
The port, the city, and its ftrength to view. 
To mark if fraud its fecret head betrayed. 
Or if the rites of heaven were there difplayed; 
With coftly gilts,, as of their truth fecure. 
The pledge that Gama deem'd their faith was pure,. 
Thefe two his Heralds to the King he fends : 
The faithlefs Moors depart as fmiling friend^. 
Now thro* the wave they cut their foamy way. 
Their chearful fangs refounding' through the bay : 
And now on fhore the wondering natives greet. 
And fondly hail the ftrangers from the fleet- 
The Prince their gifts with friendly vows receives^ 
And joyful welcome to the Lufians gives ; 
Where'er they pafs, the joyful tumult bends. 
And through the town the glad applaufe attends. 
But he whofe cheeks with youth immortal fhone. 
The God whofe wondrous birth two mothers own^ 
Whofe rage bad ftill the wandering: fleet annoyed^. 
Now in the town his. guileful rage employed. 

of the prefent ftate.of the penal laws of the greateft part of thefe lives ufeful to fb- 

England. What multitudes eveiy year, in dety, is a fa£t, which furely cannot be dit 

the prime of their life, end their days by puted ;—— though perhaps the. remedy 

the hand of the executioner! That the of an eril fo (hocking to humanity, may 

Legiflatore miji^hi d^ify' means to make be at fon^e diflancc* 

A Chriftiam 

Digitized by 


46 T H E L U S 1 A D. Book II 

A Chriftian pricft he feem'd ; a fumptuous * fhrine 
He rear'd, and tended with the rites divine : 
O'er the fair altar waved the crofs x)n high. 
Upheld by angels leaning from the fky $ 
Defcending o'er the Virgin's facred head 
So white, fo pure, the Holy Spirit fpread 
The dove-like pidlured wings, fo pure, fo whit? i 
And, hovering o'er the ehofen twelve, alight 
The tongues of hallowed fire. Amazed^ oppreft. 
With facred awe their troubled looks confeil 
The infpiring Godhead^ and the prophet's glow. 
Which gave each language from their lips to flow. 
Where thus the guileful Power his magic wrought » 
De Gama's heralds by the guides are brought: 
On bended knees low to the earth they fall> 
And to the Lord of heaven in traniport call; 
While the feign'd Prieft awakes the cenfer's fire» 
And clouds of incenfe round the fhrine afpire. 
With chearful welcome here^ carefs'd, they ftay^ 
Till bright Aurora, me^nger of day, 
Walk'd forth ; and now the fun's reiplendent rays. 
Yet half emerging o'er the waters, blaze. 

« Om iu thifiBwri ^ftbMtJkape he flacU^ In Aefe lines, the beft of all Fanlhaw* 

In 'which the tiolj Spirit did alight ^ tbe happy repetition ** fo Chafie^ fo white/' 

The piSure of the Do*ve^/o nvhitfy fo chafie^ is a beauty which, thoagh not contained in 

On the bleji Vitgiit head^fe cbajlejo ^white. the original, the prefent tranilator was an- 

willing to lofet 


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Boon II. T H :E^ L U S I A D. '47 

When to the fleet the Moorish oars again 
Dafti the curl'd waves, and waft the guileful train : 
The lofty decks they mount. With joy elate. 
Their friendly welcome ^t the palace-gate. 
The King's fincerity, the people's care. 
And treafures of the coaft the fpies declare : 
Nor paft untold what moft their joys infpired^ 
What moft to hear the valiant Chief defired^ 
That their glad eyes had fcen the rites diidne. 
Their country's worihip, and the facred dirine» 
The plealing tale the joyful GAma hears ; . 
Dark fraud no more his genefous bofom fears : 
As friends fincere, himfelf fincere, he gives 
The hand of welcome, and the Moors receives. 
And now, as confcious of the deftin'd prey. 
The faithlefs race, with fmiles and geftures gay. 
Their (kiffs forfaking, Gama's (hips afcend. 
And deep to ftrike the treacherous blow attend. 
On fhore the truthlefs Monarch arnw his bands. 
And for the fleet's approach impatient ftands ^ 
That icon as anchored in the port they rode 
Brave Gama^s decks might reek with Lufian blood : 
Thus weening to revenge Mozambic's fate. 
And give full forfeit to the Moorifli hate ; 
And now, their bowfprits bending to the bay. 
The joyful crew the ponderous anchors weigh. 


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THE L U S 1 A D. 

Book IL 

Their (houts the whik refounding. To the gale 
With eager hands they fprcad the fore-maft faiL 
But Love's fair Queen' the fecret fraud beheld : 
Swift as an arrow o'er the battle-field. 
From heaven fhe darted to the watery plain. 
And call'd the fea-born Nymphs, a lovely train> 
From Nereus fprung ; the ready Nymphs obey. 
Proud • of her kindred births and own her fway. 
She tells what ruin threats her fov'rite race ; 
Unwonted ardour glows on every face s 
With keen rapidity they bound away, 
Dafh'd by their filvcr limbs^ the billows grey 

• Proud of Iter kindred hirth^^t)xz French 

«tranflator lias the following nott on this 

place, ** Ctt endroit'ifi I'un de aux qui 

•' montrent comhien PAuteur eft hahile dans 

*' la mytbohgie^ it en mime terns comhien 

** de penetration /on allegorie diwumde. II 

** J a hien peu de gens^ qui en lifant ici^ 

*< &c.— — This is one of the places which 

•* difcover our Author's intimate acquaint- 

•' ance with Mythology, and at the fame 

*• tinac how much attention his allejgory rc- 

'« ouires. Many readers, on finding that 

•* the prote^refs of the Lufians fprung from 

** the fea, would be apt to exclaim, Be- 

^ hold, the birth of the terreftrial Venus ! 

*' How can a nativity fo diigracefol be 

*« afcribed to the celeftial Venus, who re- 

" prefents Religion ? 1 anfwer, that Ca- 

*' moens had not his eye on thofe fables, 

*f which derive the birth of Venus from 

<< the foam of the waves, mixed with the 

*• blood which flowed from the diftioneft 

•* wound of Saturn ; he carries his views 

" hieher ; his Venus is from a fable more 

<< noole. Nigidius relates, that two fifhes 

^' one day conveyed an «gg to the fea 

** (hore : This egg was hatched by two 

" pigeons whiter than ^now, and gave 

" birih ^0 the Aflyrian Venus, which, in 

^ the Pagan theology, is the fame with the 
" celeftiu : She i&ftniaed mankind in Re- 
** ligion, gave them the leflbns of virtue 
** and the laws of equity* Jupher^ in re- 
** warfl of her labours, promifed to grant 
^' her whatever flie defired. She\prayed 
** him to give immortality to the two wntSf 
** who had been inftrumental in her birth, 
«' and the Efhtt were accordingly placed 

" in the Zodiac TTiis Able 

" agrees peifefily with Religion, as I could 
-** dearly ihew ; but I think it more proper 
^' to leave to the ingenions reader the plea- 
*' furc of tradne the allegory." Thus Caf* 
rrrtf^-— Befides Uie above, Mythok>gy gives 
two other accounts of the origin of die fign 
Pifces. When Venus and Cupid fled from 
-.the rage of Typhon, they were faved by 
two fimes, who carried them over the river 
Euphrates. The fifhes, in return, were 
placed in the Zodiac. Another Able fays 
that, that favour was obtained by Neptune 
for die two Dolphins, who firft brought him 
his beloved Amphitrite. This variety in 
the Pagan Mythology is, at leaft, a proof 
that die allegory of a Poet ought not, with* 
out full examination, to be condemned oa 
the appearance of incoofiAeacy. 


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Book II. THE L U S I A D. 49 

Foam round : Fair Doto, fir'd with rage divine. 
Darts through the wave j and onward o'er the brine 
The ' lovely Nyfe and Nerine fpring 
With all the vehemence and the fpeed of wing. 
The curving billows to their breafts divide. 
And give a yielding paflage through the tide. 
With furious fpeed the Goddefs ruih'd before ; 
Her beauteous form a, joyful Triton bore, 
' Whofc eager face, with glowing rapture fired, 
Betray'd the pride which fuch a tafk infoired. 
And now arriv'd, where to the whiiUing wind 
The warlike Navy's bending mafts redtn'd. 
As through the billows rufli'd the fpcedy prows. 
The nymphs, dividing, each her ftation chofe. 

' Dttt, Ktfe, mdHtrint ~~aoto, or Wigion.affemblestliemtoitslafctf.* That , 

Clotho, a$ Cafiera obfemt, hat by fome this manner of allegory is in the true fnirit 

WK crept into almoft. aU the Portagoefe of Homer, fee the note on the allegorical 

•ditions of the Lufiad. Qotho was one of machinery of that great father of poetry, 

tte Fates, and neither Hefiod, Homer, aor near the end of the fath Lufiad. rktttA- 

Virgil have given foch a name Co any of the lowing, fiom Cafiera, is indeed highly pe- 

Nereides ; bat in the ninth uEneid Doto is dantic. •♦ Doto, continues he, is derived 

mentioned, .» ft^nj ^ v^erb A>JW^, Igiv*. Accord- 

— ■ MAgmju4JiiMt «« ing to this etymology Doto is Chariqr. 

•fq*«rts tft Dtat, juaU, Nereia Dot» " Nyfe is Hope, and Nerine Faith.- For 

*'™ x'5f*-7f*'-^****'«* P*S»ref»Mim. " the name Nyfe comes from Nfe, I/tuim. 

The Nereides, m the Lufiad, fays Cafiera, " For the aftion of Hope agrees widi Aiat 

are Oe virtues divine and human. In the " of fwimming, and is the fymbol of it. 

to« book they accompany the Foe tuguefe " Nerine is a term compofed of wot, an 

""*' " old word, which fignihes tit ivatert if 

_., , — ; — ^'/"'' tbtiumJingprovis ** tit fea, and of »r«i, a file i^ if ono 

« i '^'V'/"'*" of fio-iofit V"}^' »rofi' " flionld fay, the jUe »f the fea toatm, a 

And without doubt, fiiyt he, diis allegory, " mvfterioas exprcffion, applicable to Faith, 

in a hvely manner, reprefents the condi- " which is the file of our foul, and which 

turn of mankind. The virtues, langdfii ia «« is rendered petfeft by the water of bap- 

repofejadverfties animate and awake them. «• tifm." Our French Faraphrifi wifely 

i he fleet fadmg before a favourable wind adds, that perhaps fome pcrfons may defpife 

IS followed by the Nweides, but the Ne- this etymology, but that for his part, fe is 

reides are fcattered about in the fea. When unwilling to reiea it, as it tends to unravel 

danger becpmes imminent,. Venw, or Re- the allegory of his author. 

H Againft 

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Againfl: the Leader^s prow; hec lovely breait 
With more than mortal foree the Goddefs pftftj 
The fhip recoiling trembles on the tide^ 
The nymphs in help pour round on e^Fery &dt. 
From the dread bar the threatened keels to fave ; 
The ihip bounds up» half lifted from the wave^ 
And, trembling, hovers o'er the watery grave. 
As when alarm'd, to favt th^ boarded grain. 
The care-earn'd ftorc for Winter*^ dretry reign, 
So toil, fo tug, ib pant, the labouring Bmtnet (rain* 
So toird the N3nnphs, and ibaia'd thtir panting ibrce 
To turn * the Navy fvota its fatal courfe : 
fiack, back the fhip recedes ; in v»n the crew 
With (houts on /houts their vatious toils renew; 
la vain each nerve, each nautic art they ftraixh 
And the rough wind diftends the fail in vain : 
Bnraged, the Sailors fee their labours croft ; 
From fide to £de the reeling helm is toft i 
High on the poop the fkilffVil mafter ftands ; 
Spdden he ihrieks aloud, and fpreads his hands .^.^^ 
A lurking rock its dreadful rifts betrays, 
.And right before the prow its ridge difplays; 
Loud ihrieks of horror from the yard*arms rife. 
And a dire general yell invades the ikies. 

Detmdum Mtva JcofuU* ■ ■■ Vifc^> ^Kn. I. 


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Book II. T H E L U S I A D. 

The Moors ftart» fear**ftfttck» at the horrid &fvind. 
As if the rage of combat roar'd around. 
Pale are their lips.^ each look m wild amaze 
The horror of detcded guilt betray;. 
Pierc'd by the glance of Oama's awlul ^ee^ 
The confcious Pilot quits the helm, and f&e%. 
From the high deck he pkmges in die bfine ; . 
His mates their fafetjf^ «4> the Waves confign; 
Dafh'd by their plunging Itills^ on every fide 
Foams and boils up around the rolling tide. 
Thus ^ tlie hoarfe tenants of the fylvaa lake, 
A Lycian race of old>^ to l^ght betake ; 
At every found they dread Latooa's hate. 
And doubled vengeance of their former fate ; 


* Thus the hoar/a tenants - 

'fays the fable, flying from die ferpent Py- 
thatkf and faint with tUrft, came to a p(md» 
where fome Lycian peafiUits were cutting 

ete bulniihes. In revenge of ^e infults 
hich they ofiered her in preventing her to 
drink, (he changed them mto frogs. Thu 
fable, fays Caftem, like almoft aU the reft, 
is drawn from hiftory. Philocorus, as dted 
by Boccace, relates, that die Rh^dkns 
having declared war againft the Lycians, 
were affifted by fome troops from Defos, 
who carried die image of Latona on their 
fbndards. A detachment of thefe going to 
drink at a lake in Lycia, a croud of pea- 
fants endeavoured to prevent them. An en- 
counter enfoed ; the peafaats fled to the bhc 
for flielter, and were there flain. Some 
months afterwards their xompanions came 
in feardi of their corpfes, and finding an un« 
ttfiial quantity of fegs, imagined, accord- 
ing^ to the fnpeiflitioa of their age, that the 
foob of their friends appeased to them under 
thtt metaflMTphofls. 

> Latena, Is it aOowable in Epic Poetry to iniroddcd 

a comparifon taken from a low image ? This 
is a qneftion which has exerdied the abilit^% 
of Cndcs and Tranflators, till cridcifm has 
degenerated into trifling, andleamiagintopo* 
dantry . To fome it may perhaps appear need- 
lefs to vindicate Camoens, in a point whereift 
he is'fiipportsd by the authority of ffomef 
andVirgd. Yet as many readers are infeAedr 
with ^tutfim^froid of a Rollin or a Perrault» 
an obiervadon in defence of our Poet cannot 
be thought imperdnent. If we examine the 
flaeftemtfions of genius, we (hall find, that 
the moft genuine poedcal feeling has often 
diAated thofe flmilies which are drawn from 
familiar ind low objefts. The Sacred Wri- 
ters, and the greatcft Poets of every nadon, 
have ufed them. We may therefore con- 
elude, that the cridcifm v^ich condemns 
them is a refinement not founded on Nature. 
Bat, allowing them admiffibte, it mult be 
obferved, that to render them pleafing re- 
quires a peculiar happinefs and delicacy of 
management. When the Poet attains this 
H 2 iadifpenflble 

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52 THE L U S I A D. Book m- 

All fudden plunging leave the margin green. 

And but their heads above the pool are feen« 

So plunged the Moors, Mrhen> horrid to behold \ 

From the bar'd rock's dread jaws the billows rolFd, 

Opening in inftant fate the fleet to whelm. 

When ready Vasco caught the daggering helm : 

Swift as his lofty voice refounds aloud 

The ponderous anchors daih the whitening flood,. 

And round his veflTel, nodding o'er the tide. 

His other fhips, bound by their anchors, ride. 

And now revolving in his piercing thought . 

Thefe various fcenes with hidden import fraught i 

The boaftful Pilot's felf-accufing flight,. J 

The former treafon of the Mooriih fpight ;, ! 

How headlong to the rock the furious wind. 

The boiling current^ and their art combined. 

Yet though the groaning blafl: the canvas fwell'd. 

Some wondrous caufe, unknown, their fpeed witheld : 

Amaz'd^ with hands high rais'd, and ipariding eyes,, 

A * miracle ! the raptur'd Gam A cries, 

indifpcnfible point, he gives a (Iriking jprooC C^me U rmni iMMMxi m la mmicst 

of his elegance, and of his niafter(hip» in his Bt/cia ftr Paifuafi JiUguan* tutu 

art. That the fimilies of the Emmets and Fin cbt « la terra dafcuna s^ahUcj. 

of the Fro£s \fi Camoens are happily ex- And Cant. 22. 

prefled ana applied, is indifputable. In E conu a Porlo dt Pacqua d'umfojo 

that of the Progs there is a peculiar proprie- Stan* U ranoccbifur cd mufifuori 

ty, both in the comparifon itfelf, and in the SP cbt celoM ipieMr ' Paltro grcffi. 

alluiion to the fable ; as it was the intent of ' J miracle Oferias giTt^ the follow* 

the Poet to reprefent not only the flight, ing account of this advcntnrrft Talking oi 

but the bafenefs of the Moors. The fimilie the two £xiles whom Gama had fent on 

he feems to have copied from Dante, Inf. fhore ; Rex laeta el hUari fronte exdtes ac- 

Cant. 9. cepit, imperavitque domeftids foia,. utillis 


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Book !!• THE LUSIAD. 

A miracle ! O hail thou facred fign. 

Thou pledge illuftrious of the Care Divine ! 

Ah ! fraudful Malice ! how fhall Wifdom's care 

Efcape the poifbn of thy gilded fnare I 

The front of honefty^ the faintly (hew. 

The fmile of friendfliip, and the holy vow; 

All, all conjoined our eafy faith to gain. 

To whelm us, (hipwreck'd, in the ruthlcfs main ; 

But where our prudence no deceit could (py. 

There, heavenly Guardian, there thy watchful eye 

Beheld our danger : ilill, O ftill prevent. 

Where human forefight fails, the dire intent^ 

The lurking treafon of the fmiling foe; 

And let our toils, our days of lengthening woe. 

Our weary wanderings end. If ftill for thee. 

To fprcad thy rites, our toils and vows agree. 

On India's ftnmd thy facred fhrines to rear,. 

Oh, let fome friendly land of reft appear f 


mthh fitum et pulchiitudinem demonftra- 
rent. Ubi vero reverfi riint» Rex malta 
aroroatam genera, que ex India deportari 
folenty iUis oftentat, et qoantulam vifum 
eft donaty ut Gamae monftiare poflenty et 
adinonere, quanto eflet atilias apud Regem 
amicam rem gerere, quim vitam tarn peii- 
ciilofx navieationi committere. Ctim his 
mandatis redeunt exules in claflem, Gama 
mirifictt laetatus eft, et poftridie anchoras 
tolli jobet, et naves prope orbem conftitui. 
C^ ver& illius navis x^us incitati vi ce- 
lerins, qnain commodum cffet, inveiwreta]:^ 
timens ule nh in vadom incideret, vela con- 
trahere et anchora? demittere confeftim 

jnffit Qao fa£U> MosBambiquenies 

gabeniatores mcta repentino percalfi> & 

prsecipites in mare dejidunt, et ad lintrer 
qnafdazUy quae non procul aberat, nando 
confagiunt. .... At Gama magnis vocibus 
ad eosy qui in Untribus erant, indamavit, 
at fibi fuos gubematores redderent : at illi 
damores illius afpernati, gubematores in 
terram expofuerunt. Hie Gama com et 
conje£hiray et aliquo etiam Arabis gubema* 
toris indidoy et multis praeterea ^guis^ per- 
fpexiflet e quanto periculo fuiJQet auxitlo 
divino liberatus, manns in ccdum fuftulit. 
Barros and Caftaneda, in relating this part 
of the voyage of Gama, fav, that the'^flcrt, 
juft as they wer« entering tne port of Mom. 
baifa were driven back, as it were, by aa 
kvifible hand. The fafety of the Armada, 
depended npon this drcumft^nce. 


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If for thine honour we thcib tott$ havo dai 'diL 
Thcfc toUs let India's long-fimght fhorc reward I 

So fpoke the Chief: the pious accents move 
The gentle bofom of Celeftial Love : 
The beauteous Queen to heaven pow darts away i 
In vain the weeping nymiphs impjk)re her ftay : 
Behind her now the morning ftar (he leaves^ 
And the ^ fixth heaven her lovely form receives^ 
Her radiant eyes fuch living fplendors caft» 
The fparkling flars were brightened as (he paft; 
The frozen pole with fudden ftreamlets flow*d> 
And as the burning zone with fervor glow*d. 
And now, ronfeft before the throne of Jove, 
In all her charms appears the Qjueen of Love : 
Flufli'd by the ardour of her rapid flight 
Through fields of sther and the realms of light. 
Bright as the blufhes of the rofeate morn. 
New blooming tints her glowing cheeks adorn j 
And all that pride of beauteous grace ihe wore. 
As ' when in Ida's bower fhe flood of yore, 

^ As the planet of Japiter b in the fixth ** namet and adventures of the Pagsm Dir 

heaven, the Author has with propriety there ** vinities are lb blended and uncertain in 

placed the throne of that God. Caftenu ** Mythology, that a Poet is ac great 11- 

^ Js nvhem in Ida*s bower Jhe ffopd of jort. ** berty tO^adaft them to his allegor]^ as hf 

— -^" JUnttfuis Us cen/eurs, (ays Caftera* ** pleaiies. Even the fables, which tp 

<< /e r eerier qui eet endroit-ci ne convient ** thofe who penetrate no deeper than the 

** nuUement a la Venus eeUfte. — I am aware ** Rhindy mxf appear as profane, eve^ 

** of the objedion, that this paflage is by ** thefe contain hiiloricaU phyiical, and 

'« no means applicable to the cekflid ** mond truths, which full)^ attone.for the 

** Venps. I amwer once for all, that the <* feeming liceadouihefs of tbi^ l^ter. 

•« conia 

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Book II. 



When every charm and every hope of joy 

Enraptured and allured the Trojan boy. 

Ah ! " had that hunter^ whofe unhappy fate 

The human vifage loft by Dian'6 hate^ 

Had he beheld this fairer goddefs move 

Not hounds had flain him, but the fires of love. 

Adown her neck, more white than virgin fnowi 

Of fofteft hue the golden trcfles flow j 

Her heaving breafts of purer, ibfur white» 

Than fnow hilla glifteiting in the moon's pale light. 

Except where covered by the fafh, were bare. 

And " Love, unfeen, fmird ibft, and panted tliefe^ 

Nor lefs the zone the god's fond ^eal employs ^ 

The zone awakes the flame of fecret joys» 

" could prove this in many inflances, bot 
" let the prefent fuffice. Paris, Ton of 
" Priam, king of Troy, fpent his firft 
'* years as a (hepherd in the country. At 
*' this time Juno, Minerva, and Venus dif- 
** puted for the apple of gdd, which wa* 
** deftined to be given to the moft beautiful 
•* ffoddefs. They confented that Paris 
*' mould be their judge. His equity claim- 
'< ed this honour. He faw them all naked. 
" Juno promifed him riches, KdinekVa die 
" fciences, but he decided in favour of 
*< Venus, who promifed him the p6^effioA 
" of the moft beautiful woman. What a 
** ray of li^ht is contained in this phtlo^ 
'* phicalfaole! Paris reprefents a ftudious 
** man, who, in the iilence of folxtude, 
** feeks the fnpreme good. Juno is the 
** emblem of riches and 4%aide9^ Minerv«« 
** that of the fciences purely human, Venus 
" is that of Religion, which contains the 
** fciences both hamali and divia«; the 
** charming femak, which flic pfomiies to 
" the Trojan fhepherd, is that Divine Wif- 

<' dom which rives tranquility of heart. 
** A Judge fo ^dbibphscal as Paril virouM 
" not hentate a moment to whom *to give 
«< tbe Bpfle 0f gold.'* 

» Jh, bad that hnnt^ ^--^^^ The alle- 
^< gory of Camoens is here obvious. If 
*• A^eort, and the flaves of their vtoleiit 
<« paffions could difcever the beauties of 
*< troe religion, they wodd be aftouHheci 
'* and redamied ; according to the expref* 
"•fion of Seneca, H nnrtut ami f^ffit 
" oculu torforeis^ omnts ad amorem fuum 
*' pMtciHt. Cuftera. 

• AndLwt^ unfien — — ** That is Divine- 
«' Lov^, Which always accoMpanies Rrii>i 
*' gion. Behold how our Author infinuates 
<^ the excellence of his moral!" dkfitra. 

Camoens, as obferved in the preface, 
has twice ai^rtad» that his madf inery is al« 
le^oricai. The Poet's afierdon, and the 
tafte of the age inVhich he wrote, fiifficient- 
ly vindicate the Endeantour to unravel and 
explain the allegory of tfaa Lufiad. 


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56 THE L U S I A D. Book 11. 

As ivy tendrils, round her limbs divine 

Their fpreading arms the young defires entwkie : 

Below her waift, and quivering on the gale^ 

Of thinnefl texture flows the iilken veil : 

(Ah ! where the lucid curtain dimly (hows. 

With doubled fires the roving fancy glows !) 

The hand of modefty the foldings threw. 

Nor all concealed, nor all was given to view* 

Yet her deep grief her lovely face betrays. 

Though on her cheek the foft fmile faultering plays. 

All heaven was mov'd — as when fome damfcl coy. 

Hurt by the rudenefs of the amorous boy. 

Offended chides and fmiles ; with angry mien 

Thus mixt with fmiles, advanced the plaintive queeii; 

And ^ thus : O Thunderer ! O potent Sire ! 

Shall I in vain thy kind regard require ! 

Alas! and cherifli ftill the fond deceit. 

That yet on me thy kindeft fmiles await ! 

Ah heaven ! and muft that valour which I love 

Awake the vengeance and the rage of Jove ! 

Yet mov'd with pity for my favVite race 

I fpeak, though frowning on thine awful face 

I mark the tenor of the dread decree. 

That to thy wrath configns my Sons and Me. 

• And thus, O Thundenr ^--^ The fbU JBnAd, and do great hoitcmr lotht Claffical 
lowing Tpeedi of Venus and the reply of taftc of Ike Portugaefe Poet. 
Jnpiter* are a £ne imitation from toe firft 


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JBookII. the L U S I a D. S7 

Yes ! let ftern Bacchus blefs thy partial care^ 

His be the triumph^ and be mine defpair. 

The bold advcnt'rous fons of Tago's clime 

I loved— alas ! that love is now their crime : 

O happy they, and profp*rous gales their fate. 

Had I purfued them with relentlefs hate ! 

Yes ! let my wodul ijighs in vain implore, ■ 

Yes! let them periih on fome barb'rous ihore. 

For I have loved them— Here, thefwelling figh 

And pearly tear-drop rufhii>g in her eye. 

As morning dew hangs trembling on the rofe. 

Though fond to ipeak, her farther fpeeoh oppofe— • . . 

Her lips, then moving, as the paufe of woe 

Were now to give the voice of grief to flow ; » 

When kindled by thofe charms, whofe woes migHt move,' - 

And melt the prowling Tyger's rage to love. 
The thundering God her weeping forrows ey'd. 
And fudden threw his awful ftate afide : 
With that mild look which ftills the driving ftorm. 
When black rolVd clouds the face of heaven deform ; 
With that mild vifage and benignant mien 
Which to the fky reftores the blue ferene. 
Her fnowy neck and glowing cheek he preft. 
And wip*d her tears, and clafp'd her to his breaft : 
Yet fhe, ftill fighing, dropt the trickling tear. 
As the chid nurfling mov'd with pride and fear, 

I Still 

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Still fighs and moans^ though fondled and carefti 
Till thus great Jove the Fates' decrees confeft : 
O thou, my daughter, ilill belov'd as ^ir. 
Vain are thy fears, iky heroes claim my care : 
No power of gods could eV my heart incline^ 
Like one fond fmUe, one powerful tear ci thine* 
Wide o'er the Eaftem (bores ihah thou behold 
The flags far ib-eaming, and thy thunders coUU^ ' 
While nobler triumphs ihall thy nation crown^ 
Than thofe of Roman or of Greek renown. 

If by mine aid tiie i^sient Greek could brave 
The Ogycian feas, aor * fink a deathlefi fifvc $ 
If through th' lUyrian (helves Ante&cur bore,. 
Till fafe he landed on Timavus' (hc^es 
If, by his fate, the pious Trojan led. 
Safe through Charlbdis's barking whirlpools (ped t 
Shall thy bold Heroes, hy my care di(claim'd^ 
Be left to perifli, who^ to worlds unnam'd 
By vaunting Rome, p«rfae their dattntlc(s way } 
No — foon (halt thou with ravKh'd eyes furvey» 
From (beam to ftream their lofty cities fpread. 
And their proud turrets rear the warlike head : 

p •'^^Nffiii a dMhlifiJlavi i. e. Tbe Ovft of CtSyffo, who dfaed TJlyAf u»- 

mortality <m co&ditisn he would live with her. 


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5f THE LUSIAD. Booifi 11. 

The ftern-brow'd Turk (hall bend the ftippliant knee« 
And Indian Monarchs, now fecure and free» 
Beneath thy potent Monarch's yoke (hall bend. 
Till thy juft Law» wide o'er the Baft extend. 
Thy Chiefs who now in Error's circling maze. 
For India's fliore through (helves and texnpe(l:s ftrays; 
That Chief (halt thou behold> with lordly pride. 
O'er Neptune's trembling realm triumphant ride.. 
O wondrous fate ! when not a breathing ^ gale 
Shall curl the billows, or diftend the fail. 
The wave (hall bpil and tremble^ aw'd with dread, 
And own the terror o'er thf ir empire fpread« 
That hoftile coaft, with various ftreams fupplied, 
Whofe treacherous fons the fountain's gifts deay'd ; 
That coaft ftialt thou behold his Port fujp|>ly. 
Where oft thy weary fleeu in reft ftiall lie. 
Each (hore which weav'd ft>r hiin the (hares of death. 
To him thefe (hores (hall pledge their ofier'd faith; 
To him their haughty Lords (hall lowly bend* 
And yield him tribute for the name 6f friend. 

4 — .l^bir mt m hrtMtbing gtdiJhaUcurl the failon were terrified* fsaA in die atmoft 
thi aOiWi'^AhBt the Portaeaeie had made oonfiifion, diiiikiag ftudMm loft \ 

giett conaiefts in India* Uama had the Gama, perceinng ft «o be the eftft cf $m 

honour to be apipointed Vioemr. In 15.2^ caithqoiuce, with hii wonted heroUin and 

a» he failed thiuer to take pcmeffon of his pmdence, exdaimedy ** Of what an j9m 

government* his fleet was becalmed on the afraid f Do joh mat fu how thi Ocum 

ooaft of Canbaya, and the flaps flood trmbUs under its Senfenigns !^ Barros, 

m tio ii kft M the water: mftantly, widi- L. 9. C. 1. and Faiia (torn. 1. C. 9*) wha 

tho leaft dinge «f weather* the fiiya* that fodi as by fide of fevers wese 

Ihakcn widi te sioft violent outd by tte fright. 

scitadon. The fliips were.tofibd about; 

I 2 The 

Digitized by 


^o THE L U S i A D/ Book U- 

The Rcd^fear wave {hall darken in the fhadc 

Of thy broad fails in frequent pomp difplay'd ; 

Thine eyes ihall fee the golden Ormuz' fhorc. 

Twice thine, twice conquered, while the furious Moor,. 

Amazed, fhall view his arrows backward ' driven. 

Showered on his legions by the hand of heaven. 

Though twice aflailed by many a vengeful band, 

Unconquered ftill fhatt Dio*8 ramparts iland ; - 

Such prowefs there fhall raife the Lufian name 

That Mars fhall tremble for his blighted fame ; 

There fhall the Moors, blafpheming, (ink in death. 

And curfe their Prophet with their parting breath. 

Where Goa's warlike ramparts frown on high, 
Pleas'd fhalt thou fee thy Lufian banners fly; 
The Pagan tribes in chains fhaH crowd hcs gate. 
While fhe fubKme fhall tower in regal flate. 
The fatal fcourge, the dread of all who dare 
Againfl thy fons to plan the future war.* 


Though few thy troops who Conanour fuflain. 
The foe, though numerous, fhall affault in vain-. 
Great Calicut, for potent hofls renowned. 
By Lifboa's fons affail'd fhall flrew the ground : 

f his arrtrnvs bathu^r^l dri<vin by the ▼ioknoe of a ftddcR wind' Ac ar* 

Both Barroi and Caftaneda iclate this faft. rows of the latter were dnvtn b«ck open 

Albuqucrk, during the war of Onnnz, hav- thcmfelm, .whereby many of their troops 

ing given battle to the Per£ans and Moon, were wounded. 


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Book IL 



What floods on floods of vengeful: hofts fhall wage 

On Cochin's walls their fwift repeated rage I 

In vain : a ' Luflan Hero fhall oppofe 

His dauntlefs bofom, and difperfe the foes. 

As high-fwell'd waves, that thundered to the (hock, 

Difperfe in feeble ftreamlets from the rock. 

When ' blackening broad and far o'er Adium's tide 

Auguftus' fleets the Slave of love defy'd. 

When that fallen Warrior to the combat led 

The braveft troops in Badrian Scythia bred. 

With Afian legions^ and, his fhameful bane,. 

The Egyptian Queen* attendant, in the. train j^ 

Though Mars raged high^ and all his fury pour'd. 

Till with the ilorm the boiling furges roar'd i 

Yet (hall thine eyes more dreadful fcenes behold. 

On burning furges burning furges roird. 

The (heets of fire far billowing o'er the brine. 

While I my thunder to thy fons.refign. 

Thus many a fea (hall blaze^ and many a (hore 

Refound the horror of the combat's roar,. 

• .i.... ji Lufimm tfrr«— — Pacheco ; in 
the fiege of Cocnin he defeated fucceffivel/ 
feren namcroas armies raifed by the Zamo- 
tam for the redodion of that city. 

' Whin iiackimmg troad and far ^er 

Hmt'9fi buriarsca *variifqui AttimiuM arms 
ViSmr^ ah Aurora p9fmUt \i Ufri rtAr§ 
JSgyfium^ mirg/fui Orientist 1:1 ultima Jkcum 
JBMra vMt : Jefuiturqui uifas / JBgy$^ia 

Vna omnes ruergf ac Mum fpumart rtiuQts 
Cowuulfum remis rtfirifque tridentihus aqutr, 
Atta fehmt : filago eredat inuarg nvuf/oi 
Cjclaiaif out monies concurrere montibus altos: 
Tanta m^U wri tnrritis puff thus inftant. 
Stufea fiamma maun, ttlij^ui-volatile fmrrum 
Sfargitur : arva ssova Ntftunia ^4edt rub^f* 

I I ySrv/V mi4/io in lirtamim Ma*vors» . 
Viae. iEN. vxiu. 


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ii THE I. XJ S I A D. Book U. 

While thy bold prows trradipliant ride alon j; 
By trembling China to the ifle« unfui^ 
By ancient bard, by ancient chief unknown^ 
Till Ocean's utmoil (hore thy bondage own. 

Thus from the Ganges to the Gadian ftrand. 
From the nwft northern wave to fouthmoft land ; 
That land decreed to bear the injurM name 
Of Magalhaens, the Lufian " pride and fliamfe j 
From all that Vaft, tho* crowned with heroes old. 
Who with the gods were demi-gods ^nroll'd ; 
From all that Vaft no equal heroes fhine 
To match in arms, O lovely Daughter, thine. 

So fpake the awful Ruler of the ikies. 
And Maia's fon fwift at his mandate flies ; 
His charge, from treafon and Mombafla's king 
The weary fleet in friendly port to bring. 
And while in fleep the brave De Gam a lay. 
To warn, and fair the fhorc of reft difplay. 
Fleet through the yielding air Cyllenius glides^ 
As to the Jight, the nimble air divides* 

^Tti Lufim ftriiie mi Jkmi. •^Ifml- same, and in AelNidt paits of Soach Ame- 

fatens, a moft celebrated nmszxor. Ne- rica; aoqmreiiieiitSy which at this day are 

jleaed by John II. long «f Fortngalj he of the ntmoft value to the Smnifli Bfli|Mre* 

^flered his ienace to Ae kingdom oTSpab^ Of this hero fee farther. A, Lniad, in 

«der iR^om he made moft important dif- the iiocei. 
eoveries rcmnd the Straits, wluch bear his 


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BookH. the: L U S I a D^ 

The myftic Helmet on Mt head he wore^ 

And in his right the fa^ rod he "^ bore } 

That j^d^ of power to wake the filent dead». 

Or o*er the lids of care foft flumbef» ihed^ 

And noWt attended by the herald Fame> 

To fair Melinda's gate coneeaTd he came p 

And ibon loud Rumour echoed through, die townw 

How from the weftem worlds from waves* unknowow 

A noble band had ceafib'd the ^thiop ihore^ 

Through feas and dangers iMver dared before z. 

The godlike dread attempt their wonder fireiv 

Their geneixms wonder fond regasd inipires^ 

And all the city glow» their aid to give^ 

To ^w the heroes^, and their wants lelieye^ 

'T was now the (blemn hoiw when midhight xeigas!^. 
And dimly twinkling o'er the ediereal plaina 
The ftarry hoft>. by gloomy filence ]ed» 
O'er earth and fea a glimmering pakneis ihed i: 
When to the ileet>. which hemm'd with dangers lay^ 
The filvcr-wing'd Cyllenius darts away^. 
Each care was now in foft obliirion fleep'd,. 
The Watch alone accuftom'd. vigils kepti. 

Twm 'wrgm caf$$ ; tsj- 4urim0§ $lh ¥»$M- Dai /9mm$ MdmfftUp li lumima mortt n* 


Digitized by 


64 THE L U S I A D- Book IL 

E'en Gam A, wearied hy the day-s alarms. 
Forgets his cares^ reclined in Ilamber^s arms. 
Scarce had he clofed his: careful eyes in reft^ ; 

When Maia's fon in vlfioR flood confeft : • 

And fly, he cried, O Lafitanian, fly; '^ ' 

Here guile and trcafon every nerve apply : 
An impious king for tbee the toil prepares, 
-An impiou; people. weave a thoufand fnar« : 
Oh fly thefe (hores, unfurl the gathered fail, 
Lo, heaven^ thy guides commands the rifing gale ; 
Hark, loud it ruft]es, iee> the gentle tide 
Invites thy prows; t the winds thy lingering chide. 
Here fuch dire welcome is for thee prepared 
As ' Diomed's unhappy ftrangers fhared ; 
His haplefs guefcs at iilent midnight bled. 
On their torn limbs his fnorting courfers fed. 
Oh fly, or here with ftrangers' blood imbrew'd 
Bufiris' altars thou (halt find rcncw'd : 
Amidft his flaughter*d gueffs his altars ftood 
Obfcene with gore, and bark'd with human blood : 
Then thou, beloved of heaven, my counfel hear ; 
Right by the coaft thine onward journey Acer, 

* Js Diomed*j unbafpy Jfnmger s -^Dio- Hercules vanqmlhed both thefc tyrants, and 
mcdc, a tyrant of Thrace, who fed his horfes pot them to the fame puniihmcnts which 
with human fleih j a thing, fays the grave their cruelty had inflicted on others. Jfo- 

Caftera, ^rfy^«fMrrtfy«^/r,almoftincie£Ue. crates compofed an oration m honour of 

Bufiris was a king of Egypt, who facrificed Bufiris ; a raatorly cwmiplc of Attic raillery 

Grangers. and fatire. To this Caftere wifely appeals, 

f^is^iilaudatiiufiit BufiriMs araj P to prove die truth of the hiflory of that 

Viao. GioA. iit. tyrant. 

Digitized by 


Book II. THE L U S I A D. 65 

Till where the fun of noon no fliade begets, 

But day with night in equal tenor fets. 

A Sovereign there, of generous faith unftain'd. 

With ancient bounty,! and with joy unfeigned 

Your glad arrival on his Ihore fliall greet. 

And foothe with every care your weary |leet. 

And when again for India's gcdden ftrand 

Before the profperous gale your £iils expand, 

A fkilful Pilot oft in danger try'd. 

Of heart fincere, fhall prove your faithful guide* 

Thus Hermes fpoke, and as his flight he lakes 
Melting in ambient air, D£ Cama wakes. 
Chiird with amaze ht ftood, when through the night 
With fudden ray appeared the burfling light ; 
The winds loud whizzing through the cordage figh'd ■ 
Spread, fpread the fail, the raptured Vasco cried i 
Aloft, aloft, this, this the gale of heaven ; 
By heaven our guide, th' aufpicious fign is given i ... 
Mine eyes beheld the MeiTenger divine 1 , 
O fly, he cried, and gave the favouring fign. 
Here trcafon lurks. Swift as the Captain fpake 

The mariners ipring bounding to the deck. 
And now with (houts far-ccchoing o*er the fca, 
Proud of their ftrength the ponderous anchors weigh. 

K When 

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When '^ heaven again its guardian care difplay'd ; 
Above the wave rofe many a Mooriih head 
Conceal'd by night they gently fwam along. 
And with their weapons fawed the cables ftrong. 
That by the fwelling currents whirl'd and toft. 
The navy*s wrecks might ftrew the rocky coaft : 
But now difcover'd, every nerve they ply,. 
And dive, and fwift as frightened vermin fly. 

Now through the filver waves that curling rofe> 
And gently murmured round the floping prows. 
The gallant fleet before the fteady wind 
Sweeps on, and leaves long foamy tracks behind ; 
While as they fail the joyful crew relate 
Their wondrous fafety from impending fate ; 
And every bofom feels how fweet the joy 
When dangers paft the grateful tongue employ. 

The fun had now his annual journey run. 
And blazing forth another courfe begun, 
Whe» fmoothly gliding o'er the hoary tide 
Two floops afar the watchful mafter fpied ; 


y When heaven again in guardian can bus anclioralk node praepdereilt. Q^ 

difplafi Having mentioned the efcape niii foiflet a noftris fingulari Gama indulria 

of the Moorifli pilots, Oforius proceeds : vigilatiiin» et infidiis fcelerati illiiis rms oc- 

Rex deinde homines magno cum iilentio cnrfum, noftri in fommom vitae diiciimen 

fcaphis U linthbus fubmittebat^ i^oi fecoh- ioddiflent. 


Digitized by 


Book 11. THE L U S I A D. 67 

Their Moorifti make the feaman's art difplay'd ; 

Here Gama weens to force the Pilot's aid : 

One, bafe with fear, to certain fliipwreck flew ; 

The keel dafh'd on the fliore, efcap d the crew. 

The other bravely trufts the generous foe. 

And yields, ere flaughter (Iruck the lifted blow. 

Ere Vulcan's thunders bellowed. Yet again 

The Captain's prudence and his wifli were vain \ 

No Pilot here his wandering courfe to guide, 

No lip to tell where rolls the Indian tide; 

The voyage calm, or perilous, or afar. 

Beneath what heaven, or which the guiding flar : 

Yet this they told, that by the neighbouring bay '^ 

A potent monarch reign d, whofc pious fway 

For truth and nobleft bounty far renown'd. 

Still with the Stranger's grateful praife was crown'd. 

Overjoyed brave Gama heard the tale, which feal'd 

The facred truth that Maia's fon reveaPd ; 

And bids the Pilot, wam'd by heaven his guide. 

For fair Melinda turn the helm afide. 

'Twas now the jovial feafon, when the morn 
From Taurus flames, when Amalthea's horn 
O'er hill and dale the rofe-crown'd Flora pours. 
And fcattcrs corn and wine, and fruits and flowers. 

K a Right 

Digitized by 


68 THE L U S I A D. Book IL 

Right to the port their courfe the fleet purfued. 

And the glad dawn that facred day renewed. 

When with the fpoils of vanqai(h*d death adom'd 

To heaven the Vidor of the tomb returned. 

And foon Melinda's (hore the failors fpy ; 

From every maft the purple ftreamers fly; 

Rich-figured tap'ftry now fupplie$ the fail. 

The gold and fcarlet tremble in the gale; 

The ftandard broad its brilliant hues bewrayst 

And floating on the wind wide-billowing plays ; 

Shrill through the air the quivering trumpet founds. 

And the rough drum the roufing- march reboonds. 

As thus regardful of the facred day 

The feftivc Navy cut the watery way, 

Melinda's fons the fhore in thou&nds crowds 

And oflTering joyful welcome ihout aloud : 

And truth the voice ini^ired. Unawed by fear^ 

With warlike pomp adom*d, himfelf fiocere, 

Now in the port the generous Gam A rides ; 

His ftately veflfels range their pitchy fides 

Around their chief; the bowfprits nod the head. 

And the barb'd aiu:hors gripe the luurbour^s bed. 

Strait to the king, as friends to generous frieads^ 

A captive Moor the valiant Oama fends^ 

The Luflan fame tls^ king ihx9dy knew. 

What gulphs unknown the fleet kad laboured through. 


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Book II. THE L U S I A a 69 

What (helves, what tempefts dared : His liberal mind 

Exults the Captain's manly trnft to find; 

With that ennobling worthy whofe fond employ 

Befriends the brave, .the Monarch owns his joy. 

Entreats the Leader and his weary band 

To tafte the dews pf fweet repofe on landf 

And all the riches of his cultured fields 

Obedient to the nod pf Gaha yieldi. 

His care meanwhile their present w<mt attends 

And various fowl, and various fruits he feads^ 

The oxen low, the fleecy lambkins ble«t> 

And rural founds are ecchped fhrouj^ the fleet* 

His gifts with joy the valiant Chief nccivcs. 

And gifts in turn, confirming faenddiip, gives* 

Here the proud fcarlet darts its ardent rays. 

And here the purple. and the orange blaze: 

O'er thefe profufe the branching coral (pread, . 

The • coral wondrous in its watery bed : 

Soft there if creeps, in curving branches thrown i 

In air it hardens to a precious ftone. 

With thefe an Herald, on whofe melting tongue 

The * copious rhetoric of Arabia hung, 

» Tli corsl nuQudrotu in its watiry hi d 

VlwunnM dmmJl^f^JtJfitt^p^cflf^^W^n . 

Gmmafmt. Clavd» 

Sic ii cm-aliMmf ^ ffimMm tMiigii mtraff 

Temforidure/cit^ mottitfuit berlm/ub^indiu Ovid. 

^ Tbi copious rhetoric 9f Arabia — - Thert w«i« OB board Gama's fleet leveral perlbns 
Uled in th« Oricatsl liaDraim. Ofor. 


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70 THE LUSIAD- Book II- 

He {ends, hi$ wants and p^rpofe to reveal, 

And holy vows of lafting peace to fcal. 

The Monarch fitis amid his fplendid bands. 

Before the rega,! throne the Herald (lands. 

And thus, as eloquence his lips infpired, 

O King! he cries, for: fabred truth admired; 

Ordain'd by heaven to bend the ilubborn knees 

Of haughtiefl nations to- thy jufl: decrees ; 

Fear*d as thou art, yet fet by heaven to prove 

That Empire's ftrength refults from Public love : 

To thee, O King, for friendly aid We come j 

Nor lawlefs Robbers o'er the deep we roam : 

No luf): of gold .could e'er our breafis inflame 

To fcatter fire and ilaughter where we came ; 

Nor fword, nor fpear our'harmlefs hands employ 

To fcize the carelefs, or the weak deftroy^ 

At our mofl potent Monarch's dread command 

We fpread the fail from lordly Europe's ftrand : 

Through fcas unknown, through gulphs untry'd before. 

We force our journey to the Indian fhore. 

Alas, what rancour fires the human breaft ! 
By what ftern tribes are Afric's fhores^poffeft ! 
How many a wile they try'd, how many a fnare! 
Not wifdom fav*d us, 'twas the heaven's own care : 


Digitized by 


Book IL 



Not harbours only, e'en the barren fands 
A place of reft deny'd our weary bands : 
From UB, alas, what harm could prudence fear ! 
From us fo few, their numerous friends fo near ! 
While thus from ftiore to cruel fhorc long driven,. 
To thee conducted by a guide from heaven^ 
We come, O Monarch, of thy truth afTured^ 
* Of hofpitable rites by heaven iecured ; 
Such ' rites as old Alcinous' palace graced,. 
When lorn Ulyffcs fat his favoured gu'eft* 
Nor deem, O King, that cold fufpicion taints^ 
Our valiant Leader, or his wifli prevents : 
Great is our Monarch, and his dread command 
To our brave Captain intcrdifts the land 
Till Indian earth he tread : What nobler caufe 
Than loyal faith catt wake thy fond applaufe^ 
O thou, who knoweft the ever-prefling weight 
Of kingly ^ office,, and the cares of ftate f 
And hear, ye confcious heavens, if Gama's heart 
Forget thy kindnefs, or from truth depart,. 

* See the Eighth OdviTey* Sec. 

^ Of kingly office ^CzSbaz'z note on du0 
place is fo charaderiftical of a FrenthmaDi 
that the Reader will perhaps be pleafed to 
lee it tranfcribed. In his text he fays» 
•* ^w qui •ccmf$s fi digntment U rang fu* 
^ frime^^ la the note he thas apologifeSj 
** Le Peete ditj Tens de Rty o officio^ 7ci ani 
•« fait U metier ie Rtn^TYit Poet fays, tbem 
•« niobti hoUeft the hnfinefi ef a king. " I 
'^ confefs I found a ftrone incUnatton to 
" tranflate this fentence fiterally. I find 
" much noblenefs in it. However, I fab- 
^* autted to the opinion of fome friends,. 

who were afraid that the cars of French- 
men would be fhodked at the word bufi- 
neji applied to a King. It is true, ne- 
verthelefs, that Royjilty is a hufinefs. 
Philip II. of Spain was convinced of it; 
as we may difcem from one of his letters* 
Hedlof fays he, mt muy embaracadoy &c. 
/ am Jo entangled and incumbered *ivith' 
the muUiplicitj of bufineft^ that I hanje 
not m moment to myfelf. In truths 'we 
kings bold a laborious office^ there is little 
reajfon to envj us.^ May the politcnef* 

of England never be difgufted with the word^ 

bufinijs applied to a king ! 


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72 THE L U S J A D. ' 

The facrcd light (hall peri(h from the San, 
And Rivers to the fea fhall ccafe to * run. 
He fpoke ; a riiurmur of applaufc fuccceds^ 
And each with wonder own*d the varrous deeds 
Of that bold race, whofe flowing vanes had wav'd 
Beneath fo nnany a Sky, fo many an Ocean brav'd- 
Nor lefs the King their loyal faith reveres. 
And Lifboa's Lord in awful ftate appears, 
Whofe leaft command on fartheft fliores obey'd. 
His fovereign grandeur to the world dlfplay'd. 
Elate with joy, liprofe the royal Moor, 
And, fmiling, thus,-^0 wddome to my fliwe ! 
If yet in you the fear of treafoii dwell. 
Far from your thoughts th* ungenerous fear exj)el : 
Still with the brave, the brave will honour find. 
And equal ardour will their friendfliip bind. 

Book II. 

' . • 

« The HeraUTs fpeecb Tke propriety 

and artfulnefs of Homer's fpeeches have 
been often and joftly admired. Camoeas 
is peculiarly happy in the fame droartm^t 
of the Epopoeia. The fpeech of Gama's 
herald to the King of Melinda is a fhiking 
ioftanoe of it. The jcompliments with 
which it begins have a direft tendency to 
the favours afterwards to be aiked. The 
afTorance of the innocence, the purpofe of 
the Voyagers, and the greatneis of their 
luAg» are happily touched. The exclama- 
tion oa the barbarous treatment they had 
experienced, '* Not wifdom faved os, but 
heaven's own care/' are mafterly infinua- 
tions. Their barbarous treatment is again 
^repeated in a manner to move compailion : - 
AUs I what cottld they fear, ^c, is reafbn- 

ing joined with the pathos. That they 
wet« conddAed to the King of Melinda by 
heaven, and were by heaven a£ured of his 
truth, it a nloft ddieate com^iment, imd 
in the true fpirit of the Epic Poem. The 
allnfion to Akbont is well timed. The 
apology (or Gama's refufal to come on 
ihore, is cxeeeding artfvl. k coaveys a 
proof of the matneft of the Portug ueTe 
8oveitign, and ajfords a complimtat lo 
Loyalty, which conld not fail to be aoctpt- 
abk to a Mottaich. In fliort, the whole of 
the fpaech ftipplicates warmly* bat at the 
fame time ia liie moft man(y manner ; and 
the adjuration condodea it with all the ap« 
pcarance of warmth and Ancerity. Eufta« 
fliius would have written a whole chapter 
tm Atth a ipocch in the Iliad or Ody%. 


Digitized by 


Book II. THE LUSIAD. 73 

But thofc who fpurn'd you, men alone in fhew. 

Rude as the beftial herd, no worth they know ; 

Such dwell not here : and fincc your laws require 

Obedience ftri<ft, I yield my fond defire. 

Though much I wifli'd your Chief to grace my boards 

Fair be his duty to his fovereign Lord : 

Yet when the morn walks forth with dewy feet 

My barge {hall waft me to the warlike fleet ; 

There fhall my longing eyes the heroes view. 

And holy vows the mutual peace renew. 

What from the bluftering winds and lengthening tide 

Your (hips have fuffer'd, (hall be here fupply'd. 

Arms and provifions I myfelf will fend. 

And, great of fkill, a Pilot fhall attend. 

So fpoke the King : And now, with purpled ray, 
Beneath the fliining wave the god of day 
Retiring, left the evening (hades to fpread ; 
And to the fleet the joyful herald fped : 
To find fuch friends each breaft with rapture glows. 
The feaft is kindled, and the goblet flows ; 
The trembling comet's imitated rays 
Bound to the ikies, and trail a fparkling blaze : 
The vaulting bombs awake their fleeping fire. 
And like the Cyclops' bolts, to heaven afpire : 

L The 

Digitized by 


74 THE L IT S I A D. 

The Bombadcers their roaring engines ply. 
And earth and ocean thunder to the iky. 
The trump and fyfc's ihriH clarion far around 
The glorious mufic of the fight refound. 
Nor lefs the joy Melinda's fons 4ifplay, 
The fulphur burfts in many an ardent ray. 
And to the heaven afcends in whizzing gyres. 
And Ocean flames with artificial fiKS. 
In feftive war the ijp^ and land engage. 
And ecchoing fhouts confefs the joyful rage. 
So pail: the night : and now with filvery ray 
The Star of morning ufhers in the day. 
The ihadows fly before the rofeatc hours. 
And the chill dew hang3 glittering on the flowers : 
The pruning hook or humble fpade to wield. 
The chearful labourer haftens tp the field j 
When to the fleet with many a founding oar 
The Monarch fails ; the natives croud the fliore. 
Their various robes in one bright fplendor join. 
The purple blazes, and the gold*ftripes (hine ; 
Nor as ftern warriors with the quivering lance. 
Or moon-arch*d bow, Melinda's fons advance ; 
Green boughs of palm with joyful hands they wave. 
An omen of the loeed that crowns, the Brave.^ 
Fair was the fliow tlie royal Barge difplay'd. 
With many a flag of glifteiiing filk array'd^ 

Book II. 


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BookIL the L U S I a D. 75 

Whofe various hues, as waving thro' die bay, 

Retum'd the luflre of the riling day : 

And onward as they came, in fovereign ilate 

The mighty King amid his Princes fate : 

His robes the pomp of eaftern fplendor (hew, 

A proud Tiara decks his lordly brow : 

The various tifl'ue (hines in every fold. 

The iilkeh luftre and the rays of gold. 

His pucple mantle boafts the dye of Tyre, 

And in the fun-beam glows with living fire. 

A golden chain, the fkilfal Artift's pride. 

Hung from his neck ; and glittering by his fide 

The dagger's hilt of ftar-bright diamond fhone. 

The girding baldric burns with precious ftone ; 

And precious ftone in ftuds of gold enchafed. 

The ihaggy velvet of his buikins graced : . 

Wide o'er his head, of various filks inlaid, 

A fair umbrella caft a grateful (hade. 

A band of menials, bendingo'er the prow. 

Of hom-wreath'd round the crooked trumpets blowi 

And each attendant barge aloud rebounds 

A barbarous difcor<i of rejoicing founds. 

With equal pomp the Captain leaves the fleet, 

Melinda's Monarch en the tide to greet : 

His barge nods on amidft a fplendid train, 

Himfelf adorn'd in all the pride of Spain : 

^ L 2 With 

Digitized by 



With fair embroidery * (hone his armed breaft. 

For poliih'd fteel fupply'd the warrior's vcftj 

His fleeves, beneath, were Glk- of paly blue^ 

Above, more loofe, the purple*s brightcft hue 

Hung as a fcarf, in equal gatherings roU'd, 

With golden buttons and with ioops of gold : 

Bright in the Sun the polifli'd radiance burns. 

And the dimm'd eye-ball from the luflre turns. 

Of crimfon fattin, dazzling to behold. 

His caflbc fwelPd in many a curving fold; 

The make was Gallic, but the lively bloom 

Confeft the labour of Venetians loom : 

Gold was his fword, and warlike trowfers laced 

With thongs of gold his manly legs embraced : 

With graceful mien his cap aflant was tum'd ; 

The velvet cap a nodding plume adorned. 

His noble afpedt, and the purple*s ray> 

Amidft his train the gallant Chief bewray. 

The various veftments of the warrior train, .6 * 

Like flowers of various colours on the plain, 

Attradt the pleafed beholders wondering eye. 

And with the fplendor of the rainbow vie. 

* IFitb fair emkroiJery Jhone his armed " ^^<di with velvet, all flaflied, through 

^^«^— .-.Camoens £eems to :have his eye ^ w£ch appears the crimfon lining, the 

on the piftare of Gama, which is thus de- '' doublet of crimfon fattin, and over it 

fcribed by Fariay Sou/a, ** He is painted *' his armour inlaid with gold.'' 
<^ with a black cap, doak and breeches 


^Digitized by 



Book II. THE L U S 1 A D. 77 


Now Gala's binds the quivering trumpet blow. 

Thick o'er the wave the crowding barges row. 

The Moorifh flags tiie curling waters fweep. 

The Lufian mortars thunder o'er the deep ; 

Again the fiery roar heaven*s concave tears. 

The Moors aftonifli'd ftop their wounded ears : 

Again loud thunders rattle o'er the bay. 

And clouds of fmokc wide-rolling blot the day j 

The Captain's barge the generous King afcends. 

His arms the Chief enfold ; the Captain bends, 

A reverence to the fcepter'd grandeur due : 

In filent awe the Monarch's wondering view 

Is fixt • on Vasco's noble mien ; the while 

His thoughts with wonder weigh the Hero's toil. 

Efteem and fricndfliip with his wonder rife. 

And free to Gam a all his kingdom lies. 

Though never fon of Lufus' race before 

Had met his eye, or trod Melinda's ihore. 

To him familiar was the mighty name. 

And much his talk extols the Lufian fame; 

How through the vaft of Afric's wildeft bound 

Their deathlefs feats in gallant arms refoynd } 

When that fair land where Hefper's qfFspring reign'd. 

Their valour's prize the Lufian youth obtain'd. 

• — -— The Monarch*! wcnJering njtew is imitation of Virgil's Dido^ In both care9 

fixt Bfi Vafcis nohli ffnm— The i^miration fuch preparation was neceiTary to introduce 

and friendihip of the king of Melinda, fo the long epifodes which follow* 
much infifted on by Canioens> is a judicjious 



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78 THE LUSIAD. Book: II. 

Much ftill he talk'd, enraptured of the theme. 

Though but the faint vibrations of their fame 

To him had ecchoed. Plearedhi«:w,a2;mth to view. 

Convinced his promiie and his heart were true. 

The illuftrious.GAMA thus his fpul expreft. 

And own'd the joy that laboured in his breaft : 

Oh Thou, benign, of all, the tribes alone^ 

Who feel the rigour of the burning zone, 

Whofe piety, with mercy's gentle eye 

Beholds our wants^ and gives the wiih'd fupply ; 

Our navy driven froin n^any a bvbarous coaft,. 

On many a tempeft-harrowed ocean; toft. 

At laft with thee a kindly, refuge finds. 

Safe from the fury of the. howling winds« 

O generous King, may. He whofc mandate rolls 

The circling heavens, and human pride ^controuls. 

May the Great Spirit to thy breaft return 

That needful aid, beftowed on. us forlorn! 

And while yon Sun emits his rays divine. 

And while the ftars in midnight azure {hine. 

Where'er my fails arc ftretch'd the world around. 

Thy praife fhall brighten, and thy name refound. 

He fpoke ; the painted barges fwcpt the flood. 

Where, proudly gay, the anchored navy rode; 

Earneft the. King the. lordly fleet furveys ; 

The mortars thunder, ajid the trumpets raife 

, . Their 

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79 THE I^ V S I A D. Book It 

Their martial founds Mdinda's Ions to greet; 

Mclinda's fons With timbrels hail the ikct. 

And now no more the fulphury tem^pcft roars; 

The boatmen leaning tm the refted osrs 

Breathe fhort ; the htDgos noir dt anchor ihoorM, 

The King, while filence liften'd rounds isaplored 

The glories of the Lufian wars to hear, 

Whofe fainteft ecchoes long hid plea&d hb ear r 

Their various triumphs on the Afric fhore 

0*er thofe who hold the ion o£ Hagar's lore. 

Fond he demands^ and now detnands again 

Their various triumphs oa thei weflern main t 

Again, ere readieft anfwer fmind a place* 

He aiks the ftory of the Luiian race^ 

What God was founder of the mighty line. 

Beneath what heaven their land, what fhores adjoin; 

And what their climate, where the finking day 

Gives the laft glimpfe of twilight's filvery ray. 

But moil, O Chief, the zealous Monarch cries, 

What raging feas you braved, what louring ikies ; 

What tribes, what rites you faw ; what favage hate 

On our rude Afric proved your haplefs fate : 

Oh tell, for lo, the chilly dawning ftar 

Yet rides before the morning's purple car $ 

And o'er the wave the fun's bold courfers raife 

Their flaming fronts, and give the opening blaze ;, 


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8o THE L U S I A D. Book IL 

Soft on the glafly wave the zephyrs ileep^ 
And the ftill billows, holy filence keep. 
Nor lefs are we, undaunted Chief, prepared 
To hear thy nation's gallant deeds declared ; 
Nor think, tho' icorch'd beneath the car of day. 
Our minds too dull the debt of praife to pay ; 
Melinda's fons the tcft of greatnefs know. 
And on the Lufian race the palm beftow. 

If Titan's ^ giant brood with impious arms 
Shook high Olympus' brow with rude alarms ; 
If Thefeus and Perithous dared invade 
The difmal horrors of the Stygian fliade. 
Nor lefs your glory, nor your boldnefs lefs. 
That thus exploring Neptune's laft recefs 
Contemn his^ waves and tempefts ! If the thirft 
To live in fame, though famed for deeds accurft. 
Could urge the caitiff, who to win a name 
Gave Dian's temple to the wafting flame: 
If fuch the ardour to attain renown. 
How bright the luftre of the hero's crown, 
Whofe deeds of fair emprife his honours raife. 
And bind his brows, like thine, with deathlefs bays ! 

' For a defence of the king of Mclinda's learning, ignorantly objcdcd to by Voltaire, 
fee the Preface. 


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L US I A D. 


/^ H now, Calliope, thy potent aid ! 
^^ What to the King th* niuftrious Gama faid 
Cloath in immortal verfe. With facred fire 
My breaft, if e'er it loved thy lore, infpire : 
So may the patron of the healing art. 
The God of day to thee confign his heart i 
From thee, the Mother of his darling * Son, 
May never wandering thought to Daphne run t 

* Callitfe— the Mufe of Epic ?oefy, and codioe, who was buried attve by her Father 

mother of Orpheus. Daphne, daushter of fur yielding to the folidtations of Apolla^ 

the river Peneus, flying from Apoflo, was was by her Irfiver changed into an Incenfe 

turned into the laurel. Clytia was meta> tree. The phyfical meaaing of thefe fables 

morphofed into the Sun-flower, and Leu- it obvioiu. 

M ^ Mv/f 

Digitized by 


«2 THE L U S I A D. Book IH. 

May never Clytia, nor Leucothoc's pride 
Henceforth with thee his changeful love divide. 
Then aid, O faireft Nymph, my fond defire. 
And give my verfc the Lufian warlike fire : 
Fired by the Song, the liftening world fliall know 
That Aganippe's ftreams from Tagus flow. 
Oh, let no more the flowers of Pindus fhine 
On thy fair breaft, or round thy temples twine : 
On Tago's banks a richer chaplet blows. 
And with the tuneful God my bofbm glows : 
I feel, I feel the mighty power infufc. 
And bathe my ipirit in Aonian dews ! 

Now iilence wooed th* illuftrious Chief's reply. 
And keen attention watch'd on every eye ; 
When flowly turning with a modeft grace» 
The noble Vasco raifed his manly face; 

mighty King, he cries, at thy ^ command 
The martial ftory of my native land 

1 tell ; but more my doubtful heart had joy'd 
Had other wars my praifeful lips employed. 
When men the honours of their race commend. 
The doubts of ftrangers on the tale attend : 

,^ O mightj king, hi mV/— — Tte pre^ ftmr, it is after the emsple of die ^eat 

hct to die fpeedi of Gtmt, and die de- moigh of aatiquitf : Bj adding (bow dia* 

ibription of Eorope which fellowt» are happy niAeiiftical feature of the dimafte or people^. 

Imitations of the mamer of Homer. When he itnden his narraQTe pleafiog, pta^ 

Camoeos dercribes countries, or mnfters a» wkpnh snd poetical. 


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Book IH. T H £ L U S t A D. Is 

Yet though reludhince faulter on my tongue. 
Though day would fail a narratiTe fo long. 
Yet well aflured no fidion's glare can raife. 
Or give my country's fame a brighter prai(e i 
Though lefs, far lefs, whate' lips can fay, 
Than truth muft give it, I thy will obey. 

Between that zone, where ebdlefi winter reigns, 


And that» where flaming heat confumes the pltinii 
Array'd in green^ beneath indulgent flues. 
The Queen of artt and arms fair Europe Ues» 
Around her northern and her weftem Hiorect 
Throng'd with the finny race old Ocean roars ; 
The midland fea, where tide ne'er fweil'd the wavcc^ 
Her richeft lawns, the fouthern border, laves* 
Againft the rifing mom, the northmoft bound 
The whirling Tanais parts from Afian ground. 
As tumbling from the Scythian mountains cold 
Their crooked way the rapid waters hold 
To dull Masotis^ lake : Her eaftem line 
More to the fouth, the Phrygian waves confine { 
Thofe waves, which, black with many a navy, bore 
The Grecian heroes to the Dardan (hore i 
Where now the feaman rapt in mournful joy 
Explores in vain tlie fad remains of Troy, 

M a Wide 

Digitized by 


S4 THE L U S I A I>. 

Wide to the north beneath the pole flie fprcads,* 
Here piles of mountains rear their rugged heads. 
Here winds on winds in endlefs tempefts rowl. 
The valleys figh, the lengthening echoes howl. 
On the rude cliffs with frofty fpangles grey. 
Weak as the twilight gleams the fblar ray; 
Each mountain's breaft with fnows eternal ihines^ 
The flreams and feas eternal frcrfl confines.. 
Here dwelt the ntimerous Scythian tuibes of old'r 
A dreadful race I by viftor ne'er controul'd, 
Whofe pride maintained that theirs the facred earth, 
Not that of Nile, which firft gave man his birth/ 
Here difmal Lapland fpreads a dreary' wild. 
Here Norway's waftes where harveft never fmil'd, 
Whofe groves of fir in- gloomy horror frown. 
Nod o'er the rocks, arid to the tempeil groan-. 
Here Scandia's clime her rugged fhores extends,. 
And far proje<fted, through the Ocean bends j 
Whofe fons' dread footfteps yet Aufonia * wears. 
And yet proud Rome iri: mournful ruin bears. 


« IVbofe fons^ dread footfteps yet Aufoma 
wMrj— In the year 409 the city of Rome 
was facked, and Italy laid defojate by Ala* 
ricy king of the Scandian and other northern 
tribea. In mentioning this drcumfbiDce 
Camoens has not fallen into the common 
error of little Poets, who on every occafton 
bewail the outrage which the Goths and 
VandaLidid to the Arts and Sciences.^Thofe 
arts and fciences, however, which g^ve 
vigour to the mind, long ere the irruption of 

the northern tribes, were in the moil languid 
ftate. The Southern nations of Europe were 
futik into the moft contemptible deg^eracv. 
The Sciences, with every branch of manly 
literature, were almoft unknown. For near 
two centuries no Poet or Writer of note 
had adorned the Roman Empire. Thofc 
arts only, the abufe of which have a certaiir 
and fatal tendency to enervate the mind, the 
arts oflAufic and Cookery, were paffionately 
cultivated in all the refincmenu of effemi- 

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Book HL THE L U S I A £)• 

When fummer burfts ftern winter's icy chain. 
Here the bold Swede, the Pruffian, and the Dane 
Hoift the white fail, and plough the foamy way, 
ChearU by whole months of one continual day.. 
Between thefe fhores and Tanais' ruftiing tida 
Livonia-s fons and Ruflia's hords refide. 
Stern as their clime the tribes, whofe fires of yore 
The name, far dreaded, of Sarmatians bore. 
Where, famed of old, th* Hircinian foreft lour*d. 
Oft feen in arms the Polifli troops are pour'd 
Wide foraging the downs. The Saxon racc,^ 
The Hungar dextrous in. the wild-boar cHace^ 


nate abufe. The art -of war was too labo* 
rioas for their delicacy, and the generoas 
warmth of heroifm and patriotifm was in- 
compatible with their efieminacy. Who- 
ever reads the hiilory of the later emperors 
of Rome will find it hard to explain how 
minds illuminated» as it is pretended,, by 
letters and Science; could at the fame time 
be fo broken as to faficrthei^a^H fabje{Qon 
to fach weak and wanton tyrants. That 
the general mind of the empire did fdfer, 
for Kveral centuries, the weakeft and moft 
capricious tyranny is a faA beyond difpute, 
afadi, which moil flrongly marks their de- 
generated charader. On thefe de^icable 
Sybarites * the North poured her brave and 
hardy fons, who, though ignorant of polite 
literature, were pofTetted of all the manly ^ 
virtues of the Scythians^ in a high degree. 
Under their conquefts Europe wore a new 
and a vigorous face ; and which however 
rode, was infinitely preferable to that .lan- 
guid, and fickly female countenance, which 
It had lately worn. Even the ideas of civil 
fiberty were loft. Bat the rights of man- 

kind were claimed, however rude their 
laws, by the Northern invaders. And 
however Ignorance may talk of thdr bar- 
barity, it IS to them that England owes her 
conilitution, which, as- Montefquiea ob- 
ferves,. they brought from the woods of 
Saxony. The fpirit of |^Untry|and ro- 
mantic attachment to the rair fex, which dif- 
tinffuiflied the Northern Heroes, will make 
their manners admired, while, coniidered in 
the fame point, the polifhed ages of Greece 
and Rome -excite our horror and deteitation. 
To add no more, it is to the irruption of 
thefe brave barbarians that modern Europe 
owes thofe remains of the fpirit of Liberty, 
and fome other of the greateft advantages, 
which ihe ma;^ at prefent peflefs. liiey 
introduced a vigour of mind, which under 
the confequences of the Crufades, and a va- 
riety of other caufes, has not only been 
able to revive the. arts, and improve every 
fdence, but has alfo inveftigated and afcer- 
tained the political interelt and rights of 
mankind, in a manner unknown to the 
brighteft ages of the ancient world. 

a Syharis^ a city in Grecia Magna, whofe inhabitants were ib efteminat^^ that they ordered all the cocks 
to be killed, that they might not be di(hirbed by their early aowing. 
b ScerWartoa*5 Hifl. £ng. Poetry. Piilort. II. p. > 


Digitized by 


«6 T H fe L U S I A D. BooKm, 

The various nations whom the Rhine's cold wave 

The Elbe, Amafis, and the Danube lave. 

Of various tongues, for various princes known. 

Their mighty Lord the German emperor own. 

Between the Pailube and the lucid tide 

Where haplefs Helle left her name, and died. 

The dreadful god of battles' kindred race. 

Degenerate now, poiTefs the hills of Thrace. 

Mount Hsemus here, and Rhodope lenown'd. 

And proud Bjzantium, long with empire crown*di 

Their ancient pride, their ancient virtue fled. 

Low to the Turk now bend the fervile head« 

Here fpread the fields of warlike Macedon, 

And here thofe happy lands where genius ibone 

In all the arts, in all the Mufe*s charms. 

In all the pride of elegance and arms. 

Which to the heavens reibunded Grecians name. 

And left in every age a deathlefs fame. 

The fter n Dalmatians till the neighbouring ground ; 

And where Antenor anchored in the found. 

Proud Venice as a queen majeilic towers^ 

And o'er the trembling waves her thunder pours. 

For learning glorious, glorious for the fword. 

While Rome's proud monarch rdgn'd the world's dread lord. 

Here Italy her beauteous landfcapes fhewa; 

Around her fides his arms old Ooeaa throws i 


Digitized by 


Book III. THE L U S I A D. «7 

The dafliing waves the ramparts aid fupply I 

The hoaiy Alps, high towering to the iky. 

From fhore to fhore a rugged barrier fpread. 

And lour dcftrudion on the hoftile tread. 

But now no more her hoftile fpirit tmrns; 

There now the faint in humble vefpers mourns j 

To heaven more grateful than the pride of war,. 

And all the triumphs of the Viaor'* car^ 

Onward fair Gallia open» to the view 

Her groves of olive, and her vineyards blue t 

Wide fpread her harvefts o'er the fcenes renown'd,. 

Where Julius proudly ftrode with laurel crawn'd. 

Here Seyn,--how fair when gliftening to the mooo^l 

Rolls his white wave 5 and hc»c the^cold Garoon;. 

Here the deep Rhine the flowery margin laves j 

And. here the rapid Rhone impervious raves^ 

Here the gruff mountains, faithlefs to. the vows 

Of loft Pyrene ' rear their cloudy brows j 

Whence,, when of old the flames their woods devour*d„ 

Streams of red. gold and melted fliver pour'd. 

And now,, as head- of all. the lordly train 

Of * Europe's realms, appears illuftrious Spaio^ 

* FaitUe/i t» tbt WW/ «/ kft Pjrene, tee. gence of fome fliepherds Ae »li«t forefb 

— Ste was daaghter to Bebtyx, « kiajr of. tm thefe monntaiDs were fet on *«» *?** 

Spain, ud concobine to Hcrcnk*. flav- bumed wkh foch vehemence, Aat themeit- 

mg one day wandered from ber low, flie ed mctalafpouted out and ran down trom 

wai deftroyed by wild beafU, on one of the the fides of the hills. The allttfion to this 

nonntains which bear her name. Diodoras old tradition is in die tme fpint of Homer 

Sicnlus, and others, derive the name of the and Vir«l. C> 

Pyitneans fiom mSt,Srt. To fnpport which • O/Etirtft'i n«lm-'Ua ren^taWe,, 

etymology they idate, that bv the negU- tiat in this defcrip;ion of Europe, EngJanA- 


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«S T H E L U S I A d: BookUL 

Alas, ^hat various fortunes has (he known ! 

Yet ever did her fons her wrongs atone ; 

Short was the triumph of her haughty foes. 

And ftillwith fairer bloom her honours rofe. 

Where, lock'd with land the Aruggling currents boil, 

Fam'd for the godlike Theban's lateft ' toiU 

Againft one coaft the Punic ilrand extends^ 

And round her bread the midland ocean bends : 

Around her fhores two various oceahs^well. 

And various nations in her bofom dweU s 

Such deeds of valour dignify their names. 

Each the imperial right of honour claims* 

Proud Arragon, who twice her ftandard reared 

In conquered Naples i and for art revered, * 

Galicia's prudent fons ; the fierce Navar i 

And he far dreaded in the Moorifli war. 

The bold Afturian ; nor Sevilia's race. 

Nor thine^ Granada, claim the fecond place* 

Here too the heroes who command the plain 

By Betis water d ; here, the pride of Spain, 

The brave Caftilian paufes o*er his fword. 

His country's dread deliverer and lord. 

ihould be entirely omitted ; of fo'little con- 
sequence in the political fcale did .fhe then 
ieem. The time when Camoens wrote this 
tnay be eftimated froin the beginning of the 
feventh Book, which appears to have been 
written in the reign of Heniry VIII. though 
fht Lnfiad was not publilhea till the four- 
;Kenth of Eiifabeth. 

' TbeTbeian's lateft foiL^^Hercules, fays 
the fable, to crown bis labours, feparated 
the two moa. tains Calpe and Abvia, the 
one now in Spain, the other in Africa, in 
order to open a canal for the benefit of 
commerce. Upon this opening, the ocean 
mfhed in, and formed the Mediterranean, 
the Egean, and Buxin feas. 


Digitized by 



Proud o'er the reft, with iplendid wealth array'd^ 
As crown to this wide empire, Europe's head. 
Fair Lufitania fmiles, the weftern bound, 
Whofe verdant breaft the rolling waves furround. 
Where gentle evening pours her lambent ray. 
The laft pale gleaming of departing day : 
This, this, O mighty King, the facred earth. 
This the loved parent-foil that gave me birth. 
And oh, would bounteous heaven my prayer regard. 
And fair fuccefs my perilous toils reward. 
May that dear land my lateft breath receive. 
And give my weary bones a peaceful grave. 

Sublime the honours of my native land. 
And high in heaven's regard her heroes ftand } 
By • heaven's decree 'twas theirs the firft to quell 
The Moorifli t3rrants, and from Spain expel ; 
Nor could their burning wilds conceal their flighty 
Their burning wilds confeft the Lufian might. 
From Lufus famed, whofe honour'd name we bear^ 
(The Ion of Bacchus or the bold compeer,) 
The glorious name of Lufitania rofe, 
A name tremendous to the Roman foes. 

• By beav'n^s dune ^This boaft is ao 6f the favour witk wMch heafai had 

cording to the truth of hillory. In the - crowned their defence of the Catholic faith, 

days of Portueuefc heroifm, this firft cxpul- Sec the Prefikco. 
fion of the Nfoors was efteemed as a mark 

N When 

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When her bold tmops tiie^alistnt IHephccd Jbad^ 

And foul with robt ikc fteman etgles fled ; 

When haughty Rome fttchifcy'd the treSKberdus ^blow, 

That own'd her terror of ihc naJDcUefa foe. 

But when no more l^er Virifttli^ Sbn^InU 

Age after age her deeper ithraUom brought s 

Her broken fons by ruthk& lycants fpurn'ds 

Her vineyards laQgwl3b*dt «ul <faf rr^aftoces mmm'di 

Till time revolving <m(9d bar droqfdqg Jiead^ 

And o'er the wondering world ihw 4:K>iiquefts Spnsuin 

Thus rofe her power : the lands bf loitUy Spain 

Were now the brave -Alon^'s wide domain i 

Great were his honours in the bloody fight. 

And Fame proclaimed him champion ^of <the j-ight* 

And oft the groaning Saracen^ proud creft 

And fhatter'd mail his awful force oonfeft. 

From Calpe's fummits to the Cafpianfhore 

Loud-tongued Renown his .godlike afltions bore. 

And many a chief from dHlaat regions * came 

To fhare the laurels of Alonao's.famcii 

• the treacherous blonu^ 


aflaffination of Viriatat • See the note on 
Book I. p. 12. 

« Jnd many a chief from diftant ngions 
iome Don Alonzo, king of Spain, ap- 

Srehenfivc of the fupcrior number of the 
loors» with whom he was at war, de- 
Banded aMance from Philip L of France, 
and of the duke of Burgundy. According 
to the military fpirit of the nobility of that 
age, no fooner was his defire known than 
numerous bodies of .troops thronged to his 
flandard. Thefe, in the courfe of a few 

years, having fhewn fignal proofs of their 
coBvage, the king diftiaguimed the leaders 
with different marks of his re»id. Td . 
Henry, -a younger fon of the duke of Bur- 
gundy, he gaveliis daughter Tertfa inmar- 
ria^, with the fovercignty of the countries 
to the fouth of Galicia, commiffionin^ him 
to enlarge his boundaries by the expulnon of 
the infidels. Under the government of this 
great man, who reigned by the ti tle tf 
&ount, his dominion was gr»tly enlarged, 
and became more rich and populous than 
before. The two provinces <tf £ntr9 Mhho 

4 Dowrop 

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Book IIL THE L. U^ S I A D. 

Yet more for holy Faith's unfpotted caufe 
Their Ipears thqr wielded^ than for Fame's applaufe* 
Great were the deeds their thundering arms difplay'dv 
And ftill their foremoft fwords the battle fway'd.. 
And now to honour with diftinguiihed meed 
Each hero's worth, the generous king decreed* 
The firfl and braveft of the foreign bands 
Hungaria's younger fon brave Henry "* ftands. 
To him are given the fields where Tagus flows» 
And the glad King his dau^ter's hand heflows ;, 
The fair Terefa fhines his bloomings bride> 
And owns her father's love^ and Henry's pride. 


# DourOf and Fra los Monies^ were fubdued, 
with that part of Beira which was heU by ttkt 
Mooriih king of Lsmig§9 whom he confirain- 
ed to pay tribate. Many thoafands of Chrt(- 
tians, who had fled to the mountains, took 
fhelter under the protedion of Count Henry, 
Great maltitudes of the Moors. alfo dioie- 
to fabmit and remain in their native country 
under a mild government. Theie adwm- 
tagesy added to the great fertility of die 
foil of Henry's dominions, will accoont for 
the numerous armies and the frequent wars 
of the firft fovereigns of Portugal. 

* Hungaria*! youngmrfo n ■ ■ Camoens, in 
making the founder of the Portnguefe mo* 
narchy a yonneer Ton of the King of Hun- 
gary, has foUowed the old chronolo^ft 
GaiuaM. The Spaniih and Portugueie huP- 
tmaans difier widely in their accounts of 
the panntaKe of tlus gallant ibangcr. Somt 
being ham Soma CoiAantinople, aodothers 
ftom tiie honifrof Lorain, ^ut the ckanft 
aadmoft paohaUe aocooAt of him is in the 
chronicle of Fleury^ wherein is preierved 
a fragment of French hiftory, written by a 
Benedidine monk in the begioniac of the 
twdfth «emai7, aad in tii« ^e^ Uwt 

Henry. By this it appears, that he was a 
younger fcn of Honiy^ tl^ only fim of 
Robert, the firft duke of Bummdy, who 
was a^youiiger brother of Heur;^ L of France; 
Fanfhaw, having an eye to tms hiftory, has 
taken the unwarrantable liber^ to alter the 
hSi as mentioned by his author. 

Amangft thefe Henry ^ faith the hijhry^ 

A younger fin of France^ eifld a, brwoe prince^ 

Had Fortugalin lot. 

And the fame king did his own demghter tie. 

To him in wedlock^ to infer from thence 

His firmer love • 

Nor are liiftorians agreed on the birth of 
Donna Terefa, the fpoufe of Count Henry. 
Biandam, and other Portuguefe hiftorians, 
are at great pains to prove that (he was the 
legidmate daughter of Alonzo and the beau* 
tiful Ximena de Gmunan. But it appears 
from the more authentic chronicle of Fteury, 
that Ximenet was only his concubine. And 
it is evident from all the hiftorians, that 
Donna Urraca^ the heirefs of her father's 
kingdom, was younger than her half-iifter, 
the wife of Count Henry. 

N 2 


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With her, befides, the fire confirms in dower 
Whatever his fword might refcue from the Moor ; 
And foon on Hagar's race the hero pours 
His warlike fury — foon the vanquifli'd Moors 
To him far round the neighbouring lands refign^ 
And heaven rewards him with a glorious line. * 
To him is born, heaven's gift, a gallant fon„ 
The glorious founder of the Lufian throne. 
Nor Spain's wide lands alone his deeds atteft. 
Delivered Judah Henry's might " confeft. 
On Jordan's bank the vidkor-hcro ftrode, 
Whofe hallowed waters bathed the Saviour-God ; 
And Salem's gate her open folds difplay'd„ 
When Godfrey conquer'd by the hero's aid^ 
But now no more in tented fields oppofed, 
By Tagus' ftream his honoured age he clofed r 
Yet ftill his dauntlefs worth,^ his viftuc livedj^ 
And all the father in the fon furvived. 
And foon his worth was proved ; the parent ^ dame 
Avowed a fecond hymeneal flame* 

^Ddi'uer^djuiah Henry* 5 might (wfeft,^^ gOTentment, and' appointed Don FtrmaniB 

His expedition to the Holy Land is men- Pirex. dt Trahm, to be her niiniftef . When 

tioned by fome monkifli writers, bnt from tKe-yoong pnnce was in his eiffhteenth ycarj 

the other parts of his hiftory it is highly feme of the nobility, who eiier envied th« 

improbable. Camocns, however, (hews his power of Don Ptrexj or were really of- 

jodgmcnt b adopting every traditionary fended with the reports tl»t were fpr»d of 

drcumftance that might give an air of fo- his BuniUarity with ^e prince's motheiv of 

lemnity to his poem» his intention to marry her, and to exclude 

k the parent dame Don Alona» the lawful heir, eafily perfuaded the young 

Enriqnez, fon of Count Henry, was only Count to take arms, and affume the fovc- 

entered into his thitd year when his fethcr xeignty. A battle enfued, in which^e 

died. His modier afliuncd the reins of prince was vifiorious. Tercfti it is faid^ 


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EooKin. THELtJSIAD. fy^ 

The low-born fpoufe aflumes the monarch's place. 
And from the throne expels the orphan racc« 
But young Alphonfo, like his fires of yore, 
(His grandfire's virtues as his name he bore) 
Arms for the fight, his ravi£b'd throne to win. 
And the laced helmet grafps his beardlefs chin* 
Her fierceft firebrands Civil Diicord waved. 
Before her troops the luftful mother raved $ 
Loft to maternal love, and loft to ftiame, 
Unawcd fhe faw heaven's awful vengeance flame ;^ 
The brother's fword the brother'^ bofom tore. 
And fad Guimaria's meadows blufii'd with gore ; 
With Lufian gore the Peafant's cot was ftainVl, 
And kindred blood the (acred fhrine profaned. 

Here, cruel Prognc, here, O Jafon's wife^' 
Yet reeking with your childrens' purple life. 
Here glut your eyes with deeper guilt than yours; 
Here fiercer rage her fiercer rancour piours» 
Your crime was vengeance on the faithlefs fires. 
Bat here ambition with foul luft confpires^ 

retired mCo the caftle of Ligona/o^ where £ed in prifon about two ytm after, A. D. 

ihe was taken captive by her fon, who iijo, are certain. But the caufc of the 

coBdemned her to perpetual imprifomnent, war, that hit mother was married to, or in- 

aad ordered chains to be pat npon her 1^. tended to marry Don Pirtx^ and that flie 

That Don Akmaso made war againft his was pat in chains, are oncertain. 
mother^ vanqpilhed hear party, aira that flie 

. Twas 

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'Twas rage of lettc, €> ' Scyll^,. urged the kisife 

That robb'd thy f^t^^ of his^ faMd K£e ; 

Here groiTer rage thc:«»otb«r*a breift inflaotts^ 

And at her guiltlafe Qir^ the vcngjeance aims^; 

But aims in vain j, her flaug^tfet'd: £Dd:c«3' yifild> 

And the brave.ycmtk rides Vii^or o*er the fidd; 

No more his fubje£ks;lift'thc ^irfty fwordt, 

And the glad realna giroclakiis ^ yoothful Lord. 

But ah, how wild the nofaleft tempers run ! 

His filial duty now foriakes the Con ; 

Secluded from, thetdag^, iii daiikiiigichaini. 

His rage the patent!^ aged l&snbis conftraijis. ; 

Heaven frown'd-^I>ark f^en^goance lowring cm his brows. 

And fheath'd in bfa& the pnond Caftilian.ODffi^ 

Refolved the rigour to his daughter ihewn^ 

The battle fhould aiwEnge; aad' blood atone; 

A numerous hofi againft the priiic:6 he fped. 

The valiant'prince his :Iittfe :aini^ Iddi: 

Dire was the fhock;. ibe dnqfirxvea^behns re£wAd, 

And foes with fbea lie grapplihg on^the ground. 

Yet though around^the StripUog's facrcd^head 

By angel hands etherial fhields were fpread ; 

^'^Twj* f^e if kw, CrStylia The . «ifw» fo Hrfcat » ptfios^ thtr flir an off 

' hfne attttM tir m8» aoeoi^hig ID ikoiiMall«dc while hnrMicrikiic. Mass 

Sihr hfne alMM tir m8» aoeoi^hic to iko ftcal Iwk whileher Mlicr Jtaepc Mass 

le, the^hM^ of MilWv kin^ of Mfe- on itou^s Jfjaowowi tetftjcftBlitlM to^ 

^ara, who had a purple lock, in which lay ^ of At nwatml fimfkutr who^n ^faqnr 

the fate of his kingdom. Minot of Crete flung herfclf from a rock, and in the fall 

laad&war agsunft kim, for whom Scylla con* was changed into a lark. 


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.B(ios:III. THE t^ JJ S 1 A D^ ^5 

Though glorious triuB^ph on hts {^^ikuhr flnil^ib ! 

Soon on his van the baffled Foe fiee&ird ; 

With bands more nunoerouB to the &}d lie cune^ 

His proud heart buriung witli tbe nge X)f Ai^oic* 

And now in turn Guimaria'^s lofly . wal^ - 

That faw his triumph^ faiv the hfro fall i 

Within the town immured^ 4iifareft iie ky^ 

To ftern Caftilia's fwccd a<:^ttaia pr^f 

When now the guardian of bis infant ycw6» . . . 

The valiant Egas^ as -a god appears ; 

To proud Cafteel the fuppliant noble bows» 

And faithful homage for his ^nnc^ he vows» ; ; 

The proud Cafteel accepts , his Ixooour'd faith^ • , / : ; . 

And peace fucoeeds the dreadful &xjms i^f deatlu 

Yet well, ^as^ the generous Egas knew 

His high-fourd Prince to xnan woiJd neycx Jiiq#. . ^ . ^ 

Would never ftoop to brook the fervile ilaUu » * • 

To hold a borrow'd> a dependent reign. 

And now with gloomy aipeA xoJfe the day^ 

Decreed the plightfld fcrvSe rites to pay ;, 

When Egas to redeem his faith's diigracc 

Devotes himfelf^ his ipouie, and infant race* 

In, gowns .of white^ asienteneed feloM ckd» 

When to the ftake the ioM of :guik 9lsc leA, 

With feet unihod th^ Ho wly moved along. 

And from thekr^neoks the knotted -halterajhang. 


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96 T H £ L U S I A D. B<k)K HL 

And now, O King/ Ae kneeling Egas cries, 
fiehold my perjured honour's facrifice : 
If fuch mean viAims can atone thine ire» 
Here let my wife, my babes, myfelf expire. 
If generous bofoms fuch rereoge can take. 
Here let them perifh for the father's fake : . 
The guilty tongue, the guilty hands are thefe. 
Nor let a common death thy. wrath appeafe ; 
For us let all the rage of torture burn. 
But to. my Prince, thy fon, in friendfliip turn* 

He fpoke, and bow'd his proftrate body low. 
As one who waits the lifted fabre's blow. 
When o'er the block his languid arms are fpread. 
And death, foretafted, whelms the heart with dread. 
So great a Leader dius in humbled ftate. 
So firm his loyalty, and zeal fo great. 
The brave Alonzo's kindled ire fubdued. 
And loft in filent joy the Monarch ftood f 
Then gave the hand, and fheath'd the hoftile fword. 
And to fuch " honour honoured peace reftored. 

^ And f Juih honour •'^"^likt Anthors docntnent of thUtranfa£tion, tradition^ the 

of the Uoiverfal Hiftory havins; relat^ the Poet's authority, is not filent. And the 

ilory of Egas, add, ** All this » vety plea- monumf nt of Egaz in the monaftenr of 

^t and entertaining, but we fee po fnf- Pa9o de Souza gives it coontenance. Em 

fident reafon to t£rta that dieie is one and his femily are there repiefented, in has 

iyllable of it tn^e." relief, in the attitude and garb, fays Caf- 

Bftt though hiSLory aifirad so aotheotic tera, as <kfcribed by Camocns* 


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BdoxHL THE : I^ U S I: A d; ^f 

Oh Luiiaii faUii ! oh xcAJbefoad comptM ! 
What greater^dfliiger could <Sie Pcr&zA darcr 
Whofe prince in tMrs, to view his mangled woe» 
Forgot the joy for BzhjkM^B * o'er^row^ w 

And now the youthful hero fliines in anns. 
The banks of Tagus ^ccho war*« alarms : 
0*er Ourique's wide campaign his enfigns wave. 
And the proud Sftracen to odmbat hnvt. 
Though prudence mfght arrdgn his fiery rage ^ 

That dared^ with one, each fatmdred fpears engage. 
In heaven's protecting care his courage lies, ' 

And heaven,' his fnehd^^fuperior fdfce fupplies/ 
Five Moori(h Kings againil him march along, 
Ifmar the nobleft of the armed throng ; 
Yet each brave Monarch claimM the Soldier's name. 
And far o'er many a land was known to fame* 
In all the beauteous glow of blooming years^ 
Befide each King a warrior ^ Nymph appears ; 

* BafyM^ 0V/i(r«w~WlieiiP«iiis ^4 W]ien the Pofd]jg;aefii iffiAtd the ktag 

Jaid fern to ^Babylon, one'cf Ms Leeds, erf Mdiada aninft hxt enemy of Oja, tliejr 

named Zopynis, having; cut oE^m noTeaad ganre Afignal defeat to the Moors in a (mtt 

ears, perfiiaded the eoeny ihat he h*d re- of xMdm tnees. In the Mrfiat Syfveyrafaw 

oetved theft indignities from the cnielty of ^ ji Moor leading off a beautifni young wo« 

his mafler. Being apftoif let to a chief mm thwrngh a ofc path of ihe wood; He 

command in Babylon, he betrayed the city purfued, .and the Moor perceiving his dan- 
to Darius. Vid. Juftin. ' ottv diimeted Ae.flioft violenr tipoisix 

® BifiJs eaib King a 'warrit tfymfb tf* tor the fafetv of his miftieTs, whom he en 

fiat $ The Spnft and Avt^wft Ut , tipqwjd tf$ iy whifc he Sq^kt Ilia enetflT'- 

tories afford feveral inftances of the MocArilh But ihe with eoual emotion refufed to leave 

Chiefs being attended in the field of battle him, and perfifted in the refolution to (hare 

by ^ their miftreilea, and of the romantic his ^te. Sylveyra, ftruck with this tender 

ntry and Amazonian eoorage of theft 4lrift of al^ftian, generodlyMk them, ex« 

dies. "Wktxt this is mentioned, the name Aimming, 6m/ firM th^rt my jkjjwd jh^M 
ali George de Sylveym «ght lo *e rtconl- imrtufffmh h^t c < 

i O Each 

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f8 T H E L U; 8 I A D, Book in. 

Each with her fv^ord her valiant Lover guards^ 

With finiles infpiref him, and with fmiles.irewards. 

Such was the valour pf the beauteous ' M^s^ 

Whofc warlike arm proud lUoji's fgte delay M: . ^ .. 

Such in the field the virgin warfidrs {h6nc> ' 

Who drank the limpid wave of I Thermpdon*. 

'Twas mom^s ftill hour, . befofiei tlic dawning grey , ^ 
The ftars' bright twinkling radiance. di€4 away > 
When lo, reiplendent in the heaven* ferene,. 
High o'er the Prince the facred Crpfs was feen ; 
The godlike Prince with faith'$ warm glow i^amed^ r . 
Ob, not to me, my bounteous God, exclaioi'd,.. 
Ob, not to me, who well thy grandeur know^ 
But to the Pag^ herd thy woaders (h^ L 

The Lufian hoft, enrapt^ed, mark'd the Ggpt 
That witneis'd to their Chief the aid divine i 
Right on the foe they ihake the beamy lance» 
:And with firm ftddes,, and heaving breaftsv advance; 
Then burft the filence, HaiU O King, they cry s 
Our King, our King, the ecchoing daks reply. 
Fired at the found, with fiercer ardour glows. 
The heaven^made Monarch ; oa the wardefs foes^ 

p 7bi iHuttiOMi moid^ Penthefilea^ was killed' by Adulles. 

Qgeen of the Amazons, who, after having «i ThtrmJ^f-^A met of Scydua in tke^ 

ftgnaltaod ha valour at (he &igc ot Txoy, counuy of the AmaatOBf. 


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Book HI. 



Rufhing, he fpeeds his ardent bands along : 
So when the chace excites the ruftic throngs 
Roufed to fierce madnefs by their mingled cries. 
On the wild bull the red-eyed maftiflf flies : 
The ftern-brow'd tyrant roars and tears the ground. 
His watchful horns portend the deathful wound; 
The nimble maftiiF, fpringing on the fi>e» 
Avoids the furious iharpnefs of the blow : 
Now by the neck, now by the gory fides 
Hangs fierce, and all his bellowing rage derides : 
In vain his eye-balls burn with living fire. 
In vain his noftrils clouds of fmoke refpire ; 
His gorge torn down, down falls the furious prize 
With ' hollow thundering found, and raging dies. 
Thus on the Moors the hero rufli*jd along, 
Th' aftoniih'd Moors in wild confufion throng; 
They fnatch their arms, the hafty trumpet founds^ 
With horrid yell the dread alarm rebounds ; 
The warlike tumult maddens o'er the plaint 
As when the flame devours the bearded grain : 
The nightly flames the whiftling winds infpire^ 
Fierce through the braky thicket pours the fire : 

' It UMff iKrhaps, be agreeable to the 
Reader to fee Homer's defcription of a BnU 
overpowered* as tranflated by Hope. 
jfi n»ben a Uon^ rujkingj/om bis Jtn^ 
Amidfi Aifiain cf/omt nuid^'wtUir^dfin^ 
(IVUrtfrni^roiu pxmt^ as mt taft th^feti^ 
At krg9 MMfMtUtt o*ir tb$ ranker mcaii) 

Leaps i« tbis berds bifon tbs bfrdfiaasCs msx 
' Tbi trembling berdjkanfar to dijiasuefies i 
Hifingleseutf arrtjis^ and lays bim dead. 
' Tbus/rom tbt rage of Jwe^like He&orjlenu 
AUQreece in beats \ but en$ be/ek^d^ andjlvw k 
Mjfe9i4M Perifbau Pope. II. XV. 

O 2 


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K» r H E L U S I A D. BBdKiHL: 

Rous'd by the crackling of the moimtmg blazed 

From fleep the fhephcrds ftart inf wibd: amaze > 

They fnatch their cloatlts with manjr a woeful cry. 

And fcatter'd devious to- thr jnoontattts- fly. 

Such fudden draadither trembling Mooes alarms^ 

Wild and confufed they ihatcli the neareft arms ; 

Yet flight they fcorn, aodleager ta engage; 

They fpur their foamy ^ede^ and truft their farioos rage : . 

Amidfl: the horror of the headlong^ iKiock^ 

With foot unfh^KkeA asf the llviilg rock 

Stands the bold Lufian firm ; the pm^le wounds^ 

Guih horriblej, deep glKianing rag^ refeunds^i *- 

Reeking behind the Moerkh' backs appear 

The (hining point ofT many a I^ifiah fpear ;. 

The mail-coats> hauberks^, and the hamcfe ftecTd, ' ' ' ' ^'^ 

Bruis'dj, hackt, and toni> lie Ifeatter'd o'er the field ; • ^ 

Beneath the Lufian fweepy fbcce o'erthrbwn^ 

Crufli'd by their batter'd mails the wounded groans 

Burning with thirfl: they dtaw'their panting^ breath. 
And curfe their PrcfpKct as- they writhe in death. 
Arms fever'd from^the- trttnks ftill grafp the ' ftecl. 
Heads gafpisig rowl ; the fighting fquadrons reel jt 

• ftfllgra/p thefinh — - There i» a 

pa&ge in Xenopfadoiw upon which perhaps 
CampeiM had bi5 efe. 'Eirii ji t^ii. « fM^x«> 
mttAf Xh^u TV* fJv yn« oM/btali ^n^^mry &C« 
« When the battle was over one mig^t be^ 
<< hold, through the whole extent of tha 
'* field, the ground parpled with bipod, 
*< the bodies of fiknde and enemies firetch« 

<< ed oftr eadr odier; the i&idda paraU, 
<< the fpears broken, and the dmmi fwords^ 
<< ibmefcattefed on the earth, fixmeidanged. 
<' in the bofoms of the (lain, and (ome yet 
^ grafpedindiehandaofthedeadfoldiers." 
As it waff neceflkry in the Preface to gire 
a charaOer of the French traailatioa of the 
Lofiad, fome fnpport of that charader is 


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JboK III. 



Fainty and weak with languid arms they clofe. 

And ftaggering grapple with tjie ftaggering foe$. 

So when an oak falls headlong on the lake» 

The troubled waters^ flowly fettling, ihake : 

So faints the languid combat on the plain. 

And fettling ftaggers o'er the heaps of flain. 

Again the Lufian fury wakes its fires. 

The terror of the Moors new ftrength infpires ^ 

The fcatter'd few in wild confufion fly. 

And total rout refi^unds the yelling cry. 

Defiled with one wide (heet of reeking gorc> 

The verdure of the lawn appears no more : 

In bubbling ftreams the lazy currents run. 

And Aoot red flames beneath the evening fun. 

With fpoils cnrich'd, with glorious trophies ' crown'd 

The heaven-made Sovereign on the battle ground 

aecefltry in the notes. To point out ever; 
inftanoe of the unpoetical tafte oC Caftera, 
were to give Ihs paraphrafe of every fine 
paffittje in Camoens. Hiv management of 
Ms tKUtle will give an idea of his* manner ; 
iris tlwicfore tfanfcribed; ♦* L0 Fortugais 
beurti impttutfimenf Us fcldmts d^lfmatr Us 
ramver/i tt Uur ouvn U/ettt a coups de lance ; 
9m f$ rencontri^ cn/e cheque avec unefureur^ 
fid fSroMUroit U fimmet dt montagnes. La 
tern ItemhU fius Us pat des courfiers f^u- 
guiHX\ Vimfitoyahk Eritmjs <voit des hUf- 
jTures enormes et de coups dignes d^elUs : Us 
guerrurs de Lufm brifinly coupevty iailUnty 
enjhncent plafirons^ armures^ iasuUers^ cms'- 
raffes e% tstrbaHs\ Us Parfue etend fes aiUs 
affreu/es fur Us Mattritasns, Pttm expire em 
miordmmt U pouffitre^ P autre mpUre U ficours 
de fim propbete ; ///// jmmbes et bras 'voUnt 
et bomdifiut de tomtes parts,. Pail swapper" 
fsit qme vi/agti c$HVerts d^um peJevp Hwde^ 

cue corps decbirh et au^emtraUbs palpkamtes/* 
thA Caftera ferionily intended to bnrldque 
his Aadior he eould fearcdy hate bettir ioc- 
ceeded. As tranflation cannot convey a per«^ 
ft€t idea of an aiadior's manner^ it is tftm^ 
fore not attempted. Tbe attack was witit 
fuchfury tbat it mugbtjbah tbe tops rf tbg 
mouutsims : This bombaft, and the wretched 
anticlimax ending with turbans, are not in 
the original ; from which indeed the whole 
is- extremely wide. Had he added any po^ 
etical ima^e, any flower to the embroidery 
of his Author* the increaie of the richnefs of 
the tiflue woiiM have rendered his work 
awre pleafing. It waa therefore his intereft 
to do &. Bot it was not in the feelings of 
Caflera to tranflaie the Lufiad with the ipirit 
of Camoens^ 

t ^.^.^fofitb glorious tropbies crpwm^ d * ■■ 
This memorable battle was fbaght in the 
plains of Ouripur in 1 1 39. The engage- 

Digitized by 




Book IIL 

Three days encampt, to reft his weary trairt, 
Whofe dauntlefs valour drove the Moors from Spain, 
And now in honour of the glorious day, ^ 
Wten five proud Monarcbs fell his vanqiiifh'd prey. 

ment lafted fix hoars ; the Moors were to- 
tally routed with incredible flaqghter. On 
tho field of battle Alonzo was proclaimed 
king of Portugal. The Portugiiefe writers 
have given many fabulous accounts of this 
vidory. Some affirm, that the Moorifh 
army amounted to 380yOoo;othersy 490,000, 
and others fwell it to 600,000; whereas Don 
Alonzo's did not exceed 1 3,000. Mirades 
muft alfo be added. Alonzo, they tell us, 
being in great •erplenty, fat down to cam- 
fort nis mind oy the pernfal of the Holy 
Scriptures. Having raul Ae Aory of Gi • 
i/mjv, he funk into a deep fleep, in which 
he iaw a very old man in a remarkable dn^s 
iCome into his tent, and afliire him of vie- . 
tory. His chamberlain coming in, waked 
him, and told him there was an old man 
^ery importunate to fpeak with him. Don 
Alonaso ordered him to be bioOght in, and 
no fooner faw him than he knew him to be 
the old man whom he had fees/ in his dream. 
This venerable perfon acquainted him, that 
he was a filherman, and had led a life of 
penance for fixty years on an adjacent rock, 
where it had been revealed to him» that if 
the Comit marched his army the next mom* 
ing, as foon as he heard a certain bell ring, 
he fiiould receive the ftrongeft alTarance of 
victory. Accordingly, at the ringing of 
the bell, the Count put his army in moaont 
and fuddenly beheld in the eaftem iky, the 
figure of the Crofs, and Chriftupon it, who 
promifed him a complete vidoiy, and com- 
manded him to accept the tide of King, if 
it was ofl^ered him by the army. The fame 
writers add, that as a ftanding memorial of 
this miraculous event, Don Alonzo changed 
the arms which his father had given, (^ a 
crofs azure in a field amnt, for five efcut- 
cheons, each charged with iive bezants, in me- 
mory of the ^vt wounds of Chrift. Others 
afiSsrt, that he gave in a field argent five ef- 
cutcheons azure, in the form of a Crofs, 
each charged with five bezants aigent, placed 
falterwife, with a point fable. In memory 
4^f ive wounds he mmfclf r$ceivcd| and of 

five Moorifii kings (Iain in Ae battle. There 
.is an old record, faid to be written by Don 
Alonzo, in which the fiory of the vifion is 
related upon his Majefiy'a oath. TheSpanifli 
Critics, however, have difcovered many ia- 
confillencies in it. They find the langua^ 
intermixed with phrafes not then in ule : 
it bears the date of the year of our Lord, 
at a time when that xra had not been in- 
troduced into Spain ; and John, Bilhop of 
Coimbra, figns as a witnefi before John, 
MetrapoUtan of Braja, which is contrary to 
eoclefiaftical rule. Thefe draunflances, 
however, are not mentioned to prove the 
fiiliehood of the vifion, but to vindicate the 
charafler of Don Alonzo from any (hare in 
the oath which pefiles under his name. The 
truth is, die rortugnefe were always un-^ 
willing to pay any homage to the Kitff of 
Caftile. They adorned the battle which 
gave birth to their Monarchy* with mira- 
cle, and the new Sovereignty with a. 
command from heaven, drcumftanoes ex- 
treoMly agreeable both to the military 
mide and the fuperfiidon of thefe dmes. 
The regal dignity and conftitadon of the 
MQnarcny, however* were not fetded till 
about fix ^ears after the batde of Omriqwi^ 
For mankuid, lay the Authors of the Univer- 
fal Hiftory, were not then to ijpiorant and 
barbaroQSi as to fufiler a Amfi orgovemment 
to be m^iis without any nuther ceremony* 
than a tumultuous huzza. An accoont of tha 
coron^don of die firil king of Portngalt and 
the jMfindpies of liberty whidi then pre^ 
vailed in that kingdom, are worthy of our 
attcndon. The arms of Don Alonio having 
b^n attended with great foccefs, in 114$ 
he called an aflemb^ of the Prelates, No- 
bility, and Commonst at Lanugo* When 
the aiTembly opened, he appeared, feaud 
on die duone* but without any other marks 
of re^ dignity. Laurena it HegMjihtn 
demanded of the aiTembly, whedier, accord- 
ing to die eleftion on the field of batde at 
Oftfififi, and die briefs of Pppe Ewgenius 
IIT, they chnfed |o have Don jIcmm Enri^ 


Digitized by 



On his broad buckler/^ unadorn'd before. 
Placed as a Crofs> five azure fhields he * wore^ 
In grateful memory of the heavenly fign. 
The pledge of conqucft by the aid divine.. 


Nor long his faulchion In the fcabbard (Tept^ 
His 'warlike arm increafing laurels reapt : 
From Leyra's walls the baffled Ifmar flies^ 
And ftrong Arroncha falls his conquered prize r 
That honoured town, trough wbofe Eljrfian groves 
Thy fmooth and limpid wave, O Tagua, roves. 

fir#K for thdr king? To this they anfwcred 
they wete wilfing. He then demanded'* if 
thej dcfired the Monarch^ fhould be elec- 
tive or hereditary. They dtclaitd their in- 
tention to be^ that the crown fliottld de- 
ibend to the hdrs male ofJUtm^. lunrtnet 
il* VUgoi then aiked» ^< Is it yoor pleafore 
that he be inveiled.with the enfigns of Roy- 
alty? He was anfweredinthe affirmative; 
and the Archbiihop of Brmgm placed the 
crown upon his head, the king having 
his fwoid drawn in his hand» Asvibon 
as crowned, Alonzo thns* addrefled the af- 
fembly; << Blefled be God, who has al- 
<« ways aflifted me, and has enabled me, 
** witH this fword, to deliver yon from all 
** your enemies. I ihall ever wear it for 
** voar defence. Yon have made me n 
" king, smd it is bat joft that yon ihonld 
^' /hare with me in. taking care of the foite. 
** I am your kihg» and as foch let os make 
** laws to feciire the happinefi of thi^king- 
** dom.'* Eighteen ihortfbttttes were then 
framed; andaflented to by the people* Lau^ 
rence it Viigas at length propofed the great 
queftion, Whedier it was their pleafore 
that the king fliould go to Z#9», to do 
homage and pay tribote to that prince, or 
so any other. On this, every man drawing 
his fword, aied. with a lond voice^ " ^ 

'< are free, and our king Is free ; we owt 
'< onr liberty taoor courage. If the king 
<< fliidl at any time fubmit to foch an aft, 
'< he delerves death, and Ihall not reign 
'' either over as, or among as**' The king 
then fifing up, approved this dedaradoni 
and declared. That if any of his defoen- 
dents cooiented to foch a fubmiffion^ hr 
was unworthy to focoeed, fhould be reputed 
incapiAle of wearing the erown, and that 
the eledion of anotlter fovereign ffiould im- 
mediately take place. 

• ^,^.^fiyt asLurtfiiiUt Fanffliaw^s- 

tranflation of this is curious. He is literal 
in the circumftances, but the debofemenu^ 
marked in italic are his own : 

In thefe five fliieldf he paints the recomfenci 

(Os trinta Dinbeiros ;. the thirty Denarii^ 
ftiys Camoens.)- 

For wtiiflk the Lord was ibid, in vmrioiu htk 

U^riiitf bis hijien, who did ctiipeaic 

Such favour to nim, rmre then heart could tUnk. 

(Writing the remembrance of him, by whom 
hewasiavoured,invar]ooscoloars. Comhus.): 

In every of the five he painU fiv€*-/Mce 
80 films the thirty hy a cinpte-fold cvtfitt 
Accounting that which is the center, twioe, 
01 the five cin<iues, which hctdoth placs-croA-wiieb 


Digitized by 




Boor JII. 

Th' illuflrious Santarene ^onfkA hk power. 

And vanquiih'd Mafra yields jber proudeft tower. 

The Lunar mountains &m his troops diiplay 

Their marching banners and their i>nfe Array ; 

To him fubmits fair Cintra's cold domain. 

The Toothing refuge of the Nayad traixit 

When Love's fweet fnares the piiung Nymphs would Ihun : 

Alas, in vain from warmer cUoies tiMy run : 
The cooling (hades awake the youn^ dcfires. 
And the cold foaatains cherkh love's ibft fires. 
And thou, famed Liiboa, whole embattled waU 
Rofe by the • hand that wrought proud Ilion's fall j ' 
Thou queen* of Cities, whom the fcas obey. 
Thy dreaded ramparts own'd the Hero's fway. 
Far from die ncNth a warlike navy bore 
From Elbe, from Rhine, and Albion's mifly fliore. 
To refcue Salem's long-polluted (hrine ; 
Their force to great Alonzo's force they join : 

^ Rofi h *^ ^^^ The tradidoQ, 

tliat Liibon w«8 built by Ulyflb, and tbeaoe 
called Oljffipolis^ is a^ common as that 
(and of equal authorky widi it) which (ays, 
that Brute laaded a odony of Trojans in 
Enelandy and gave the name of Britannia 
to uie ifland. 

« Tb9u queen of cities -^'^'nt oonqneft of 
Liibon was of the utmoft importance to Ae 
in£mt Monarchy. It is one of the fiaeft 
ports in the.wcM'ldf and eie ^e isvtntkm of 
cannon, was of great ffanigth* The oU 
Moorifti wall was flanked by feventy*feven 
cowerSt was about fix miles in lenra» and 
fourteen in circumference. When oefieged 
by Doa Aloiuo» aococding to fome, it was 
garrifoned by an army of 200>ooo 

This, not to iky knpoCble, is hidily in«- 
dtdible. That it was ftrong, however, 
aaud well fiarrifoned, is certain. It is alio 
certain, that Alonzo owed the conqneft of 
it t9 a fleet of adventurers, who werfc go- 
ing to the Holy Land, the ercateft part of 
whom wereEngliih. Out Udal ap Rbys^ 
in his tour dirough Portugal, iays, diat 
Alonzo gave them Jlmadat on the fide of 
the Tagus oppoiite to liAon, and thaC 
yUU Franca was peopled by them, which 
thev called CwnuaJIa, either in honour of 
their native country, or from the rich mea- 
dows in its aeighbourhood, where immenic 
herds of cattle aie kept, ^ in the EnglUh 


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BooKin. THE L U 8 I A D. 105 

Before UlyiTes' walls the navy rides^ 

The joyful Tagus laves their pitchy fidei^ 

Five times the moon her empty horns concealed. 

Five times her broad effblgence (hone revealed, - 

When» wrapt in clouds of duft» her mural pride 

Falls thundering,— black the fmoakiag breach yawns wide* 

As when th' imprifon'd waters borft the mounds. 

And roar, wide fweeping, o'er the cultured grounds ; 

Nor cot nor fold withftand their furious courfe { 

So headlong rufli'd along the Hero's force. . • 

The thirft of vengeance the aflailahts fires. 

The nmdnefs of deipair the Moors infpires ; 

Each lane, each ftreet refounds the conflid's roar. 

And every thre(hold reeks with Ufid gore. 

Thus fell the City, whofe unconquer'd * to\frcrs 
Defy'd of old the banded Gothic powers, 
Whofe hardenM nerves in rigorous climates trained 
The favage courage of their folds fufiain'd ; 
Before whofe fword the fons of Ebro fled. 
And Tagus trembled in his ooay bed ; 
Aw*d by whofe arms the lawns of Betis* fliore 
The name Vandalia from the Vandals bore. 

* UMeonfMir*Jtfiwers^Ttisti£Ea6aa of was hy treachery tliat Kerimeociic^ tim 
Qamow u not without fooBdatioii, for it Goth, fot pofl^moa of lifton. 

i .■ : . 


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io6 THE I. U S I A D. Book III. 

When liifboa's towers befote the Lufitoi fell« 
What f6rt> what rampurt might hU arms rtpcU ! 
Eilremadura's region owns hiili Lord* 
And Torres-vedrts bends beneath hit Aronli 
Obidos humbleki *nd AlamqUef yieldi, 
Alam^lier famouf for. her verdant fielda> 
Whofe murmuring rivulelB chedr the trahrdtePa tray. 
As the chill waters b'er the pebble^iftn^. 
Elva the green,, and Mouri's fertile dak«. 
Fair Serpa's tillage, and MOmu'i vale* 
Not for himfelf the MooriflL^iKiiJuit fowB ; 
For Lufian hands the jcUow horf eft. glows t • 

And you, fair lawn$, beyond the Tago's wave. 
Your golden burdena for Alooxo'fsre » • . .. 

Soon fhall his thundering might your wealth reclaim. 
And your glad Tilleys hail their ttooaich's name* ' 

Nor ileep his captams whik the fevereign vrttn.i . ' 

The brave Giraldo's^iWonl in Gbnqueft flitveti ; ! • 

Evora*s frownisg walls^ tiic ciaftlfid hold 
Of that proud Roman chief, and rebel bold, 
Sertorius dread, who6 'laboaf$, jfttU ' ftmain j 
Two hundred arches, ftretch'd hi length, fuAaia 
The marble duA, where, gliftening to the fun. 
Of filvcr hue the fliining waters run^ ; 

s ;^ nvhpfi UhmrsJUa rMMt*— Tlie aquedna of Sertorins, here mentioned, ii one of the 
fpnMtnmmt Qf$ntiqpky. h ymrepmi*j Jolu IQ. of Portng^l^ about A.D. 1540, 


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BookUL THE L U S I A D. r©7 

Evora's frowning walls qow diake With fear^ 

And yield obedient to Giraldo's fpear. 

Nor refts the monarch while his fervants toU, 

Around him ftill increafing trophies fmtle^ 

And deathlefs fiime repays the haplelk f^te 

That gives to human life/o (hoh a date. 

Proud Beja*s caftled walls his fury ftocms. 

And one red flaughter every lane deforms. 

The ghofts^ whofe mangled Umbs, yet fcarcely cfAdf 

Heapt fad Trancofo's ftreets in carnage roird, 

Appeafed, the vengesnoe cS their flaughter &e» 

And hail th' indignant king'e (evere decree. 

Falmela trembles on her mountain's height. 

And fea-laved Zambia owns the hero's might. 

Nor thefe alone confeft his happ7 ftar. 

Their fated doom produced a noMer war. 

Badaja's king, an haughty Moor,, beheld 

His towns beiieged, and hafted to the field. 

Four thoufand couriers ta Thns army neigfa'd^ 

Unnumbered fyeun his infantry £fplay^d ; 

Proudly they march'd, and glorious to behold. 

In filver belts they flione, and plates of gold. 

Along a mountain's fide fecuM diey trodi 

Steep on each hand, and rugge4 was the roadi 

When as a bull, whofe luftful veina betray 

The maddening tumult of infpiring May $ 

Pa If, 

Digitized by 


loS T H E L U S I A D. Eooic IlL 

If, when his rage with fierccft ardour glows. 

When in the (hade the fragrant heifer lows. 

If then perchance his jealous burning eye 

Behold a carelefs traveller waiider by. 

With dreadful bellowing on the wretch he flies > 

The wretch defencelefs torn and trampled dies» 

So rufh'd Alonzo on the gaudy train,. 

And pour'd vidorious .o'er the mangled ilain; • : \ 

The royal IVfoor precipitates in flight ; - , 

The mountain ecchoes with the wild affright 

Of flying fquadrons ; down their arms they throw,. 

And dafh from rock to rock to ihun the foe. /. ; 

The foe ! what wonders may not virtue dare I 

But fixty ' horfemen waged the conquering war. 

The warlike monarch flill his toil renews i ] 

New conqueft ftill each viApry purfues^ 

To him Badaja's lofty gates expandi.- j 

And the wide region owns, his dread command. 

When now enraged proud Leon's king beheld 

Thofe walls fubducd which faw his troops expell'd ; 

Enraged he faw them own the vigor's fway. 

And hems them round with battalous array. 

With generous ircthc brave Alonzo glows. 

By heaven unguarded, on the ftumf foUs foes 

^ Aitjlxtj hwfemn ■ The hUtorf of thia battle wants aotheatickjr. 


Digitized by 


Book in. THE LUSIAD. 

He rufhes, glorying in his wonted force,/ 

And fpurs with headlong rage his furious horfc f 

The combat burns, the fhorting.courfer bounds,. 

And paws, impetuous bjr the iron mounds : 

O'er gafping foes and founding bucklers trod 

The raging fteed, jind headlong as he rode 

Dafh'd the fierce monarch on a rampire bar*— 

Low groveling in the duft, the pride of war> 

The great Alonzo lies. The captive's fate 

Succeeds, alas, the pomp of regal ftate. 

" Let iron da(h his limbs,'* his mother cried, 

" And fteel revenge my chains :" flie fpokc, and diedj 

And heaven aflented — Now the hour was come. 

And the dire curfe was fallen Alonzo's * doonu 


No more, O Pqmpey, of thy fate complain,. 
No more with farrow view thy glory's ftain; 
Though thy tall ftandards tower'd with lordly pride 
Where northern Phafis rolls hia icy tidcj^ 

there is no aothentic proof diat Don 
Alonzo nfed foch feverity to his mother as 
%o put her in chains. Brstndan £iys it was 
reported that Don Alonzo was boi^i with 
both his legs growing together, and that he 
was cored by the prayers of his tator Efos 
Ntime. Leeenda^ as this may appear^ uiis 
Ikowever is dedoceable from it, that from his 
birth these was fomething amifs about his 
kgs. When he was prifoner to his ibn-in- 
law Don Fernando king of Leon, he reco- 
vered hia liberty ere bis leg, which was fiac- 

tnitd in the batde, 4m reflofetT to ffrengtH^ 
on condition that as foon as he was able to 
mount on horfeback, he (hoold come to Ue^^ 
and in perfon do homage for his dominions. 
This condition* fo contrary to his corona^ 
tibn agreement, he found means to aiA^id. 
He would fever more mount ob horfeback^ 
but on pretence of lamenefs, ever after af* 
feaed to ride in a calalh. This, his natnral^ 
and afterward political, infirmi^f , thC; foper* 
flitioiis of thofe days afcribed to the coifea 
of his mother^. 


Digitized by 


ij^o T H B L n S I A D. BooiaiL 

Though hot Syene, where the foa-s fierce taj * . : 
JBegets no £hadQw> dwo'd thy coaqoering fway i 
Though fromthe tiibet'Hittihiverm the.gkam 
Of cold Bootes' wateiy gliftening: teain^ ' 
To thofe who parbh'd faokeath' the Imnung liae^ 
In fragrant fhades their feeble Umbs recline. 
The various langmges proclaimed thy fame. 
And trembling owo^i the temps of thy name i 
Though rich Arabia, and SarnMtia bold. 
And Colchis, famous for die 'fleece of gold i 
Though Judah's Und, whbfe facred ritM implored 
The One tme God, and, ai he ttiigbt, adored i 
Though Cappad^cia'a realjca thy'maadatcfway'dj 
And bafe Sophema's £>ns thy nod obeyed i 
Though vext Cicilia's pirates wore thy bands. 
And thofe who cultured fair Amenia*s lands. 
Where from the facred mount two rivers flow» 
And what was Eden to du Pilgrim fhew ; 
Though from the vaft Atliantic's bbmiding wave 
To where the northern tempefls howl and rave 
Round Tlunis* lofty brows : though vaft and wide 
The various climes that bended to thy pride ; 
^0 niorc with pining aoguiih of regret 
Bewail the horrors of Pharfalia*s fate : 
For great Alonzo, whofe fuperior name 
Unequard victories tsa^ffk to fame^ 


Digitized by 


SookIIL T H Ifi L y S I a D. Ill 

The great Alonzo fell «— like thine his woe i 
From nuptial kindred caaie the fatal blo\^. 

When now the heto; humbled in the duft# 
His crime atoned^ cpnfeil; that heevea was juft^ 
Again in fplendor he the throne afcends : 
Again his bow the Moorish chieftaip bends» 
Wide round th' embatded gate^ of Santareen 
Their ihining fpears and banner'd nioons are feen« 
But holy rites the pious king preferred i 
The Martyr's bones on Vincent's Cape interr'd^ 
(His fainted name the Cape ihall ever * bear) 
To Liiboa's walls he brou^t with votive care. 
And now the monarchy old ind £ceble growfit 
Refigns the his vaU^tot 6m* 
O'er Tago's waves the youthful hero pafl;* . 
And bleeding hoils befipore him Arank aghij4 : 
Choak'd with the (lainj with Mooriih canM§e. dy'd> 
Sevilia's river roU'd the parple <ide« 
Burning for vidory the wfurlike boy 
Spares not a day |o thoughtkis reft or joy« 
Nor long his wifbt unfaxisficd remaias i 
With the befiegers' gorq he dyet t]ie plaiM 

• Tm fUfUi littmhi wf/iris, MwBm marut% 

. i 


Digitized by 


lit T ri £ L tr S I A D- Boor lit- 

That circle Bcja's wall : yet ftill untamed. 

With all the fiercenefs of ddpaif inflamed. 

The raging Moor collects his diilant might ; 

Wide from the fhores of Atlas* jdarry Height, 

From Amphelufia's cape, and Tingia's bay. 

Where ftern Antaeus hfeld his brutal fway, 

The Mauritanian trumpet founds to arms, - . '' 

And Juba's realm returns the hotffe alarms; ~\ 

The fwarthy tribes in burnifhVl armour fhine. 

Their warlike march Abeyk's fhepherds join« 

The great * Miramolih on Tago'S (hbres 

Far o'er the coaft his banhcr'd thoufadds pours ; 

Twelve kings and one beneath his enfigns fhmd. 

And wield their fabres at his dread command. 

The plundering bands far rouiid the region haAe, ' 

The mournful region lies a naked waftc. * ^ 

And now enclofed in Santare#n's high towers 

The brave Don Sanco fliuns th' mnequal powers j 

A thoufand arts the furious Moor purfucs, ""^^ 

And ceafclefs ftill the fierce affault renews. -f 

Huge clefts of rock, from horrid engines whirl'd. 

In fmouldering volleys on the town are hurrdj 

The brazen rams the lofty. turrets ihslk*,- / 

And, mined beneath, the deep foundations quake; 

* MirMuliMi— not As name pf a pafon, . it Emir-AInoamii^ tit tmftrtr »f tht 
k«44kle, iM*fi» SiUsM. The Arabs call' Fmtbjwl, 


Digitized by 


Book III. THE L U S I A D. iij 

But brave Alonzo's Con, as danger grows. 
His pride inflamedj with rifing <:ourage glows; 
Each coming ftorm of miifile darts he wards. 
Each nodding turret, and each port he guards. 

In that fair city, round whofe verdant meads 
The branching river of Mondego fpreads. 
Long worn with warlike toils, and bent with years 
The king repofed, when Sanco's fate he hears. 
His limbs forget the feeble fteps of age, 
And the hoar warrior burns with youthful rage. 
His daring Veterans, long to con(][ueft trained. 
He leads — the ground with Moorifh blood is ftain'd i 
Turbans, and robes of various colours wrought. 
And fhiver*d fpears in ftreaming carnage float. 
In harnefs gay lies many a weltering fteed. 
And low in duft the groaning mailers bleed. 
As proud Miramolin in horror fled, 
Don Sanco's javelin ftrctch'd him with the dead. 
In wild difmay, and torn with, gufliing wounds 
The rout wide fcattcr^d fly the Lufian bounds. 
Their hands to heaven the joyful vidors raife. 
And every voice refounds the fong of praife ; 
" Nor was it ftumbling chance, nor human might, 
*« Twas guardian heaven,'' they fung, '' that ruled the fight." 



Digitized by 


114 THE L U S I A D- Book IIE 

This blifsful day Alonzo's glories crown'd ; 
But pale difeafe gave now the fecret wound -, 
Her icy hand his feeble limbs invades. 
And pining languor through his vitals fpreads. 
The glorious monarch to the tomb defcends,. 
A nation's grief the funeral torch attends. 
Each winding fhore for thee, Alonzo, * mourns, 
Alonzo's name each woful bay returns ; 
For thee the rivers figh their groves among. 
And funeral murmurs wailing, roll along j 
Their fwelling tejtrs overflow the wide campaign ; ' . 
With floating heads, for thee, the yellow grain, 
For thee the willow bowers and copfes weep. 
As their tall boughs lie trembling on the deep;» 
Adown the ftreams.the tangled vine-leaves fiovr^ 
And all the landfcape wears the look of woe* 
Thus o'er the wondering world thy glories fpread. 
And thus thy mournful people bow the head -, 
While flill, at eve, each dale Alonzo fighs. 
And, Oh, Alonzo; every hill replies.; 
And ftill the mountain ecchoes trill the lay> 
Till blufhing morn brings oa the noifcful day. 

• Eaci^ 'winding Jhort for ihee^ Jhnz^^ — Evrydicen 'ooxip/a itfirigidalinguMp, 

mourm — In this poetical exclamation, ex- Ah miferam Eurydicfn^ anjmafugientet 'vo* 

preffive of the fdrrow of Portugal on the cahat : 

death of Alonzo, Camoens has happily imi- Eurydicen iot$ referibant fitmim rifa. 

tated fomc pailages of Virgil.. C iw 

■ I^a tey Titjru pinns^ ^-^^littus^Hjla, Hyiih omnf/onant. 

Jjlfi te/onUtt 'f/^ tifc arbufia 'vocabant. Ecl. vi.. 


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Book III. THE L U S I A D. 115 

The youthful Sanco to the throne fucceeds^ 
Already far renown'd for valorous deeds ; 
Let Betis tinged with blood his prowefs tell. 
And Beja's lawns, where boaftful Afric fell. 
Norlefs, when king, his martial ardour glows. 
Proud Sylves' royal walls his troops enclofe : 
Fair Sylves* lawns the Moorifli peafant ploughed. 
Her vineyards cultured, and her valleys fow'd ; 
But Lilboa's monarch reapt. The winds of heaven 
Roar'd high — and headlong by the tcmpeft driven. 
In Tago's breaft a gallant navy fought 
The (heltering port, and 'glad affiftanct brought. 
The warlike crew, by Frederic the Red, 
To refcue Judah's proftrate land were led j 
When Guido's troops, by burning thirft fubdued. 
To Saladine • the foe for mercy fued. 

f — and j^lad ajpfiana brought -i— the enemy by magical arti, in thus deAroy* 

The Portuguefe, in their wan with the ing them. Hence it was alfo believed, that 

Moors, were feveral times aflifted by the every wretch afRided with the leprofy was 

Englilh and German crufaders. In the pre- a magician, and that by magic they held an 

fent inftance the fleet was moftly Englilh, univerfal intelligence with one another over 

the troops of which nation were, according the whole world, on purpo(e to injure the 

to agreement, rewarded with the plunder, Chriftian caufe. On this opinion thefe un- 

which was exceeding rich, of the city of happy objeds of compaflion were perfecnted 

Silves. Nunix de Leon as cronicas das Rets throughout Europe : Several of them were 

de Poru condemned, and bnmt at Paris ; and where 

^ To Saladine the foe for mercy fued, '^"^ they experienced lefs fcvcrity, they were 

In the reign of Guido, the lafl Chriflian turned out of the hofpicals ere^ed for their 

king of Jerofalem, the ftreams which fup- reception. It ftands -upon authentic record, 

plied his army with water were cut off by that the poor old lepers of St. Bartholomew's 

.Saladine, the victorious Mamaluke; by hofpiral in the vicinage of Oxford, were 

which means Guido's army was reduced to feverely perfecuted for poifoning the foun- 

fubmiflion. During the Crufades, the foun- tains near Jerufalem. Such were the grofs 

tains which fupplied the Chriilians had been opinions of mankind, ere enlightened and 

often perverted and poifoned ; aiid it was civilized by the intercourfe of commerce. — 

believed that fome lepers, who had been Fox, Martyr, p. 364. Annai. Mon.firin- 

turned out of the Chriftian gunpt aflifted ton. Ox. p. 13* 

0^2 Their 

Digitized by 


ii6 THE L U S J A D. BboK IH. 

Their voWs were haiyr and tibc canfb the £iipe»' ' 
To blot from Europe's fibores the Moorifli imrmc 
In Sanco's caufe the galUnt navj joins. 
And royal Sylvcs to their force refigfw. 
Thus fent by heaven a foidga lia^al band 
GaVe Lifboa's rampartft to die Sire'^ command. 

Nor Moorifh tropbics did ak>ne adorn 
The Hero's aane i in wai'like camps though born» 
Though fenced with mountains, Leoa's martial race 
Smile at the battle-iign, jret foul difgrace 
To Leon*s haughty focs^his fword atchieved 5 
Proud Tui's neck his fervifc yoke received -, 
And far around falls many a wealthy town, 
O valiant Sanco, humbled, to thy frown. 

While thus his laurels flourifh'd wide and fair. 
He dies : Alonzo reigns, his much-loved heir. 
Alcazar lately conquer'd by the Moor, 
Reconq^ucr'd, ftreams with the defenders* gore, 

Alonzo dies : Another Sanco reigns : 

Alas, with many a figh the land complains ! 

Unlike his Sire, a vain unthinking boy. 

His fervants now a jarring fway enjoy. 

As his the power, his were the crimes of thofe 

Whom to difpenfe that facred power he chofe. 


Digitized by 


Bb0£lll T -H E L U S I A t>. 117 

By various counfcla wat«f'd aiid c6nfufcd; 

By feeming friends^ by various art& abufcd j 

Long undetermined^ blindly rafh zt laff. 

Enraged, unmanned, untirfof*d by the paft. 

Yet not like Nero, €tu^i itid rnijuft, ' 

The flav? capricious of unnatural luf! : 

Nor had he fmiled had flames confumed his Troy ; 

Nor could his peopIc^s groans afford himf Joy { 

Nor did his woes from ft male martriers fpring. 

Unlike the ^ Syrian, or Sicilians krng. 

No hundred coofcs hi^s coftly meal prepared. 

As heapt the board when Rome's proud tyrant * fared : 

Nor dared the artift hope his ear fo guin. 

By new-form'd arts to point the ^ flfings flf p^ia* 

But proud and high the Luiian fpirit foar'd. 

And afk'd a godlike hero for their Lord. 

-To none accuftom'd but an hero's fway. 

Great muft he be whom that bold race obey. 

Compl^iint, loud murraur*d, every city fills, * 
Complaint, loud ecchoed, murmurs through the hills* 
Alarm'd, Bolonia's warlike Earl ' awakes. 
And from his liftlefs brotlier's minions takes 

* Vnlih the ^n'tfur-^^Sardinftpalus* ' ■■■ Bolonic^s nvarlike Air/— i*-Ca- 

i ....^ When Romis froud tyrant far* d.^^-^ ffioens, who was quite an enthafiaft for the 

Heliogabalus, infamous for his gluttony. honour of his coundy^ has in this inftanoe 

k Bj new form* d arts to point tbeftin^s of diiguifed the truth of hiftory. Don Sancho 

pmn — AUadtDg to the fioiy of Phalans. waa by no means the weak Prince here le- 


Digitized by 


-?f8 /THE L U S I A D. 

The awful fccptrc. — Soon was joy rcftprcd. 
And foon^ by juft fucceffion, Lilboa's Lord, 
Beloved, Alonzo named the bold, he reigns ; 
Nor may the limits of his Sire's domains 
Confine his mounting fpirit. When he led 
His fmiling Confort to. the bridal bed, 
Algarbia*s realm, he cried, (ball prove thy dower. 
And foon Algarbia conquered own'd his power. 
The vanquifli'd Moor with total rout expell'd. 
All Lufus* fliores his might unrivaird held. 
And now brave Diniz reigns, whofe noble fire 
Befpoke the genuine lineage of his Sire, 
Now heavenly peace wide waved her olive bough. 
Each vale difplay'd the labours of the plough 


prefented, nor did the miieries of his rcign 
proceed from himfelf. The clergy were 
the fole authors of his and the public cala* 
xnities. The Roman See was then in the 
height of its power, which it exerted in the 
molt tyrannical manner. The ecclefiaftical 
courts had long claimed the fole right to 
try the ecclefiaftics ; and to prohibit a Pricfl 
to fay mafs for a twelvemonth, was by the 
brethren his judges, efteemed a fufficient 
puuifiiment for murder, or any other .capital 
crime. Alonzo II. the father of Don San- 
cho, attempted to eibbiifh the authority of 
the King's courts of juftice over the offend- 
ing Clergy. For this the Archbifhop of 
Braga excommunicated Gonzalo Mendex^ 
the Chancellor; and Honorims the' Pope ex- 
communicated the King, and put his do- 
minions under an interdift. The exterior 
offices of Religion were fufpended, the vul- 
gar fell into the utmoll di^olutenefs of man- 
ners ; Mahommedifm made great advances, 
and public confufion every where prevailed. 
By this policy the Holy Church conftrained 
the nobQity to urge the King to a full fub7 

miffion to the Papal chair. While a nc- 
gociation for this purpofe was on foot 
Alonzo died, and left his fon to ibwgle 
with an enraged and powerful Clergv. Don 
Sancho was juft, affable, brave, ana an en- 
amoured hufband. On this laft virtue fac* 
tion firfb fixed its envenomed fangs. The 
Queen was accufed of arbitrary influence 
over her hufband, and, according to the fu- 
perflition of that age, fhe was believed to 
have difturbed his fenfes by an enchanted 
draught. Such of the nobility as declared 
in the king's favour were ftigmatized, and 
rendered odious, as the creatures of the 
Queen, The confufion s which enfued were 
fomented by Alonzo, Earl of Bologne, the 
King's brother, by whom the King was ac- 
cufed as the author of them. In fliorr, by 
the affiflance of the Clergy and Pope Innth- 
cent IV. Sancho was depofed, and foon a(ter 
he died at Toledo. The beautiful Queen, 
Donna Menda, was feized as a prifoner, 
and conveyed away by one Raymond Per*' 
tocarrero^ and was never heard of more. 
Such are the triumphs of Fa^on \ . 


Digitized by 


BooKlIL T H fi C U S 1 A D. 119 

And fmiled with joy : the rocks on every fhore 

Refound the dafhing of the mercbant-oar. 

Wife laws are form'd, and conftitutions weigh'd^ 

And the deep-rooted baie of Empire Idd. 

Not Amnion's fon with larger heart beftow'd^ 

Nor fuch the grace to him the Mufes owed. 

From Helicon the Mufes wing their way j 

Mondego's flowery banks invite their ftay. 

Now Coimbra fhihes Minerva's proud abode ; 

And fired with joy, ParnafTus' bloomy God 

Beholds another dear-loved Athens rife. 

And fpread her laurels in indulgent fkies ; 

Her wreath of laurels ever green he twines 

With threads of gold, and Baccaris "" adjoins. 

Here caftle wall^ in warlike grandeur lour. 

Here cities fwell and lofty temples tower : 

In wealth and grandeur each with other vies ; 

When old and loved the parent-monarch <li€S. . . i 

His fon, alas, remifs in filial deeds. 

But wife in peace and bold in fight, fuceeeds. 

The fourth Alonzo : Ever arra'd for war 

He views the ftern Caftcel with watchful care. 

Yet when the Lybian nations croft the main. 

And fpread their thoufands o'er the fields of Spain„ 

« — .— j^iuTitrri-— — or Lady's glove, aa BaccanJrcntem^ 

berb to which the Druids and aacient Poets Cingiu^ ne vati noccat mala Ungua/uturo. 
•fcribcd magical virtues. Vikc. EcL V0, 


Digitized by 


i2<4 T H a Ij If S I A D. 9ookUI. 

The brave, Alon»» drew ht$ awful ftecl 
And fprung to battle .% th© prpud Cafteel. 

■ f 

When Babers haughty Qae«» Un(he«h'ct ^ fww4. 
And o'er Hydafpes* lawfl$ her legions pour'd i 
When dreadful Attijfc, to whom w$« " givca 
That fearful name, the Scourge of angry heavcni 
ThQ fields of trembling Italy o*cr^ran 
With many a Gothic tribe an4 northern clan j 
Not fuch unnumber'4 bano^r^ then were feen. 
As now in fair Tartefia*s dale* convene 5 - 
Numidia's bow and Mauritania^ fpear^ 
And all the might of Hagar's race was here ; 
Granada's mongrels join their numerous hoft> 
To thofe who dared the feas from Lybia's coaft% 
Awed by the fury of fuqh ponderous force 
The proud Caftilian tries each hoped refource ; 
Yet not by terror foe himfelf infpired. 
For Spain he trembled, and for Spain was fired. 
His much-loved bride his meflenger he *" fends. 
And to the hoflile Lufian lowly bends. 
The much-loved daughter of tHo Kipg implored. 
Now fues her father for her wedded Lord* 

* When dnadful At til a * A ' king of Mary. She wai a Lady of gwit huatf 

the Hans» furnamed The Scourge of Cfod. and virtue, but was exceedingly ill ufed by 

He lived in the fifth century. He may be her hufband, who was violenuy attached to 

reckoned aoioi% the great^ of barbarous . hfts xniftr^iTeSy though lie owed hi$ c/own to 

coaquerors. the aCftance of his fatlwf-ia4aw» tbe ki^g • 

• nis mu€h4ntid brUe ——The Princefs of Portugal. 


Digitized by 


Book III- THE L U S I A D. izi 

The beauteous dame approach^'d the palace gate. 
Where her great Sire was throned in regal ftata: 
On her fair face deep-fettled grief appears. 
And her mild eyes are bathed in gliftening tears ; 
Her carelcfs ringlets, as a mourner's, flow 
Adown her (boulders and her breafts of fnow :. 
A fecret tranfport through the father ran. 
While thus, in iighs, the royal bride began : 

And know'ft thou not, O warlike. King, flie cry'd. 
That furious Afric pours her peopled tide. 
Her barbarous nations o'er the fields of .Spain? . ' 

Morocco's Lord commands tl|e dreadful train. 
Ne'er fince the furges bathed the circling coait. 
Beneath one ftandard march'd fo; dread an ho^ t 
Such the dire fiercenefs of their brutal rage. 
Pale are our braveft youth as palfied age : 
By night our fathers' fhades confefs their ' fear. 
Their (hrieks of. terror from the tombs we hear : ; . i ^ 

To tlem the rage of thefe wnnumb^r'd bands. 
Alone, O Sire, my ^gallant hufband ftands ; 
His little hoft alone their breafts oppofe 
To the barb'd darts of Spain*s innumerous foes r 

* By might cur fatter^ JbaJes mfefs thiir Were troobled in thdlr graveSy <m the ap* 

y^«r «— — Camoens fays, *' A mortos faz proach of fo terrible an army. The French 

cfpanto,** to give this ^^ganoe ia Englifli tranflator, contrary to the original, afcribes 

leqaired a paraphrafe. There is fometning this terror to the ghoft of only one Prince ; 

wildly great, and agreeable to the fuper- by which, this ftroke of Camoens, in the 

aition of that age, to fnppofe diatthe dead Spirit of Shakefpeate, is greatly reduced. 

R ' Thcft 

Digitized by 


»2fc THE L -U S J A D. .Book lit. 

Thenhafte, O Monarch, di^ wbofe cofiqaering fpetr • 

Has chiird Malucca's fultry waves wilh fear j ' 

Haftc to the refcuc of diftrcfs'd Caft^^» ' 

(Oh ! be that fmite thy dear tffo(fitorf« !feal !) ; : ^ 

And fpeed, my father, €re my tiiSftkScPfi fait / - ' 

Be fixt, and I, deprived cf regal ilate^ 

Be left in captive folitude forloi'n. 

My fpoufe, my kiftgdoto^, and my biftli to ttiolirti. ' 

In tearsy and trembling, ^ke the filial qneen :* 
So loft in grief was lav«ly Vcniw * ften. 
When Jove, her Sire^ th© beauleoiis fiiourner prayed 
To grant her wandecBig fon the ^tbmiftd aid. 
Great Jove was moved to hear tht'fair deplorfe. 
Gave all (he afk?d, and grieved 6m iik'd 'nto ttwre, 

^ So grieved Alonzo's bobie heWt. And ho# " - 
The warrior binds in ftecl hh awfid brow i 
The glittering fqtiadronis march ih proad airirjr. 
On burnifli'd fhkld^ the trembling ftm-beamtS' play : 
The blaze of arms* tbe warlike rage inlpires. 
And wakes from flofhful peace the hero s fires; 
With trampling hoofs Evora's plains rebound. 
And fprightly ntighing^ eecho fiir arbtmd ; 

. Far on «ach fide the iclouds of duft arife» 
The drum's rough rattling rowls along the ikke $ 



Digitized by 


The trumpet's (hrilly clangof A>tt0i^ al^roil, * . ! . : ' 

And eacl\ hsutt lburo«* ajidnedent pantsfoir arois. 

Where their bright Uaizfi lUhe cii^alenfigos poor'ofr '" • - '' 

High o'er the re|b:Jbk)«;gratt AMxioctajfex'd '^ . • L .1 1" 

High o'er the reft w^ his bold front admired^ ' ' ' 

And his keen eyes new warailh^ new force- iaCf*n6. 

Proudly he mardk'di,' and Ab«riftTAi4f Is plttit- > - - 

The two Alonzos join fb^r ala»^sd tittiii ! - - • .^ , ..'■ '■''- 

Right to the foe, in baltk-rank upikftwn, 

They paufe — the moimtaiii -and the ^tde-fpread lawn 

Afford not feKik'^ro^mG^r >tht <x^ ^ • 

Awed with the horrore <if the lifMd blow '^ , , . i \ 

Pale look'd our braveftrheroes. Swelled with pr|(|p» 

The foes already conquered Spwi divide^ ' 

And lordly o'er the iSeld the* proraifcd vidor^ ftridc; 

So ftrode in Elah's valcj die toweling height 

Of Gath*s proud champion ; fb with pale affright 

The Hebrews trembled^ while with impious pride - 

The huge-limb'd foe the (hepherd boy defy*d : 

The valiant boy advancing fits the ftring> 

And round his head he whirls the founding flings 

ThQ monfter daggers with the forceAil wound. 

And his vaft' bulk lies groaning on the ground. 

Such impious fcorn the M6or*fe proud bpfom fwclFd^ 

Wh(?n our thin fquadrons took the ba.ttle-ficld ; 

% i ..... : -*> : .. . iJfftConfciocs 

Digitized by 



TiH E L U S i A n. 

liobk nil 

Unconfclous of the Power who led us on. 

That Power whofe nod confounds th' infernal throne; 

Led by that Power, the brave Caftilian bared . ' ' 

The (hining blade,^ and proud Morocco ^^ ed ^ 

His conquering brand the Lufian hero drew. 

And on Granada s fons refiftlcfs flew; 

The fpear-ftafFs craihj .tbe^fpJiotere.hife.arcviAd, : 

And the broad bucklerj^ raj^fc bn the jgr^mnd^ . 

With piercing (hrieks the Moors their Prophet's name. 

And ours their guardian Saint aloud acclaim. 

Wounds gufli on wounds, and blowis r^ibuQd tablojws, 

A lake of blood the level plain o'erflows ; , 

The wounde^ gafpipg in the purple tide. 

Now find the death the (Word but half fupplied. - 

Though ^ wove and quilted by thq r Ladies' hands. 

Vain were the mail-plates of Granada's bands. 

With fuch dread force the Lufian rufli'd along, 

Steep'd in red carnage lay the; boaftfiil throng. 

Yet now difdainful of fo light a prize. 

Fierce o'er the field the thundering hero flies. 

^ Though njoonfi — It may perhaps be ob- 
jededy tlut this is angrammatkal. But 


Qnem penes arbitrinm eft, et jos ct norma loqncndi* 

and Dryden, 1^6oty &c often ofe *w0n;e as 
a participle in place of the harih-foandine 
nv^vifty ft word almoft incompatible witn 
ihp de^ance of verfification. The more 
hmmonxoos word ovght therefore to be 

afed ; and ufe will afcertain its definition in 
grammar. When the (pirit of chivalry pre- 
vailed, every youthful warrior had his mif* - 
trefs« to whofe ftvonr he laid no daim, till 
he had diftin^fhed himfelf in the ranks of 
battle. If hts firft^ddrefles were received, 
it was ufual for die Lady to prefent her 
Lover with fome weapon or piece of ar« 
rnour, adorned with hc^ own needle-work ; 
and of the goodnefs of whofe metal and 
fkbric, it was fuppofed, (he was confident. 


Digitized by 


fiboKlli- T H 6 L U S 1 A B. 125 

And his bold arm the brave Caftilian joins 
In dreadful conflidt with the Moorifli liries; 

The parting Sun now p6ur'd the ruddy blaze. 
And twinkling Vefper fliot his filvcry rays 
Athwart the gloom, and clofed the glorious day. 
When low in duft the ftrength of Afric lay. 
Such dreadful flaughter of the boaftful Moor 
Never on battle-field was heaped before. 
Not he whofe childhood vow'd eternal hate 
And de%erate war againil the Roman (late. 
Though three ftrong courfers bent beneath the weight 
Of rings of gold, by many a Roman Knight, 
Erewhile, the badge of rank diftingui(h'd, worn. 
From their cold hands at Canns's flaughter torn ; 
Not his dread fword befpread the reeking plain 
With fuch wide ftreams of gore, arid hills of flain ; 
Nor thine, O Titus, fwept from Salem's land. 
Such floods of ghofts roUM down to death's dark ftrand f 
Though ages ere fhe fell, the Prophets old 
The dreadful fccne of Salem's fall foretold 
In wbrds that breathe wild horror : Nor the fhore. 
When carnage choak'd the ftrcam, fo fmoak'd ' with gore, 

'— — ^^0«iV«;i/i&^0r/, nnhin Marius* be purchafed with blood. Lfcadiisoa» tbcv 

fmnting Ugioji j ' When the foldiers of leplied, that we may have fiMiiethiogliqiiicK 

Marias complained of thirft, he pointed to though it be blood. The Romant fofdng 

a river near the camp of the Ambrones ; their way to the river, the channel 1wai^£Ik4 

There, fiiyt he, you may drink, but itmoft with the dead bodies^ the fhin* Vid.Phit* 


Digitized by 


jt$ ? ^ P I* ^ s I A :i>i .ftp* lift 

When Marius* faintiqgjl^gigni dr^ t}>p %)4» 
Yet warm and purplp^.wi,t;h A?!»J>r<>#>a#.*4op4.|. 
Not fuch the heaps as now the plains of Tarif ftrcw'd. 


While glory thus ^lops^'s nai^^f ^^^rn^^D 
To Lifboa's (horc^ the l^ppy Clpicf retijrn'dl,: . . , 
In glorious peace ar^ wed^-dofery^ci Wppfcr, ^ » . ! 
His courfe of famj?^ aa(^ hoaoored age to cloie/ * 
When now, O king, a Pamfer^ fate * icv^ftb^ 
A fate which ever cl^ii;i^S| the ;»roe(i4 tq*Pf, ::...- 
Difgraccd his honours -?-w-s^ On tbfl:Nymph'^ k)ro.]HM^. 
Relentlefs rage its, bitter^ft rancour (he4 : 
Yet fuch the zeal.lieF pfiqcely lover borei 
Her breathlefs corfe t^e <:rown of Lifbpa wore. ; 

'Twas thou, O Lpye^ whoj(c dreaded iha^t^ controwl. 


The hind's rude h^airt, and tear the hero's fouli. 
Thou ruthlcfs pow^r, with bloodibcd never clewed, 
'Twas thou thy k>vcly votary i^^Toyed\ 

unfortunate lady, Donna Int% di Caftro^ 
was the daughter of a CafilU^n gentleman, 
who had taken refuge in the court of Portu- 
gal. Her beauty and accompUflunen^ al- 
tra&ed the regard of Don Pe<m>, the king^s 
eldeft fon, a prince of a brave and noble diC- 
pofition. La Nedtfvslie^ Li CMe, and other 
hiftorians^ aiTert^ t^at (be was privately mar- 
ried to theprmce ere (he had any (hare in his 
bed. Nor was his conjugal fidelity lefs re* 
markable than the ardour of bis.paflion. 
Aftaid, however, of his fiither's refent- 
jOtfnt, the. ibvency of vdiofe temper be weft 
kicw, hia intereourfe with Donnd Inei 
piifiid at the court as an intrigue of gallan- 
try. Om the -accidlen of Don Ft/to thi 

Cruil ta thr throns of Caftjli^ many of the 
difgufted nobility were kindly ]:eceived by 
Don jP^4rP» 4ux>ugh the intereft of his be- 
loved Inez. The favour (hewn to thefe 
Caftili4ns>gayt great uneafiners to the ppK* 
ticlans. A thoufand evils were forefeen 
from, the. Fnnoe's atfa^kmep^ to hi^ Qf(- 
tilian miftrefs : even . the murder of his 
ckildr^.byhts decc^ailed fpoii«| ti^e ptif- 
cefs Conftantta^ was furinifed ; and the ene- 
mies of Donna Inez finding the king will- 
ing t^Jiflen^ omitted no opportunity. tO'in- 
creafo his refeutment agaiojl the un^tcir 
nate lady. The princ^ was about hi£ z^fji 
yev w^en hU amqiii: wit}i his l^l^ved too^ 


'Digitized by 


Book IIL the: L it S I 'A D. . Hf 

Thy thirft ftill bvmtn^ kft a dtepcr^»pi. 

In vain to thee .the uaxi of tekuiy 4dWf 

The breaft that feek thy^ureft fiafnes divine. 

With fpoutinf gofe tiltift bathe thy cfuel !hiine. 

Such thy dire triumphs 1-^ Thou, 6 I^^iriph, the while. 

Prophetic of the god's unpitying gUrile, 

In tender fcenes by loVe-fick fancy wrought. 

By fcsrf oft fhifted 4s by fancy brought. 

In fwcct Mondego's ever-Verdaht bowers, 

Languifh'd away the flow arid lonely houfs : ' 

While now, as tetrot waked diy boding fears. 

The confcious ftream rtceived thy pearly tears; 

And how, as hope revived the brighter flame. 

Each eccho figh'd thy prlhcefy lover's name. 

Nor lefs could abfence from thy prince remove 

The dear remembrance of his diftant love : 

Thy looks, thy fmiles, before him ever glow. 

And o*er his melting heart endearing flow : 

By night his flumbers bring thee to. his arms,. 

By day his thoughts ftill wander o'«r thy charms : 

By night, by day, each thought thy loves-^mploy. 

Each thought the memory or the hope of joy* 

Though faireft princely dames invek'd hia love. 

No princely dame his conilant faith could move t 

For thee alone his conftant paffion burn'd^ 

For thee the proffer'd royal maids, he fi^m'd; 


Digitized by 


128 THE L U. S I A D. BdokIIL 

Ah, hope of blifs too high -—the princely damis 

Refufed, dread rage thf father's breaft inflames; : 

He, with an old man's wintery eye, furveys 

The youth's fond love, and coldly with it weighs 

The peoples' murmurs of bis fon's delsiy ^ " 

To blefs the nation with his nuptial day. 

(Alas, the nuptial day was paft unknown. 

Which but when crown'd the prince could dare to own.) 

And with the Fair One's blood the vengeful fire 

Refolves to quench his Pedro's faithful fire. 

Oh, thou dread fword, oft ftain^d with heroes' gore. 

Thou awful terror of the prodrate Moor, 

What rage could aim thee at a female breaft, 

Unarm'd, by foftnefs and by love pofieft ! 

Dragg'd from her bower by murderous ruffian hands. 

Before the frowning king fair Inez ftands ; 

Her tears of artlefs innocence, her air 

So mild, fb lovely, and her face fo fair. 

Moved the ftern Monarch i when with eager zeal 

Her fierce Deftroyers urged the public weal j 

Dread rage again the Tyrant's foul poffeft. 

And his dark brow his cruel thoughts confeft : 

O'er her fair face a fudden palenefs fpread. 

Her throbbing heart with geneious anguifh bled, 

Anguifli to view her lover's hopdefs woes. 

And all the mother in her bofom rofe. 


Dfgitized by 


BdokHI. /T P E L U S 1 a I>r 

Her beauteous eyes in trembling tear-drops drown'd^ 
To heaven (he lifted^ but her hands, were * bound ; 
Then on her infants turn'd the piteous glance. 
The look of bleeding woe ; the babes advance. 
Smiling in innocence of infant age, 
Unawed, unconfcious of their grandfire's rage ; 
To whom, as burfting forrow gave .the jiow. 
The native Iwart-fprung eloquence of woe. 
The lovely captive thus : — O Monarch, hear. 
If e*er to thee the name of man was dear. 
If prowling tygers, or the wolf's wild brood, 
Infpired by nature with the luft of blood. 
Have yet been moved the weeping babe to fpare. 
Nor left, but tended with a nurfe's care. 
As Rome's great founders to the World were given ; 
Shalt thou, who wear'ft the facred ftamp of heaven. 
The human form divine, (halt thou deny 
That aid, that pity, which e'en beafts fupply ! 
Oh, that thy heart were, as thy looks declare. 
Of human mould, fuperfluous were my prayer < 
Thou cpuld'ft not then a helplefs damfcl flay^ 
Whofe fole offence in fond afFc(flton ^ lay. 


* jideeelitm ten Jens ardentia JumindfruJIrg'^ 
Lumina nam feneras arcehant nfincnla palmas. 

^ Whofe fole offence In fond ageQton lay--^ 
It ha* been obferved by (bme critics* that 
Milton on every occafion is fond of exprefT- 
ing his admiration of mniic» particularly of 
the fong of the Nightingale^ and the full 

woodland dioir. If in the fame manner 
we are to judge of the favourite tafto of Ho- 
mer, we ihall find it of a lefs delicate kind. 
He b continually defcribing the feail, the 
huge chine, the favoury viands on the glow- 
ing coals, and the foaming bowl. Thei 
ruling paffion of Camoena is alio, ftrongly 
marked in his writingK One x^a/ venture 
S CO. 

Digitized by 


130 r ri E L tJ S I A 'b. 

In faith to him who firft his love confeft^ 

Who firft to love allured her virgin breaft. 

In thefe my babes (halt thoU thine image fte> 

And ftill tremendous hurl thy rage on rtife ? 

Me, for their fakes, if yet thou wilt not fpare^ 

Oh, let thefe infants prove thy pious care f 

Yet Pity's lenient current ever flows 

From that brave brcaft where genuine valoijl- gloWs ^ 

That thou art brave, let vamiuifli'd Afric tell. 

Then let thy pity o'er mine anguifti fwell ^ 

bdoK III. 

10 affirm, that there is no poem of equal 
length which abounds with fo. many im- 
paffioned encomiums on the fair kx, and 
the power of their beauty » as the Lu^iad. 
The genius of Camoens feems never fo 
pleafed as when he is painting the variety^ 
of female charms ; he feels all tne magic of 
their allurements, and riots, in his deTcri|h 
cfons of the happinefs and miferies atten- 
dant on the pailion of loVe. As he Wrote 
from his feelings, thefe parts of his works 
have been particularly honoured with the 
attention of the world. Taflb and Spenfer 
have copied from his Ifland of 61if», and 
three tragedies have been formed from this 
Epifode of the unhappy Inez. One in Eng- 
hfh, named Elvira— The other two are by 
M. de la Motte, a Frenchman, lind Luis 
Vele% de Guevara^ a Spaniard. Hosi^ tJlefc 
different writers have handled the fame fub- 
jeft is not unworthy of thp. attention of the 
critic. The tragedy of M. de la Motte, 
from which Elvira is copied, is )xighly cha- 
ra£teriftic of the French drama. ' In the 
Lufiad the beautiful victim exprefles the 
ilrong emotions of genuine nature. She 
feels for what her lover will feel for her 3 
the mother rifes in her breaft, ihe implores 
pity for her children ; fhe feels the horrors 
of death, and woald be glad to wander an^ 
^xile with her babes, where her only folace 
would be the remembrance of Her faithful 
paffion. This however, it appears, would 
iK)t fuit the tafte of a Paris audience. On 

the French ftage the ftcm Roman heroes 
mull be to&^Paiu^Maitrts^ and.the ttn<^r 
Inez, a bluftering amazon. Lee's Alexan- 
der cannot talk in* higher rant* She hT)t 
only wifhes to die herfelf, but defires that 
her children and her huihand Don Pedro^ 
may alfo be put to death, 

\{h l^cB, feignciir, fuif«rv6U barbafWiUaiinjeir 
On vous amcnc encor dc nouVcUcs vi^amcs, 
Immolez ftn^ remords, et -pour nous punir micux, 
Ccs gages dim Hymen fi coupaMc i vos yienx, 
lis ignorcnt U Tang, dont Ic del Ics a fit naitce. 
Par larrrt dc Ictir mort feites fcw reconnaitrc, 
Conroinme2 votrc ouvrage, ct que icsmcmcs conps 
Rejoi^cht lc< cnfansj ct la fcinmc, ct Tcpoux. 

The Spaniard,.'hbweVer, has followe^ nature 
and Caaioepy, and in boint of poetical iif«^ 
rk his play is infinitely fuperlor to fliat of 
the Frenchman. Don P^dro talks in thp 
abfence of his ihiHrefs with the beautifii! 
fimplkity of an Arcadian lover,, and Inez 
implores the tyrant with the genuine ten- 
dcmefs of female affeaion and delicacy. 
The reader, who iyacquainted with the Spa- 
ni(h tongue, will thank me for the foUowmg^ 

Ims. A mis hijos me quitais h 

Rey Don Alonfo, lenor, 

Porque me quereis quitar 

La vida de tantas vezes ? 

Advcrtid,^ fenor mirad. 

Que el cora^on a peda908 

Dividido me arancais. 
Rej. Llevaldos, Alvar Gonjalez. 

Digitized by 


Ah, let my woes, wioonJfci^us pf a crimey . 

Procure mine exile to fom^ b^rbpf oiiis clixne : 

Give me to wander 4>'er the burjiing plains 

Of Lybia's defarts, or the wjild domains 

Of Scythia's fnow-clad rpck^ and frozen ihore ^ 

There let me, hopelefs of retyro^ depbrc. 

Where ghaftly horror fills the dreary vale. 

Where fhrieks and howlingsilie on every gale. 

The lions roaring, and ti^e iygers yell. 

There with mine infant race, configh'd to dwell. 

There let me try that piety to find. 

In vain by Me implored &om hwnan kind.: 

There in fome dreary cavern's rocky womb, 

Amid the horrors of fepulcbral gloom. 


Ims* Hijos inios, doivde Taiif 
Donde vab £n vueftra madre ? 
Falta ea los hombm i^iedad-l 
Adond« vais luzes mais ? 
Como» que afli me dexais 
£n d nmyor ddcon/uelo 
En manos At la craddad. 

Nino Alfon.^ Confaelate madre ^lia, 

Y a Dios te puedas quedar. 
Que vamos con nuelxro abuelo^ 

Y no querra hazernas.mal. 
Ims* Poffible es, imycy Rey mio. 

Padre, que snfi me cerreis 
La paerta para el perdon \ 



Aom, fenoi:* aom* 
Aora et ticmpo de iiianft;«r 
£1 mndko poder que tiene 
Vueftra real Mugdtad. 

CoQio« fenor? voto^vfi^ 

Y a Alvar Gon9alez» y a Coello 

InhaBiaaos me entte^au? 

Hijos, hijos de mi vida, 
Dexad me los abrafar ; 

. Alonfo, mividahijo, 
Dioais, a mores, tora^d, 
Tocnad a ver vueftra ma4«^ 

' 'Pedro mio, donde eftas 
Qae anfi te olvidas de mif 
PoffiUe es qoe en tanto md 
Me falta tu vifta, cipofo? 
Quien te podiera anfar 
Del pdigro en que ailigida 
Dona Ines tn eipofa e(a. 

-The dr^ma, fh)m whidi dicfc exCra^ are 
taken/ is entitled, Jteynnr defpues tie morir^ 
And as they are cited for the tendemcfrof 
the oriiginal expreffion, a tranfla^on of them 
is not attemptoi. 

S a 


Digitized by 


iSt THE L tr S I A D. 

For him tvhofc love T mourn, my love (half glow. 
The figh (hall /nurmur^ arid the tear fhall flow : 
All my fond wiih, and all my hope, to rear 
Thefe infant pledges of a love fo dear, ' 
Amidft my griefs a foothing, glad employ, 
Amidft my fears a vroful, hopelefs joy. 

Book IU^ 

In tears Ihe uttcr'd — as the frozen fnow 
Touched by the fpring's mild ray, begins to flow. 
So juft began to melt his ftubborn foul 
As mild-ray'd Pity o'er the Tyrant llole^; 
But deftiny forbade:' with eager zeal,- ' . 

Again pretended for the public weal, , 
Her fierce accufers urged her fp^edy doom i 
Again dark rage diifufed its horrid gloom 
O'er ftertt ' Alonzo's brow : fwift at the fignV 
Their fwords unfheathed around her brandifli'd fhine. 

* G^erjiern Jlonxt^i Irow — Ta give the 
chara&r of ; Alphonfo IV. will throw light 
on this inhuman, tranfadibn. He was an 
nndntiful Ton, an unnatural brother, and a 
cruel father ^ a great and fortunate warrior, 
diligent in the execution of the laws, and a 
Macbia*uilian politician . That good might 
be attained by villainous means, was his fa- 
vourite maxim. When the enemies of 
Inez had perfuaded him that her death was 
^eceflary to the welfare of the ftate, he took 
a journey to Coimtra, that he might fee the 
lady, when the prince his fon was abfent on 
a hunting party. Donna Inez with her 
duldren uirew herfelf at his feet^ The king 

was moved with the diftrefs of the beantifnl' 
fuppliant, when his three counfellors, ^Z- 
varo Gon/alix, Diego Lopez Pacbeco^ and 
Pedro Coello^ reproaching him for his difre* 
gard to the Aate, he relapfed into bis former 
refolution.. She was dragged from his pre- 
fence, and brutally muroered by the hands 
of his three counfellors, who immediately 
returned to the king with their daggers 
reeking with the innocent blood of the prin^ 
cefs his daughter-in-law. Alonzo, fays La 
Neupvitte^ avowed the horrid a^Siffination,. 
as if he had' done nothing for which he 
ought to be afham^d. 


Digitized by 


IBooKin. T H E L U S I A D. 133 

O foul difgrace^ of knighthood lafting ftain^ 
By men of arms an helplefs lady ilain ! 

Thus Pyrrhus, burning with unmanly ire, 
Fulfiird the mandate of his furious (ire ; 
Difdainful of the frantic matron's prayer^'' 
On fair Polyxena, her laft fond care. 
He ruih'd, his bfede yet warm with Priam's gore. 
And dafh'd the daughter on the facred floor; 
While mildly (he her raving mother eyed, 
Refign'd her bofom to the fword« and died. 
Thus Inez, while her eyes to heaven appeal, 
Refigns her bofom to the murdering fteel r 
That fnowy neck, whofe matchlefs form fuftain'd 
The lovclieft face where all the Graces reign'd, 
Whofe charms fo long the gallant Prince inflamed. 
That her pale corfe was Lifboa'^ queen proclaimed ; 
That fnowy neck was ilained with fpouting gpre„ 
Another fword her lovely bofom torcv 
The flowers that glifl:en'd with her tears bedew'd. 
Now flirunk and languifh'd with her blood imbrew'd. 
As when a rofe, crewhile of bloom fa gay> 
Thrown from the carelefs vii^in's breaft away^ 
Lies faded on the plain, the living red. 
The fnowy white, and all its fragrance fled ; 


Digitized by 


134 THE L U 8 I A D. Book Ilf. 

So from her cheeks the ro&s dy*d away. 

And pale in death the. beaoteous Inez lay : 

With dreadful fmiles, and crimfon'd with her blood. 

Round the wan vidim tfec Hern murderers flood. 

Unmindful of the fure, though future hour. 

Sacred to vengeance and her Lover's power. 

O Sun, couldft thou^ fo foul a crime behold. 
Nor veil thine head in darkncfs, as of old 
A fudden night unwonted horror call 
O'er that dire banquet, where the fire'5 repaft 
The fon's torn limbs iiipplicd !-^Yet you, ye vales ! 
Ye diftant forefts, and ye iloj^rery dales! 
When pale and finking to the dreadful fall. 
You heard her quivering lips on Pedro rail ; 
Your faithful echoes caught the parting found. 
And Pedro! Pedro! mournful, figh'd around. 
Nor lefs the wood-aymphs of Mondego's groves 
Bewaird the memory of her liapkis loves : 
Her griefs they wept, and to a plaintive rill 
Transformed their tcar«, which weeps and murmurs flill. 
To give immortal pity to her woe 
They taught the riv'kt throi^h her bowers to flow. 
And ftill through violet beds tjbe fountain pours 
Its ^ plaintive wailing, and :is named Afljtours. 

w ^Still the fountain pours its plaintive dego, there is a rivulet call^ the fountak of 
'«?iii%— At an old royal caftle near Mon- Amours. According to tradition, it was 

Digitized by 


BooKlIL T H E L U S I A D. 

Nor long her blood for vcngdadcc cry*d ill vain ; 

Her gallant Lord begins his awful reign. 

In vain her murderers for refuge fly, 

Spain s wildeft hills no place of reft fopply^ 

The injur'd Lover's and the Monarch's ire^ 

And ftern-brow'd juftice iti their doonx confpire : 

In hiffing flames they die, and yield their fouls in * fire. 



here that Don Pedro- refidedwkbliis bdiMiad 
Inez. The fidtion of Camoens» founded on 
the jpopular name of the rivulet, is in the. 
fpirtt of Homer* 

' — an J yield their fouls in fin* — ^When 
the Prince was informed of the death of his 
beloved Inez, he was tranfported into the 
niofl violent fury. He took arms againil hi» 
father. The country between the rivers Minb9 
and Doura was laid defolate : but by the 
interpoficionof theQueen and th£ Archbifhop 
of Braga the Prince was foftenedy and the 
further horrors of a civil war were prevented. 
Don Alonzo was not only racOnaled «o his 
fon, but laboured by every means to oblige 
lum, and to efface from hu memory the in- 
jury and infult he had received. The Prince^ 
however, dill continued to discover the 
ilrongefi marks of afiedion and grief. When 
he fucceeded to the crown, one of his firil 
adts was a treaty with the Kins of Caitile, 
whereby each Monarch engaged to give up 
{uch maleconteats, as (hould take refuge in 
each other's dominions. In confeouence o( 
this, Ptdra Coelh and Alnjan Gon/aUx, who^ 
on the death of Ahnxo^ had fied to Cafttle, 
were fent prifoners to Don Pedro. Diego 
PachecOf the third murdero-ymade his cfcapc 
The other two were pnt to death with the 
moft exqtdfhe tortures, and moft juftly me- 
liled, if exquliite torture is in an^ inftance 
to be allowed. After this the Kmg, Don 
Piedro, fhmmoned an affembly of the ftates- 
ait Cantanettes, Here, in the7>i<efenoe of the 
Pope's nuncio, he folemnly fwore on the 
holy Gofpels, that faavine obtained a dif-' 
j^fatioii from Re/me^ he had fecretly, at 
Bragixnzay efpoufed the Lady Ineit de Cttftn^ 
in.' die prefence of die Biftop of <7iv<ir^<7, ^ 

and of his mafter of die wardiDbei both of 
whom confirmed the truth of the oath. The 
Pope's BnU, cpntainioor die difpenfarionr 
was publilhcd ; the booy of Inez was lifted 
from the grave, placed on a manificciH 
throne, and with the proper Regana^ was 
crowned Queen of Portu|;aI. T& RobiliqjP 
(Sd homage to her Ikeleton, and kited the^ 
bones of her hand. The corps was tKe;iiF 
interred at the royal monaftery efJieo^afa, 
with a pomp before unknown in Portugal^ 
and wkn all die honouM due «• a Quoeit*. 
Her monument is dill extant, where her 
itatue it ikdorned with'the diadem, flpd dur 
royal robe. This, with the legidmation of 
her childrep, and the care he -took of all 
who had been in her fervice,. confoled him^ 
in fome degree, and rendered him moxecon<> 
verfable than he had hitherto been ^ but the* 
ck>ud which the death of Jixs In^ez broi^ht 
over the natural cheerfulnefs of his temper,, 
was never totally difperfcd.— A circum- 
ilaace ilrongly charaderiftic of the rage of 
his refentment mod not- be omitted: When 
the murderers were broi^hc bekfte ihim, chr 
was fo tranfported with indignadon, tkathc' 
ftrftck Pedro Cceilo feveral blows on ^hcface 
vvidi the ihafl of his Whip. Some graVe 
writers have branded this adtion as unworthy 
c^ the Magiftrate and the Hero; andthofe 
who ^11, may add, of the Philofopher toor 
Something greater however belongs to Don 
Pedro : A regard which we do not feel for 
any of the three, will, in^veiy bofom,- cap- 
able of genuifie love, inspire a tender fym^ 
pathy for the agonies or his heart, ^when 
the prefence of £e inhuman murderers pre- 
fented to his mind the horrid iceaetif the 
butchery of his beloved fpouie* 


Digitized by 


136 THE L U S I A D. Book III. 

Nor this alone his ftedfaft foul dilplay'd : 
Wide o'er the land he waved the awful blade 
Of rcd-arm'd Juftice. From the ihades of night 
He dragged the foul adulterer to light : 
The robber from his dark retreat was led. 
And he, who fpilt the blood of murder^ bled. 
Unmoved he heard the proudeft Noble plead ; 
Where Juftice aim'd her fword, with ftubborn fpeed 
Fell the dire ftroke. Nor cruelty infplred, 
Nobleft humanity his bofom fired* 
The Caitiff, ftarting at his thoughts, repreft 
The feeds of murder ipringing in his breaft. 
His outftretch'd arm the lurking thief withheld. 
For fixt as fate he knew his doom was feal'd. 
Safe in his Monarch's care the Ploughman reapt. 
And proud Oppreflion coward diftance kept. 
Pedro ^ the juft the peopled towns proclaim. 
And every field refounds her Monarch's name. 

The impreflton left <m the philofophical 
mind by theie hiftorical hiBts, will naanally 
fiiggeft feme reflexions on human nacare. 
£very man is proud of being thought ca- 
pable of love ; and none more fo than thofe 
who have the kaft title to the name ofXover ; 
thoie whom the French call Les b$wm€s dt 
Galantirief whofe only happinefs is in va* 
riety, and to whom the greateft beauty and 
mental accompliibments lofe eveiy charm 
after a few months enjoyment. Their fa^ 
tiety xkty fcniple not to confefs, but are not 
aware, that in doing fo» the^ alfo confefs, 
that the prindple which infpired their paf- 
iion was erofs, and feliifii. To conflitote a 
genmneLove, like that of Don Pedro, i^^ 

quires a noblenefs and ^;oodneis of heart, 
totally incompatible with an ungenerous 
mind. The youthfiil fever of the veins 
may, for a while, infpire an attachment to 
a particular obied ; but an aileron fo un« 
changeable and fincere as that of the Prince 
of Portugal, can only fpring from a bofpm 
poiTeffed of the iineft feelings and of every 

y PeJro tbijuft — Hiflory cannot afford 
an inftance of any Prince who has a more 
eminent claim to the title of juft than P^ro. 
His diligence to correft ^\^ abufe was in- 
defatigable, and when guilt was proved, 
hb juSice was inexorable. He was dread- 
ful to the evil, and beloved by the good ; 


Digitized by 



Of this brave Prince the foft degenerate fon, 
Fernando the remifs, afcends the throne. 
With arm unnerved the liftlefs foldier lay 
And own'd the influence of a ncrvelefs fway 2 
The ftern Caftilian drew the vengeful brand. 
And ftrode proud vi^r o'er the trembling land. 
How dread the hour, when injured heaven in rage. 
Thunders its vengeance on a guilty age ! 
Unmanly floth the King, the nation ftain'd ; 
And lewdnefs, fbfter'd by the Monarch,, reign'd : 
The Monarch own'd that firft of crimes unjuft. 
The wanton revels of adulterous luft : 
Such was his rage for beauteous • Lconore, 
Her from her hufband's widow'd arms he tore : 


for he reTpeded no ferfbns» and his inflex- 
ible feventy never digrefledfrom tlus line of 
fbn& joftice. An anecdote or two will throw 
feme light on his charafter. A Prieft haying 
killed a Mafon, the king diffembled hu 
knowledge of the crime, and left the iifae 
to the Ecdefiaftical Court, where the Prteft 
was poniihed by one year's fnfDenfion from 
faying mafs. Pedro upon this privately 
oraered the Mafon's fon to revenge the mar- 
dex of his fadier. The youngs man obeyed, 
was apprehended, and condemned to death. 
When his fentence was to be confirmed by 
the king, he enquired, what was the 
youne man's trade. He was anfwered, that 
hie foUowed his father's. Well then, faid the 
monarch, I (hall commnte his punifhment, 
apd iiuerdidl him from meddling with- 
ftene or mortar for a year. After |his he 
fully efbblifhed the authority of the king's 
courts over the Clergy, whom he puniihcd 
with death when their crimes were capital. 
W^n folicited to refer (he caufes of fuch 
criminals to a higher tribunal, by which 
tl^y ttuatly meant that of tbe,i*ope; he 

wonld anfwer very calmly. That it «wito / 
imtindt§ Jo : I *wiU/ind them to thi bigbift of 
all tribunals 9 to that oftbeir Maker andmnom 
Againfi Adulterers he was particularly fe- 
vere, often declaring it his opinion, that 
conjugal infidelitv was the fource of the 
greatefE evils, and that therefore to reftraia 
ft was the interefl and dutv of the Sovereini. 
Though the fate of his beloved Inez cha* 
fiTined and foured his temper, he was fo far 
tfiom beinenatuFallyfuHen or paffionate, that 
he was ramer of a gay and fprightly difpo- 
fition, afiable and eafy of accefs ; delighted 
in mufic and dancing ; a lover of learning, 
was himielf a man of letters, and an elegant 
Poet. Vide ItClede^ Mariana^ Faria. 

* ■ boauteoM Ltonore — This lady, 
named Uonora de TelUv^ was the wife of^ 
Don Juan Lonuzo d^Acugna^ a nobleman 
of one of the moil diiBi^guiihed &milie$. in 
Portugal. After a iham procefs tbi$ mar- 
rijsge was diiTolved, and the king privately 
efpoufed her, though at that time he was 
publickly married by prozy to Donna Leo- 
nora of Arragon. A dangerous inliirreAion, 
T hcade4 

Digitized by 


r3» THE LUSIAD. Book m. 

Then with unbleft^ unhallowed nuptials ftained 
The facred altar^ and its rites profaned*. 
Alas ! the fplendor of a crown how vain. 
From heaven's dread eye to veil the dimmeft ftain t 
To conquering Greece^ to ruin'd Troy, what woes^ 
What ills on ills, from Helen's rape arofe ! 
Let Appius owji,, kt baniih'd Tarquin tell 
Oti their hot rage what l^vy vengeance fell^ 
One female ravifh'd Gibeah's ftreets * beheld,. 
O'er Gibeah's ftreets the blood of thouiands fwellU 
In vengeance of the crimen and ftreams of blood 
The guilt of Zion's iacred bard * purfued. 

Yet Lovi^ full G(i with wild delirium blinds,. 
And fans his bafeft fires in nobleft minds :. . 
The female garb the great Alcides worc> 
' And for his Omphale the diftafF * bore. 
For Cleopatra's frown the world was. loft. 
The Roman terror^, and the Punic boaft,. 

beaded b^r one Velafyuez^ a taylor, drove HBUf^omj had frvereF^ fliftred,. die two 

the kbg and his* aaulterous bride from longs ended the war, much to their mntual 

Lilbon. Soon after he caofed his marriage iatisfaAion, by an- intermamage of their 

to be puUickly celebrated in the province ' baflard children. 

between the Douto and Minho. Henry IdihP * — Gihtah*s firmt — — See Judges^ 

of Caftile, informed of thr general di^- chap, xix and xx. 

content that reigned in Portogal, marched ^ Tbt guilt of Zien*s /acred bar J 

a formidable army into that kingdom* to David.-— See 2 Samuel, chap. iii. xo. *'The. 

revenge the injosy ofSerrd to fome o£ his fword ihall never depart from thine hoafe.*'^ 

fubjeds, whofe fhips had been nnjoflly feised- * Tbi grtta Alddis^^Akiiin lauat ntn 

at Lifbon. The defblation hmted at bv mgit am$r.- Ovjd«- 
Camoens enfoed. After the fubjefis of bota 


Digitized by 


Book IIL THE L U S I A I>. 

Cannse's great vidor^ for a harlot's fmilct 
Reiign'd the harreft of his glorious toiL 
And who caa boaft he nerer felt the fires> 
The trembling throbbings of the young deiire^ 
When he beheld die breathing rofes glowt 
And the foft htavings of the Ihring fnow^ 
The waving ringlets of the auburn hairY 
And all the rapturous graces of the Fair! 
Oh J whatdefencej iffixtonhim> he fpy 
The languid fweetnefs of the ftcdfaft eye ! 
Ye who have felt the dear luxurious fmart^ 
When angel charms opprefs the powerkfs hearty 
In pity here relent the brow fever e. 
And o^er Fernand6*s weaknefs drop the tear. 


To ooftdide the notes on Ala book, it 
flitjr not bennaoodlaiy to dl>ferve, that C»- 
snoeii^ ia diis Ej^Me, has haxipily ad- 
hered to a priacipal role of the Epopoeia. 
To pttnt the manners and chariEbrs Of the 
age in which the aAion is j^aced, is as le- 
qaifite m the Epic Poen, as it is to jmferf« 
Uie onitv of the charaaer of an Inmvidiial. 
That gallantry of bravery, and romantic caft 
of the military adventortt, which charac- 
teriied the Spaniards and Portogacfe dorbg 
the Mboriih wars» is happily (opported by 
Camoens in its moft juft and nrildng co« 
loan* In hiftory we find furprifing vic- 

tories obtuned over die Infidels: In dm 
Lofiad we find the heroes breathing that en^ 
thnfiafm wbkk led them to cononeJI, that 
enthnfiafm of military honours fo ftrondijr 
acpreffed by Ahmao V. of Portopd, at die 
fiege of Jrxila. In ftorming die dtade^ 
Ae Connt de Marialva* a brave old ofioeiw 
loft his life. The King leading his only 
fen, the Prince Don Joan, to 4|ie body of 
die Count, while the blood yet fbeamed 
fiom Jiis wonnds, <' Behold, he cried, 
that great man! Majr.God grant you, my 
fon, to imitate his yirtacs. May your h^ 
noor, like his, be oompleteP 


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L U SI A D. 


A S the toft vefTel on the ocean rowls, 
'^ ^ When dark the night, and loud the tempeft howls> 
When the lorn mariner in every wave 
That breaks and gleams> forbodes his watery grave; 
But wli^n the dawn, all filent and ferene> 
With foft-paced ray difpels Ae fhades obfcene^ 
With grateful transport fparkling in each eye. 
The joyful crew the port of fafety fpy* 
Such darkling tempefts and portended fate. 
While weak Fernando lived, appall'd the ftate ; 
Such when he dy'd» the peaceful morning rofe. 
The dawn of joy, and footh'd the public woes« 


Digitized by 


BpoKiy. -THE L U S I A D.. 

As blazihg glorious ^o'er the fhades of night. 

Bright in his eaft breaks forth the Lord of lights 

So valiant John with dazzling blaze appears. 

And from the duft his dropping nation re,^s. 

_ » 

Though fprung from* youthful Paflion's wanton loves,. 

Great Pedro's fon in noble foul he proves > 

And heaven announced him king by right divine,* 

A cradled infant gave the wondrous * fign i 

Her tongue had never lifp'd the mother's; name,. 

No word, no mimic found her lips could frame,. 

When heaven the miracle of fpeech infpired ; 

She raifed her little hands, with raptune fired„ 

Let Portugal, fhe cried, with joy proplaim 

The brave Don John, and own her monarch's name* 


The burning fever of dpmeftic rage ' 
Now wildly raved, and mark'd the barbarous age j 

* Ji cradUd infant ga*ve t£t wondrous 
^«— No circamfiaBce has ever been more 
jfidiculed by the ancient and modem pe- 
dants than Alexander's pretcnfions to di« 
vinity. Some of his courtiers expoflalating 
with him one day on the abfurdity of fnch 
claim, he replied, << I know the tmth of 
*< what yon fay, bnt thefe," (pointing to a 
croud of Periians) *^ thefe know no better." 
The report that the Grecian army was com- 
manded by a fon of Jupiter ipread terror 
through the Eaft, and greatly facilitated the 
^ operations of die Conqueror. The miracv- 
biis fpeech of the infant, attefted \yj a few 
monks,, was adapted to the foperfijtion of 

the age of John I. and as he was a bafird, 
was of infinite fervice to his caufe. The 
pretended fad, however, is differently rc- 
kted. By fome, thus : When Don John, 
tKen regent of Portugal, was going to 
Coimbra, to afiift at an aiTembly of the 
dates, at a little diitancc from the dty he 
was met by a great number of children 
riding upon (ticks, who no fboner faw him 
tiian they cried out, ** Ble^ed be Don John 
^^ king of Portugal ; the king is comihe, 
" . Don John ftallbe king." Whether thb 
wa9 owing to' aft or accident, it had a 
great eflFeft. At die affemWy the regent 
was eMted kmg*- ^ « 



Digitized by 


1.4* THE L U SM^D. BoottHr. 

Through every rank die faeadkmg fbry tia^ 

And firft red flaogbter in the court began. 

Of fpoufal yows, and widowed t>ed defiled^ 

Loud fame the beauteous Leanore reviled. 

The adulterous noble in her prefence Wed, 

And torn with wounds his numerous friends lajr dead. 

No more thoie ghaftly deathful nights amaze. 

When B^me wept ttirs. of bldod in Scylla's days ; 

More horrid deeds * Ulyflcs* towers beheld : 

Each cruel breaft where rankling envy fweird^ 

Accufed his foe as minion of the queen ; 

Accufed, and murder dofed the dreary fcene. 

All holy ties the frantic tranfport braved. 

Nor facred priefthood nor the altar faved« 

Thrown from a tower, like He&or's fon of yore. 

The mitred "" head was dalhed with brains and gore. 

Ghaftly with fcenes of death, and mangled limbs. 

And black with clotted blood each pavement fwims. 

With dl the fieiceneis of the female ire. 
When rage and grief to tear the breaft conipire^ 

^mmm^ V^jfifipiMrt^ ■ S s c tbc flotc % WAS eSeemad a ruffident reafisa to murder 

fig. 104. Umt u of the queen's f^- He was 

. c Th9 mitfid A^a/.— — Don MMTiiMf Up tlirown ftom die tower of his own cathe- « 

Aqp of Liibattt a man of aa esemplarv dra]» whithar he had fled to avoid the po^ 

Jib. He was by htrtK a CaiKliaii» whidL polar fiay. 


Digitized by 



T If E L U $ I A D. 


The queen beheld her powpr, her honours Mofl:^ 
And ever when (he flept th' adulterer's ghoft^ 
All pale^ and pointing at his bloody (hroud,^ 
Seem'd ever for revenge to &ream aloud« 

CafteeKs proud monarcl]^ ta die- nuptial^ bed 
^ happier days her royal daughter led : 
To him the furious queen for vengeance criesr 
implores to vindicate his lawful prize^ 

' The fueetr SehtU her fmuify her htwmrt 
Jbf — PoiTefled of great bet«^ and great 
dmiiticsy this bad -woman wasadifgrace, to 
ker fex; and a cnrfe to the age and coimtiy 
vhidi gave her birtfa. Her fifler» Donna 
Maria, a lad^ of onhlemiihed Tirtne, had 
Been fecretht married- to the infant Don 
Joan, the kmg^s brodier, who was pdfion- 
atcjy attached to her. Donna Maria had- 
fermedv endeavoored to difloade her fitter 
from me adalteroos marriage with ^ 
king. In revenge of dus, the queen Leo> 
noraperfiiaded Don Joan that her fifter was 
nnfaithftd to hi) bed. The enraged hnf- 
band hafted to hb wHe, and mmont en« 
qoiiT or expofiidation,. fapilf^r/ajya, dif* 
patdied her with two ftrokes of his dag|^. 
He was afterwards convinced of her in-^ 
Bocente, and was comnlcaUy wretched. 
Having facrificed her honour and her 
ttA hufband to a kingv fays Taria^ Le- 
onora foon (ktificed that king to a 
wicked galfamty a CaiHUan nobleman^ 
named. Don Juan Feinandex 4e And^re, 
Ah nnjnil war with Caftik^ wherein the 
Portagaefe were defeated, by fea and land, 
wiu the firft fruits of the policy of the new 
fiivourite. Andeyro one day having heated 
himfelf by fome militarv exercife, the queen 
tore her veil» and publicly gave it him to 
wipe his face. The grand mafter of A'uis^ 
Ae idn^s bafbrd brother, afterwards John 
I. and Tome others, expoftulated with her 
Oft the indecency of this behaviour. She 
dUbnbled her refentment^ but foon after 

they were mited and comndtttd lo^thfefctttt 
of Enmm^ where « forged otder for tfattr 
execution wis fent$ bat the gowemer fnf^ 
peainiffonefiaod, fhewed ittotteknift 
and their Eves wetefavwl. YetiKhwasMr 
sribendencv orer tlie weak Fernando^ ikai^ 
ttxf convinced of her gnalt, he ordered hta 
brodwr to kifs the quiBen'ii hand, and thiifc 
her for his life. Soon after Fernando diedr 
but not tiQ he was fhlly oonvinctd of tho 
queen's conjugal inidelity, and had given 
an order for the afiaffination of die gaUanr.^ 
Not long after Ae dtttdi of die king, th« 
f&vourite Andrfre was fbbbed in the pahKtf 
by the grand mafter of Aws^ and Don J^af 
de Ptreyra. The qneen expreOed aU the 
tnmfport of grief and rage, and dedared 
ihe would un£rgo die trial ordeal in viadi-^ 
cation of his and ker innocence. But this 
file never perfbrmed : in her vows of "m^- 
venge, however, fhe was more panAoal^ 
Don Juan, kinr of Caftile^. who Jum) nnnw- 
ried her only danghter and heirefs, at her 
eameft entreaties invaded Portugal, and wsa 
proclaimed king. Don John, grand mafter 
of JnfiSf was proclaimed by the people 
Protestor and Regent. A«defperate waren- 
fued. Queen L^ora, treated with indtf* 
ference by her daughter and fon-in-kw^ 
refolved on the murder of the latter $ boa 
the plot was difcovered, and fhe was font 
pnfoner to Caftile. The Regent was be- 
fieged in Lifbon^ and die dty minced to the^ 
atmoft'extremities> when an epidemical di£-- 
temper broke out in the Caftiiian army» and 


Digitized by 


1^44 T m E ;: L U S II A! DC Bettic IV.: 

The Lufian fceptrc; hiaby J^ouftl^right': i ' ^ : ' t :. 

The proud Caftilian arms and jJares the Jfight. ...;., 

To join his ftandard^s it jvayc« iaioftg,: 

The warlike troops frora^ various, regjonS' throng: ; 

Thofe who poffefs the lands by. Rodrick • given. 

What time the MQer.'ftoini T:urift:*s banks was driven i . 

That race who joyful fnjile at war's alarms, / ■ 

And fcorn each danger that attends on arms^ •]'..; 

made fach devaftadon, thtft the Icing fuel- 
denly raifed the fiege, and abandoned his 
views in Porti^. Thb hzppy inha]biunts 
afcribed their deliveranoe to the valour and 
vigilance of the ' Rqgent. The ^^gent re- 
protdd their ardour* exhorted them to re- 
pair to their churches* and. to retim thanks 
to God, to whofe interpofitiop he foleiy 
afcribed their fafety. This behaviour ia*- 
creaied the admiratioifr of the people; the 
nobility of the firft tank joined the Regent's 
party } iud many eiarifons in the jntereft of 
ahe king of CaArie opened their ^tes to 
JUBU An ^ileqibly of the ilates met at 
Ctninbra» where it was propofed to inveft 
the ' Regent wkh the regal dignity. This 
be pretended to decline. Don John, fon of 
Pedro the Jaft, aqd the beautiful Inez de 
CaftrOy was. by the people efleemed their 
lawful ibvefeign, bat wa^, and had been 
long detained, a prifop^r by the king of 
CflJKIe. If the ftates would declare the 
lAfant Don John their king, the Regent 
pfofeffiMi his willingnefs to fwear allegiance 
10 him ; that he would continue to expoiie 
Umfelf to every danger, and adi as Regent, 
till providence reftored to Portugal her law- 
M. fovereign. The ftates however faw^ the 
neoeffity t£at the nation fhould have an 
head. The Regent was unanimoufly elected 
king* and fome articles in favour of liberty 
wete-added to thofe agreed upon at the 
coronation of Don Alomt^ Enri^utz^ the 
fisA king of Portugal . 
■Don John I. pne of the greatefl of the 

Portoguefe monarchs, was the natural fon 
of Pedro the Tufl, bv Donna Ten/a Lorntza^ 
aGalidan lady, ana bom fome years after the 
death of Inez. At feven, yeartf of age he 
was made grand matter ot^Ms, and by his 
£ither's, particular care he received ab excel* 
knt education ; which* jpined to hi^ |;reat 
parts, produced him early on the pohtica! 
theatre. He was a brave commander, and 
a deep. politician, yet never forfeited the 
charader of candour and honour. To be 
humble to his friends, and haughty > to hia. 
enemies, was his leading maxim. His pru- 
dence gained him the confidence of the wife, 
his fteMinefs and ratitude the friendiKip of 
the brave; his liberality the bulk of the 
people. He was in the twenty-feventh year 
of his age ^hen declared protestor, and in 
the twenty»«ghth when proclaimed king. 

The- following anecdote is much to the 
honour of this prince when Regent. A Caf- 
tilian oiHcer having fix Portuguefe'gentle* 
men his prifoners, cut off their noles and 
hands, and km them to Don John. Highly 
incenfed, he conuxianded fix Caftilian 
gentlemen to be treated in the ^ame 
manner. But before the officer, to.whom 
Ke gave the orders, had quitted tb6 room, 
he. relented. " I have given enough to 
«' refentment, faid he, m giving luch a 
<< command. It were infamous ;o put it 
«' in execution. See that the Caililian 
" prifoncrs receive no harm." 

* — 4)' Rodrick given -^ The celebrated 
hero of Comeille'^ tragedy of the Cid, 


Digitized by 


Bk>0K IV. T H ^ L U S I A D. J45 

Whofe crooked ploughfliares Leon'8 uplands, tear. 
Now cafed in fteel in glittering arms appear, 
Thofe arms erewhUe fo. ^rfiadfal to the Moor : 
The Vandals glorying in |h$ir migkt qf ypre 
March on ; their (lelois ^nd moving knce$ gl.eam 
Along the flowery vales, pf Betis* ftreatn ; 
Nor ftaid the Tyrian f iiUnders behind. 
On whofe proud enfigns Apating on the wind 
Alcides* pillars tower'd ; Nor wonted fear 
Withheld the bafe Galician^s fordid fpear ; 
Though ftill his crimibn ^amy fears reveal 
The fure-aim'd vengeance of the Lufian fteeL 
Where tumbling down Cuenca's mountain fide 
The murmuring Tagus rolls his foamy tide. 
Along Toledo's lawns, thie pride of Spain, 
Toledo's warriors join the martial train : 
Nor lefs the furious luft of war iofpires 
The Bifcayneer, and wakes his barbarous fires. 
Which ever burn for vengeance, if the tongue 
Of haplefs fi:ranger give the fiincy'd wrong. 
Nor bold Afturia, nor Guifpufcoa's ihore. 
Famed for ftedy wealth* an4 iron ore, 
Delay'd their vaunting fqiiadrons j o'er th^ dales 
Cafed in their native fijeel, and belted mails, 

' U- ' BItid 

Digitized by 


146 THE L U S I A D. Book IV^ 

Blue gleaming from afar tliey march along. 
And join with many a fpear the warlike throng. 
As thus, wide fweeping o'er the trembling coaft. 
The proud Caftilian leads his numerous' boft^ 
The valiant John for brave defence prepares^ 
And in himfelf collected greatly dares : 
For fuch high valour in his bofbm glow'di 
As Samfon's locks by miracle beftow'd: 
Safe in himfelf refolved the hero ftands,. 
Yet calls the leaders of his. anxious bands: . . ! 
The council fummon'd, fomc with prudent miehv 
And words of grave advice their terrors fcreen j ' 
By iloth debafed, no more the ancient fire 
Of patriot loyalty can now infpire s 
And each pale lip feem'd opening to declare 
For tame fubmiflion, andtofhun the war; 
When glorious Nunio, ftarting* from his feat, 
Claim'd every eye, and clofed the cold debate ; 
Singling his brothers from the, da^rd train,. 
His rowling looks, that flafh'd with ftcrn difdain^ 
On them he fixt, then fhatclv'd liis hilt in ire. 
While his bold fpe^ch bewray'd th,e foldier's fire,. 
Bold and ' unpoliih*d; while his biirnipg eyes 
Seem'd as he dared the ocean, earth, and ikies : 

' BoU and unpolijb^d Tlus fpeech in qnence^ The critic* it is hoped, wiU per« 

the original has been much admired by the ceive that the Tranilator has endeaYOWtdt^ 
foit^ critics, as a model of inilitary elo- fnpportthecharaAcrof the Speaker. 

Heavens I 

Digitized by 


IJookIV, T H E L U S I a D. i^ 

Heavens! fhall the Luiian nobles tamely yield ! 
Oh fhame 1 and yield untry'd the martial field ! 
That land whofe genius, as the God of war. 
Was own*d, where'er approached her thundering carj 
Shall now her fons their faidi, their love deny. 
And, while their country finks, ignobly fly ! 
Ye timorous herd, are ye the genuine line 
Of thofe illuflrious fhades, whole rage divine 
Beneath great Henry's ftandards awed the foe, . !. . . 

For whom ye tremble, and would ftoop fo low ! 
That foe, who, boaflful now, then bafely fled. 
When your undaunted fires the Hero led. 
When feven bold Earls in chains the fpoil adorn'd, . 
And proud Cafleel through all her kindreds mourn'd, 
Cafleel, your awful dread — ^yet, confcious, fay. 
When Dinez reign'd, when his bold foa bore fway. 
By whom were trodden down the bravefl bands 
That ever march'd from proud Caflilia's lands ? 
*Twas your brave fires— and has one languid reign 
Fix'd in your tainted fouls fo deep a flain. 
That now degenerate from your noble fires. 
The lafl dim fpark of Lufian flame expires ? 
Though weak Fernando reign'd in war unfkilVd, 
A godlike king now calls you to the field— 
Oh ! could like his your mounting valour glow. 
Vain were the threatenipgs of the vaunting foe. 

: U a NdSt 

Digitized by 


hB t rit fe L U S ! a T>. Bookiy. 

Not proud Caflcel, oft by your firfes overthrown. 
But every land your daiintlefs rage (hould own. 
Still if your hands beriumb'd by fertialfc fear. 
Shun the bold war, hark I on lAy IWond I fwear, 
Myfelf alone the dreadful Wir ihall w^gc-*-* 
Mine be the fight-^and tr6mHittg wiffi the i^age 
Of valorous fire, his hand half-^rawh diiplay'd 
The awful terror cif his fining hlade-^ 
I and my vaflals dare the dreadful ihbck ; . 
My ihoulders ntvtr ^6 ^ foreign yck6 
Shall bend ; and by my Sbvcreign's wrath t vow. 
And by that loyal faith ffchbunecd by y^tf. 
My native laiicl'uhcckitluer'td iball rehftin. 
And all my M(>nareh*8 f6es ih<all hta^ the plain. 

The hero paufed— -Twas thus the youth of Rome, 
The trembling few who 'fcaped the bloody doom. 
That dy'd with flaughter Canna's purple field, 
Affemblcd ftood, and bow'd their necks to yield ; 
When nobly rifing with a like difdain 
The young ^ Cornelius raged, nor raged in vain : 

* The young Corntlius^^n WHS die ft- iWorrd, fald, I fiuiat that I will n»t iifert 

motts P. Cora. Scipio Africanos. The fad, thi Comm$tt<wiabh of Rome^ nor fuffer any 

fomewhat different^ related by l^try, is othor dtitenn do it. Th$ fym omtb In* 

this. After the defeat at Canns, a con- fuin of you, Cadlius, mud of Mfrefinti 

fiderablebody of Romans fled to Cimafiuin, whotwr rtfyfof, kt him know that tffif 

and appointed Scipio and Ap. Claudins th^r fwori is drawn againjt him. The HificTrian 

commanders. While they icmained there^ adds, tha^ they wetfc af terrified b^ this, 'U 

it was told Scipio, that fome of his chief if they had Miel^ the face of their cdndue- 

oiEcers, at thelkead of whom was Cascilias ror Hannibal. They all fwore^ andiiib* 

Metellos, were taking tteafares to tranfport liattM Aetxlftlves to Sdpio. Vid. Lif • 

themfelves out of Italv. He went inune- B« iz% C. 53* 
ttately to their aflemUy, and drawing ha 


Digitized by 


Book IV, f tt E L U S I A D. 

On his dread fword his daunted peers he fwore, 

(The recking blade yet black with Punic gore) 

While life remained their arms for Rome to wield. 

And but with life their conquered arms to yield* 

Such martial rage brave Nunio's mien infpired; 

Fear was no more : with rapturous ardour fired. 

To horfe, to horfe, the gallant Lufiaos cry'd ; 

Rattled the belted mails on every fide, 

Tlie fpcar-ftaflFs trembled 5 round their heads idbcy waved 

Their fhining faulchion*, and in tranfport raved. 

The King our guardian — loud their (hortt^ rebound. 

And the fierce Commons ecchoe back the ibund. 

The mails that long in rufting peace had hung. 

Now on the hammer'd anvils hoarfely rung : 

Some foft with wool the plumy helmets line. 

And fome the breaft-plate's fcaly belts entwine : 

The gaudy mantles fome, and fcarfs prepare. 

Where various lightfome colours gaSy flare ^ 

And golden tiffue, with the warp enw<Jve, 

Difplays the emblems of th<;ir youthful love. 

The valiant John, begirt with warlike ftate. 
Now leads his bands from fair Abrairtes' gate > 
Whofe lawns of green the iaifent Tagus laves. 
As from his fpring he rolls his cooly 'wwes. 



Digitized by 


ISO THE L U S I A D. Book IV. 

The daring van in Nunio*s care could boaft 
A General worthy of the unnumber'd hoft, 
Whofe gaudy banners trembling Greece defy'd. 
When boaftful Xerxes lafh'd the Seftian tide : 
Nunio, to proud Caftee! as dread a jiame. 
As erft to Gaul and Italy the fame 
Of Atilla's impending rage.- The right 
Brave Roderic led, a Chieftain train'd in fight : 
Before the left the bold Almada rode, 
And proudly waving o'er the centre nod 
The royal enfigns, glittering from afar. 
Where godlike John infpires and leads the war« 

. •Twas now the time, when from the ftubbly plain 

The labouring hinds had borne the yellow grain ; 

The purple vintage heapt the foamy tun. 

And fierce and red the fun of Aiiguft fhonei 

When £rom the gate the fquadrons march along: 

Crowds preft on crowds, the walls and ramparts throng ; 

Here the fad mother rends her hoary hair, 

While hope*s fond whifpers ftruggle with defpair: 

The weeping fpoufe t& heaven extends her hands : 

And cold with dread the modeft virgin ftands ; 

Her earneft eyes, fufFufed with trembling dew. 

Far o'er the plain the plighted youth purfue : 


Digitized by 


BaoK IV. THE L U S I A D. 1:51 

And prayers and tears and all the female waiU 
And holy vows the throne of heaven aflail^ 

Now each ftern hoft full front to front appears^ 
And one joint fhout heaven's airy concave tears : 
A dreadful paufe enfues, while confcious pride 
Strives on each face the heart-felt doubt to hide : 
Now wild and pale the boldeft face is feen ; 
With mouth half open and diibrdered miea * 
Each warrior feels his creeping blood to fr^eze^ 
And languid weaknefs trembles in the knees. 
And now the clangor of the trumpet founds. 
And the rough rattling of the drum rebounds : 
The fife fhrill whirling cuts the gale ; on high 
The flourifh'd enfigns fhine with many a dye 
Of blazing fplendor : tfer the ground they wheel 
And chufe their footing, when the proud Cafteel 
Bids found the horrid charge ; loud burfts the found. 
And loud Artabro's rocky cliffs rebound:. 
The thundering roar rolls rouiid on every fide^ 
And trembling finks* Guidana's rapid tide : 
The flow paced Durius rufhes o'er the plains. 
And fearful Tagus hailens to the main* 
Such was the tempeft of the dread alarms. 
The babes that prattled in their nurfes' arms 


Digitized by 


424 T H E L U S I A D. PookIV. 

Shriek'd at the found : with fuddeh cold impreft. 
The mothers ftrain'd their iafant* to the breaft. 
And fhook with horror — now, far round, begin 
The bow firings whizzing, and the brazen ^ din 
Of arms on armour rattling ; either van 
Are mingled now, and man oppofed to rajin : 
To guard his native fields the one infpires. 
And one the raging lufl of conquefl fires : 
Now with fixt teeth, their writhing lips of blue. 
Their eye-balls glaring of the purple hue. 
Each arm flrains fwiftifl to impell the blow i 
Nor wounds they value now, nor fear they know. 
Their only paflion to offend the foe. 
In might and fury, like the warrior God, 
Before his troops the glorious Nunlo rode : 
That land, the proud invaders claim'd, he fows 
With their fpilt blood, and with their corfes flrews. 
Their forceful volleys now the crofs-bows pour. 
The clouds are darkened with the arrowy fhower j 
The white foam reeking o'er their wavy mane. 
The fnorting courfers rage and paw the plain j 

^ •— — thi brazen ^//w— Homer txd VkfH ' iu» prittdpal battle. The cufnmfcnrei put- 

havCf with great art, graduallv ketelitenc4 - paratory p the eneigement ^re happily ima- 

the fury of every battle, till tn^ laf efetts g»ed* and folommy coadq£bBd, and the fiiry 

€f their genius were laviflied in defaibing of the conbat isTupjported with a poetical 

ihe fnpenor proweft of the Hera in' A^ d> Mtj md p ym^'f ofip^iy, whifh^ •mp 

dfive engageinent. Camoens, in like man- need not heiitate to affirm* would have done 

ner, has beOowed his utmoft attention on thit honour to an ancient claffic. 



Digitized by 


Bock IV^ ^T H E L U S T A D/ 153 

Beat by their iron hoofs, the plain rebounds. 

As diftant thunder through the mountains founds : 

The ponderous fpears cra(h, fplintcring far around 1 

The horfe and horfemen flounder on the ground ; 

The ground groans with the fuddcn weight oppreft. 

And many a buckler rings on many a creft. 

Where wide around the raging Nunio's fword 

With furious fway the braveft fquadrons gored. 

The raging foes in clofer ranks advance; 

And his own brothers (hake the hoftile * lance. 

Oh i horrid fight ! yet not the ties of blood* 

Nor yearning memory his rage withftood; . i . 

' And his own hrotbers fiiah the heftiU that only their children (hould facceed t* 

hnc$ — The jufliindiniation with which C»- the Portogoefe crown;- and that».in caft 

snoens treats the kincuvd of the brave Nunio the throne became vacant ere fuch children 

Alyaro it Pereyra^ is condemned by the were bom» the queen-dowager Ltmor^ 

French Tranflaton *\ Dams U find^ fays ihonld govern with the title of Regent. 

" he» Us Perejras ^ sm-ffpip/a aucumjltf. : Tba»» ndther by the adginsd/conftitotion^ 

" triffkn^ &c. — ^The Pcreyras deferve no nor by the treaty of marriage, could the king 

*< ftain on their memory for joining Oe of Caftile fuccm fi» the i^ir^,'of3'<3r4)pn 

** king of Caftile, whofe title to the crown And any pretence he mieht found on the 

** of Portugal was infinitely moi« Ju^ and narriagei^contraft was ,4ready JkxSAp^% 

" folid than that of Don John.^' Caftcra, for he^ufcd'hlmrclf and his queen to be 

however, is groflv mifiaken. Pon 4lonK9. proclaimed^ added Portugal to his ii^ 

Enriqusx^ the firft king of f Ortugal,- was coined PortiSgucfe ftiOhcy with his biut/ 

elefted by the people, who had recovered depoftd the queen Bkgeut, and afterwards^ 

their liberties at the glorious baAle df Ou-' fent. her prHoncr ^o^Gaftile. Tht/ lawftl* 

rique. At the eIe£Uon the conltitution of. heir, Don Juan, the fou of Inez de Caftro#. 

the kingdom was fettled in eighteen ihort. . -ms kept In ^ifon by his )e}M tfife Mhf 

fiatutes, wherein it is exprefsly provided. ' of Caftile; and^ as before .obfervcd,,.i| 
that none but a PortttgiicM.caQ te:kfalg cf : ' neweledioniwas, by tke.oiagii|ali^tatesi. 

Portugal I that if an In%nta nuurry a foreign declared legal in cafes ot emergeticy. 

Prince, he (hall ootj inherdght, lleqctoB.; : Tjiefe fails* jdiM 4Pifie.xk»adehwd«^ 

king of Portugal : and a new eledtfen of a the tyranny of the king of Caftile, and the 

king, in cafe of the future, ofjlhe fff^e .; ;gfe}it^%vke?whtdiDop Jol^l\9d^ 

line, is by thefe ftatutes declared to be fegaL his country, upon whom its exift^ce as a 

By the treaty of marriagc'bctwqcn.tbe ky^ -. J^infldom dopendet^-ftHyfindicfte the- v(h\ 

of Caftile and Donna Beatrix r tne heir^Ts dignation ot Camoens'agamft the traiterous 

of Fernando of Portugal, it was agreed, Pereyras. 

X With 

Digitized by 


r54 THE L U S I A U. Bboit IV. 

With proud difdain bis koneft eyes behold 
Whoe'er the traytor» who hi& king has £bld« 
Nor want thtfre others in the 
Who draw theit fwords dgainft their native land ^ 
And headlong driven, by impious rage ax:cnrft^ 
In rank were foremoft, and in fight the firfL 
So fons and fathefs^ by each other flarn,. 
With horrid flaugkter dyed Pbafialia's plain. 
Ye dreary ghofts, who nop fbr treaibns foul^ 
Amidft the gloom of Stygiati darkncis howl^ 
Thou Cataline, andy fteraSertorius, tell 
Your brother ihades, rstnd (bothe the pains of hellj; 
With triumph tell them^ fome of Lufian race 
tAkt you have earn'd the Traytor's foul difgrace* 

As wavei on waves» the foes eocrcafing wet^ 
ficnre down our foremoft ranks and fhokes the fight; 
Yet 'fifln tod utidifmay'd gteat Nuftid ftaads^ 
AHid blfaVe^ the tumult of furroundbg bands. 
$6, from high Ceuta's rocky mountains ftray'd« 
"the raging Lion braves the ibei^Mrd's £hade ; 
iThe ihtpiherds hafUaing o'er the Tetuan plain> 
With fbonts fvrroUtid him, aad with f^ars reftrain : 
He ftepS) with grinning teeth his bceath he draws, 
Nbr is it fear, bat rage, that makes him paufe; 


Digitized by 


float IV. T H » L U S I A tJ. .155 

His threatening eye-ba^s hum with ip^I^Qg^' 
And his ftern heart forbids him to jretire : , 

Amidft the thicknefs of the fjpfiux he fliogib 
So midft his foes the Ibriotts .Noiiio fprings : 
The Lufian grafs with foreign gore dtilbin*d« 
Difplays the carnage of the hero's hand. 

** An ample fhield .the brave Giraldo bore, 
« Which from the vanquiih'd Perez* arm he tore 5 
" Pierced through ^atihield* cqld death invades Jiis c^e. 
'* And dying Perez iaw^his y.i&or die. 
** Edward and Pedro, emulous of ffuno^t 
** The fame their friend(h|pi ^nd their youth the £mai$ 
** Through the fierce Brigiaiis hew'd thoir^bloody *jiiraf» 
** Till in a cdd embrace the .Adpliogs lay. 
** Lopez and VinMnt cu&cd onigbrlous de{tth« 
« And midft thQtr.flaoght^dibes tefign'd their bveath. 
Alonzo gloiying iniits youdiful fpight 
Spurr'd his fierce;Oourfer>through the daggering fight r 
Showcr'd fromtth^jdi/hing hoof* the fp«ttef'd.gore- 
Flies round j but ibofi the Rider vaunts no more : 
Five Spanifli fwords the murmuring ghofts atone. 
Of five CaAilians by hls.arms o'erthrown. 



"^nrtugb the fieretBfigiant T lie the Mo»kifl» fabttUfit pdt (he paxAftmxS 

CaftWaM, fo c^lcd lioiii one of their an- Noah. 
'Ctaitkiag««>Mmed Bm^.or^rigttSi whom ^ 

X 2 «* Transfixed 

Digitized by 


156 T HE L U S r A D. Book IV. 

<* Transfixt with three Iberian fpears, the gay, 

♦* The knightly lover, young Hilario lay : 

" Though, like a rofc, cut off in opening bloom, ' 

*♦ The Hero weeps not for his early doom j -' 

** Yet trembling in his fwimming eye appears 

«* The pearly drop, while his pale cheek he rears ,- . 

** To call his loved Antonia's name he tries, 

«* The name half utter'd, down he fink?, and ". dies." 

Now through his fliatter'd ranks the Monarch ftrodc^ 
And now before his rally'd fquadrons rode r 
Brave Nunio's danger from afar he fpies. 
And inftant to his aid impetuous flies. 
So when returning from the plunder d folds> 
The Lionefs her emptied den behc^ds> 
Enraged fhe ftands, and lifteiung to thfe ga?c. 
She hears her whelps low howling in the vale; 
The living fparkles flashing from her eyes. 
To the Mafljlian fliepherd-tents flie. * flies; 
She groans, flie roars, and ecchoing far around 
The feven twin-mountains tremble at the found r 

* Thefe lines marked in the text with acknowledgement In this he has followed 

turned commas, are not in the common the example of Caftera. 
editions of Camoens. They confifl of three « To tbt MaJJ^lian Jhifherd ttnts^^MiC' 

fianzas in the Fortuguefe^ and are faid to fylia, a province in Nnmidia, gready in- 

have been left out )>y the author himiclf in fefted with lions, particularly iSkt part •f 

his fecond edition. The tranflator, how- it called Ox /iu monUs irmais, the feim 

ever, as they breathe the true fpirit of Vir- brother mountains, 
gil, was willing to preferve them with this 


Digitized by 


Book IV. THE L U S I A D. 

So raged the king^ and with a chofen train 
He pours refiftlefs o'er the heaps of llain. 
Oh bold companions of my toils, he cries^ 
Our dear-loved freedom on our lances lies ; 
Behold your friend, your Monarch, leads the way. 
And dares the thickeft of the iron fray. 
Say, fliall the Lufian race for^ke their king,. 
Where fpears infuriate on the bucklers ring I 


He fpoke; then four times round his head he whirrd 
His ponderous fpear, and midft the foremoft hurFd ; 
Deep through the ranks the forceful weapon paft. 
And many a gafping warrior figh'd his ' laft.. 

' jtwd mamy a gafping njoarri&r figPitbis 
kfi^TlaM, which is almoft literal from 

Muit§t lanforaB o uUtmo fufpiv"^ 

and the preceding drcmnftance of Don 
John's brandifhing his lance four dmes 

E fipefanJo a Ian fa quatro vei eei ■ 

are truly poetical^ and in the fpirit of Homer* 
They are omitted, however, by Caftera, who 
fobftitutes the following in their place, ** II 
" (fit, it d^un hras^ &c — He (kid, and with 
** an arm whofe blows are inevitable, he 
** threw his javelin againft the fierce Maldo- 
<* nat. Death and the weapon went toge- 
** dier. Maldonat fell, pierced with a large 
** wound, and his horfe tumbled over him,'* 
Befides Maldonat, Cafteia has, in this battle, 
introduced feveral. other names which have 
no place in Camoens. Carrillo,. Robledo, 
John of Lorca, Salazar of Seville were 
killed, he tells us: And, '* Velafques and 
« Sanches, natives of Toledo, Galbes, far- 
** named the Soldier without Fear, Mon- 
. ^ tanchea, Oropefa, and Mondonedo,. idl 

** fix of proved valour, fell by the hand of 
** young Antony, qui forte dam h combat ou 
*' plus d^adreffe §u tlus de hnhur fvV«x, 
** who brought to tne fight either more ad- 
" drefsor better fortune than thefe." Not a 
word of this is in the Portuguefe. 

The fiite of another hero fliall conclude the 
feedmens of the manner of Cafiera. The 
following is literally tranflated : /' Guev^, 
« a vain man, nounfhedin indolence, fiained 
** his arms and face with the blood of x^kt 
" dead whom he found firetched on thedufi. 
" Under the cover of this frivolous impof- 
^^ ture, he pretended to pafs himfelf for a 
** formidable warrior. He publilbed, with 
*' a high voice, the number of the enemies 
'* he had thrown to the ground. Don Fe- 
** dro interropted him with a blow of fiis 
" fabre: Guevar loft his life ; his Head, fall 
*' of fumes of a ridiculbus pride, bounded 
** far away from his body, which remained 
" defiled with its own blood ; a juft and ter- 
*' rible punifhment for the lies he had told.*' 
It is almofl unnecefTary to add, that there.i» 
notonc word of this in the original. 


Digitized by 


J5« THE 1j V S I k U. 3aoK.IV. 

With noble fhamc triipired, aftd moimtkig rage. 
His bands ru(h on> mid foot to fodt engngc; 
Thick buriling iparkks from the blows a^rei 
Such flafbcs blaze, tlusir fwords feem dipt in ^iirei 
The belt« of ftcel and plates of bn& are riven. 
And wound for wound, and dea;di for death is given. 

The firft in honour of Saint Jago's ' band, 
A naked ghofl now fought the gloomy ftrand s 
And he, of Calatrave the fovereign knight. 
Girt with whole troops his arm had ilain in fight, 
Defcended murmuring to the fliades of night. 
Blafpheming heaven, and ga(b*d with many fi wound 
Brave Nunio's rebel kindred gnaw'd the ground, • 
And curft their fate, and dy'd. Ten thoufands more 
Who held no title and no office bore. 
And namelefs nobles who, promifcuous fell, 
Appeased that day the foaming dog of helL 
"Now low the proud Caftilian ftandard lies 
Beneath the Lufian flag, a vanquilh'd prize. 

'^Thttrf'woTdifim dipt hJlr&^TU9U fMightcn die jlU»$ cf Jff^iiur^ia, bat in 

•s literal m the idiom of the two laagoagci that of Fahfn^da^ wUdi immediatety fol« 

would allow. Drydf n has a thovght ^e hwed. The fleadtr may perhapi be for* 

this of Csmoenf, but whieh id «ot ia Ua piifed «o findy that every foidier memioiied 

original^. m thefe notes ia a Don, a Urd, The fol- 

Theirboek]en,fai(ht thick blpwfd^mdftemb||H, lowing piece of hiilofy will account for the 

And flftkcs ot fire from their hard behnetf if. nimber of the Pertnguefe nobles. Don 

D»TP. ViRP, MLv, Xir. Jl^mu EwHfm^ Count of Porti^al, when 

» TbeHrfl in honour •J^aint Jngft h^nd 

—Grand Matter of the order «f St. Jame», ri9ut% jn retim, dignified etery man iH 

named Dpn Pedro Nuaio, He was not hUaxmy with the rank of nohittty. Vid. 

killfd, however, in thii battle, which waa the 9th Stot. of Lam^. 

Aluted Jcing by Ui army at the batde of Ou* 

man iH 

. Vid. 


Digitized by 





With furicars madnc& fired^ and ftern dildain. 

The fierce Iberians to the fight again 

Ruih headlong ; groans and yelliogs of ' deipair 

With horrid uproar rend the trembling air* 

Hot boils the blood, thirft burns, and every breaft 

Pants, every limb vrith fainty weight opprefl: 

Slow now obeys the will's ftern ire, and flow 

From every fword defcends the feeble blow j 

Till rage grew languid, and tired flaughter found 

No arm to combat, and no breaft to wound. 

Now from the field Cafteel's proud monarch * flies> 

In wild difmay he rowls his maddening eyes. 

And leads the pale-lipt flight : Swift wing'd with fcar^ 

As drifted fmoke, at diftancc difappear 

The dufty fquadrons of the fcatter'd rear j 


^'"^oans and ytUings of defyair^^^Y^Jt 
lafl eTOrtt of rage and defpair are thos de- 
fcribed in Pope's tranfladon of the fifth 
liatde at the ihip5 . II. XV, 

Tbm -woidd^ bavt ft^ght, fo frrimis Vfm their firei 
^0 f^fr€9uli tarn thmy tma m tml coM Hrsi 
jU tfnrw viMur from Miw figkti thpy mm, 
Jindthe longbattle -wms hut then bena, 
Oreece yet wieonquef^d teft aRve the -war , 
S$curt^itMh, conficBngtit defiair, 
. Tt^j mpwihofts 4tffeaiyvkvfd the mehtr 
Bright -with the iUze^ ani red with hereei ftdm \ 
JUiktfire^gth is M fim h^fe mdfr9m dej^mri 
And each cmiiendi as his were ail the war. 

• ^ N^Hjufrtm tVe Jield CaftftTs proud iU- 
nartbfliet — This tyrant, whofe unjaft pre- 
titiiioBfl to the crown of Portugal laid his 
Mm and that kingdom in blood, was on his 
final defeat OTcrwhehned with all the frenzy 
of grief. In the night after the decifive 
bfttne of JljubttTdta^ he fled upwards of 
tUfCy miles upon a mole. Don Laurence, 
archbifhop of ^r^i/tf,. in a letter written in 
old Porti^efe to Don Jtfiw, abbot of ^Z- 
«rf«ip^' gives this account of his behavioar. 

** O ccmd^raMn a mfaffahtr €m $ t0 dt 
«♦ Gaftella /e wra a Santaren come bomen 
** tre/'valiadoy qttem maldezia ftu tii^utr^ } 
** pux^*va polos harbas ; i i be fi, bom 
•* amigo, melbor e que o faga ca nou f^gn^ 
" molo nos, ca boment quern fmoi barSas ar^ 
** repela moo lavor f(iria das albeat, i. ^« 
*' The ronflable has informed me that he 
** law the king of Caftile at Santaren, whp 
'^behaved as a madmaur curiing his ex- 
^ifience> ajid tearing die hairs of his 
" beard. And in good faith, my good 
•* friend, it is better that he fhould do fp to 
" himieif than to as; the man who thus 
'* plucks his own hc$rdr would be much 
« better pleafed to do fo to others." The 
writer of Uiis letter, though a prelate, foughf 
at the battle of Jljuharou^ where he re- 
ceived on the face a large wound from ^ 
fabre. Caftera relates this anecdoteof him; 
The flattery of a fculptor had omitted the 
deep fear : when the aitihbiihop faw the fta- 
tue, he lai4 hold of an attendant's fword,. 
with which he disfigured the face. I have 
now^.fiud he, Applied what it wanted. 


Digitized by 




Book IV. 

Blafpheming heay^n^ tliey fly, and him who firft 
Forged murdering arms, and led to horrid wars accurih 

The feftivc days hy heroes old * ordain'd 
The glorious vidlor on the field remained. 
The funeral rites and holy vows he paid : 
Yet not the while the rcftlefs Nunio ftaid ; 
O'er Tago's waves his gallant bands he led. 
And humbled Spain in every province bled : 
Sevilia*s ftandard on his ipear he bore. 
And Andalufia's enfigns fteept in gore. 
Low in the duft diftreft Caililia mourned. 
And bathed in tears each eye to heaven was turned i 
The orphan's, widow's, and the hoary fire's i 
And heaven relenting quench'd the raging fires 
Of mutual hate : from England's ' happy ihorc 
The peaceful feas two lovely fifters bore. 

* Thi /ejfivi days hy herc4s old 9rdmiC4% 
-i— ' As a certain proof of the victory, it 
was required, by the honour of thefe agei, 
that the viftor ihould encamp three days oa 
the field' of battle. By this toighi-crran' 
try, the advantages which ought to have 
been purfued were frequently loft. Poa 
John, however, though he complied witli, 
the reigning ideas of honour, fent Poa 
Nunio, with a proper army, to reap tbo 
fruits of his viftory, 

« -*- — fwo hf^ily fifters -i^-^^CaSera's Uot^, 
on thb plaee is literally thus : «• They were. 
•• the daughters of John duke of Lancafter, 
•< fon of Edward IV. of England, both of! 
•< great beauty j the eldeft, named Catbewl 
<« nne, was married to the king of Caftile, 
«« the yoringeft, Ifabel, to the King of Por- 
•• tugal," This is all a mlftake, lohn of 
Portugal, about a year after the battle of 
Jljutarofa, marrfed f W////^, eldeft daugK-; 

ter of John of Gaunt, duke of LaneaAer^ 
fon of Edward UI. who afflfted the kmg, 
bis fon*iii«lawt In an irmption into Caftile, 
and at the end of the eampaign profflifed to 
return with more nnmerous forces fi)r the next. 
But this was prevented by the marriage of 
his yourigeft daughter Cafaiiva with Don 
Hinrjt eldeft ion of the king of Caftile, 
The Ung of Portugal on this entered Ga* 
licia« and reduced the dtks of Tujr and SaU 
vaterra. A truce followed. While the ty. 
rant of Caftile meditated a new war, be was 
killed by a fall from hls'horfej and leaving;, 
no ifluc by his ^ueen Scs(nxfi^ Img qS' 
Portugal's daughter, all pretenf^ops to that 
crown ceafed. The truce was now proionff« 
ed for fifteen years, and though not ftri^llir 
kept, yet at laft the inftuence^of chefingliih! 
queen C^^//>?^ prevailed, and a long peace, ; 
hupp/ for both kiogd^mii enfufsd* . .« 

Digitized by 


Boc^IV. THE; L U S I A !>• i^ 

The rival monarchs to the nuptial bed. 

In joyful hour the royal virgins led. 

And holy Peace, aflum'd her Uifsful reign» ^ 

Again the peafant joy'd, the landfcape fmiled agftin^ 

But John's brave breaft to warlike cares inuredf 
With confcious fhame the floth of eafe endured. 
When not a foe awaked his r^^ tn Spain 
The valiant Hero braved the foamy main ; 
The firft, nor meaneft^ of our kings who bore 
The Lufian thunders to the Afric fliore. 
O'er the wild waves the viftor-banners flowed. 
Their filver wings a thoufand eagles ihew'd i 
And protrdly fwelling to the whittling gales 
The feas were whiten'd with a thoufand fail?. 
Beyond the columns by Alcides placed 
To bound the world, the zealous warrior paft. 
The fhrines of Hagar*s race, the fhrines of luft. 
And moon-crown*d mofques lay fmoaking in the duft. 
O'er Abyla s high fteep his lance he raifed. 
On Ceuta's lofty towers his ftandard blazed : 
Ceuta, the refuge of the traitor " train. 
His vaffal now, enfures the peace of Spain. 

« Cms, thi nfuge cf tbi traitor traln-^ Importance to Ac Portmcfe, ^"^!!£^^^ 

Ceota ii one of the ftrongcft garrifons in frequent wara with the Moors. J>«mtf-iU 

Africa ; it lies^ almoft oppofitc to Gibraltar, reduftion, it was *e ^xflvnoi Spttufli awl 

and tb* pofiefipn of it was of the greatcft Portuguefe Renegadoiand Tiajnors. 

Y Hi* 

Digitized by 




Book IV. 

But ah^ how foon the blaze of glory 4ic8 1 
Illuftrious * John afcends his native fkies. 
His gallant offspring prove their genuine ftrain^ 
And added lands increafe the Lufian reign. 

Yet not the firft of heroes Edward ihone j 
His happieft days long hours of evil own. 
He faw, fecluded from the chearful day^ 
His fainted brother pine his years away» 
D glorious * youth in captive chains, to thee 
What fuiting honours may thy land decree > 

^ Illuflrious Jcbm The charaAer of 

this great prince claims a place in diefe 
notes, as it afibrds a comment on the en* 
thnfiafm of Camoens^ who has made him 
the hero of this epifode. His birth, excel- 
lent education, and maflerfy condnd when 
Regent, have already been mentioned. The 
lamejafUce, prudence, and heroifm always 
accom^ied him when king. He had the 
art to join the moft winning affabiUty with 
all the manly dignity of the (bvereign. To 
thofe who were his friends^ when a private 
man, he was particularly attentive. His 
nobility dined at his table, he ft^uently 
made viiits to them, and introdaced among 
them the tafte for, and the love of letters. 
As he felt the advantages of education, he 
took the tttmoft care of that of his chil- 
dren. He had many fons, and he himfelf 
often inilrudled them in (olid and ufeful 
knowledge, and was amply repaid. He 
lived CO lee them men, men of parts and of 
aAton, whofe only emulacioa was to ihew 
aiFeflion to his perfon, and to fupport his 
adminiftration by their great abilities. One 
of his fons,* Don Henry ^ duke of Fi/eot was 
that ^eat prince whoie ardent paffion for 
maritime affairs gave bi^th to all the mo- 
dem improvements in navigation. The 
clergy, who had diilurbed almoft every other 
reign, were (b convinced of the wifdom of 
his, that they confefled he ought to be fap« 

ported out of the treafures of the chorcBr 
and granted him the church plate to be 
coined. When the Pope ordered a rigour- 
ous enquiry to be made into his having 
broneht ecdefiaftics before hiy tribunals, 
the cleigy had the fingular honefty to defeit 
what was ftiled die church immunities, and 
to own that juftice had been impartially ad- 
miniftcred. He died in the fevcnty-fath 
year of his age, and in the forty-eighth of 
his reign. His ajffcdion to his queen Pbi- 
lippa made him fond of the Enffliih, whofe 
friendftiip he cultivated, and by whom he 
was frequently ailifted. 

* O glorious joutb — * Camoens, in this 
inftance, has raifed the charader of one 
brother at the other's expcnce, to give his 
poem an air of folemnity. The fiege of 
Tangier was propofed in counciL The 
king's brothers difiered in their opinions : 
that of Don Fernand, tho* a knight errant 
adventure, was approved of by the young 
BobtHty. The infants Henry and Femand, 
at the head of 7000 men, laid iiegc to Tan- 
gier, and were furrounded by a numerous 
anny of Moors, as fomc writers fay of fix- 
hundred thoufand. On condition that the 
Portogueft fhould be allowed to return 
home, the infants promifed to rcftoreCcuta. 
The Moors gladly accepted of the terms, bat 
demanded one 01 the infants as an hoftage. 
Femand offered himfelf, and was left. 


Digitized by 


Book IV. 



Thy nation proffer'^, and the foe with joy 
ForCeuta's towers prepared to yield the boyj 
Tlje princely hoftage nobly fpurns the thought 
Of freedom and of life fo dearly bought. 
The ra^^ng vengeance of the Moors defies. 
Gives tq the clanking chains his limbs^ and dies 
A dreary prifon death. Let noify fame 
No more unequaird hold her Codrus* name i 
Her Regqlus^ her Curtius boaft no more. 
Nor thofe the honoured Decian name who bore^^ 
The fplendor of a court, to them unknown. 
Exchanged for deathful Fate's mod awful frown, 
To diftant times through every land (hall blaze 
The felf'devoted Lufian's nobler praife* 

THe king was willbg to compl/ with the 
terms to relieve his brother, but the court 
tMBdered the viloe of Cctita» aad would ' 
not confent. The Pope alio intcrpofed his 
authority that Grata (hould be kept as a 
check on the infidels, and propofed to raiFe 
a Cnifade for the delivery of remand. In 
the meanwhile large offers were made for 
his liberty. The^ were rejeded by the^ 
Moors, who would accept of nodiingbat' 
Centa, whofe vaft importance was fuperior. 
to any raofom. When negotiation ndled, 
king Edward aflembled a large army to 
eSkdt his brother's releafe, but juft as he 
was fetting out, he was feixed with the 
plague, and ^ied, leaving orden with, his 
queen to deliver up Ceuta for the releafe of 
his brother. This, however, was never 
performed. Don Pernand remained with 
the Moors till his death. The magnani- 
mity of his behaviour gained him their 
cfteem and admiration, nor is there good 
proof that he rkeived any extraordiriaiy 
rigorous treatment; the contrary is rather 
Co be inferred from the romantic notions of 
miliary honour «vhich then prevailed among 

the Moors. Some, however, whom Cafleri 
follows, make his fufieiings little inferior 
to thofe, without poof likewife, afcribed 
to Regulus. Don remand is to this dajr 
efteem^ as a faint and martyr in Portugal 
and his memory is commemorated on die 
fifth of June. King Edward reigned only 
five years and a month. He was the moft 
eloquent man in his dominions, fpoke and 
wrote Latin elegantly, was anthor of fe- 
veral books, onetm horfemanfliip, in whidi 
art he excelled. He was brave m the field, 
adlive in bufinefs, and rendered his country 
infinite fervice by redudne; the laws to s 
r^ular code. He was knight of the order 
of die Garter, which honour was conferred 
upon him by his coufin Henry V. of £ng» 
land. In one infbmce he gave great offence 
to the fuperftitipus populace. He deipxfed 
the advice of a Jew aftrologer, who entreated 
him to delay his coronation, becaufe the 
ftars that day were unfavourable. To this 
the misfortune of the army at Tangier was 
afcribed, and the people were alwayst on 
the alarm while he lived, as if fome texriblf 
difafter impended over xiem^ 

a Now 

Digitized by 


4^ THE L U S I A D, B66k IV.^, 

Now to the tomb tbc haplcfs kiag defcends^ ; ^ •: V 

His fon Alonzo brighter fate attendsi - - - 

Alonzo! dear to Lufus' race the name; 
Nor his the meanefl in the rolls of fame. 
His might refiiUefs proftrate Afric own'd, 
Beneatb his yoke the Mauritinians groan'd, * * * 

And ftill they groan beneath the Lufian fway* ' i - 
Twas his in vidor pomp to bear away . » » . 

The golden apples from Hefperia's fhore. 
Which but the fbn of Jove had fnatch'd before. 
The palm and laurel round his temples boundj 
Difplay'd his triumphs on the Mooriih ground ; 
When proud Arzilla's ftrength, Alcazer's towers. 
And Tingia, boaftful of her numerous powers. 
Beheld their adamantine walls o'erturnM, 
Their ramparts leveird, and their temples burn'd. 
Great was the day: the menneft fword that fought 
Beneath the Lufian flag fuch wonders wrought 
As from the Mufe. might challenge endlofe faipe. 
Though low their jftation^ and untold their name. 

Now ftung with wild Ambition*s madhing fires^ 
To proud Caftilia s throne the king ^ alpires. 

y To proud Caftilia*! throne the king af- tb€ kingdom of Caftile» Don AIODXO, klag 
>/m*-When Henry IV. of Caflile died^ he of PortngfJ, obtained a difpeniation fitua 

declared that the infanta Joanna waa his the pope to marfy his niece, i)oiiiia7M«««; 

Jieirefi* in preference to his Mer, Donna bat after, a bloody war, the an^bitious viewa 

Ifahellay married to Don Ferdinand^ fon to of AlonZQ and bis coortiexs werp. defeated, 
the long of Arragon. In hopes to attain^ 


Digitized by 


Bdfetiy.' T HAEI "L^US IAD. i6^ 

The Lord of Arragon,, from Cadiz' waHs, 

And hoar Pyrene's fides bi$JcgioEf$ cajls i 

The numerous legions to h^ ^laodaide throngs; 

And war, with bopi^ ftfidefr, now ftalks ^krog. 

With emulation fired, the * priocc behdd 

His warlike fire ambjtigtts. of t^^e fiald j 

Scornful of eafe, to aid his arms^^ bfc fptd, . 

Nor fp?d ii» vain : .The rising comihit Mcdj 

Alonzo*s ranks with carnage gore<^> Difmajr 

Spread her cold wings> jaiid fb^ook hJ0 &nt array; .. . 

To flight flie hurrjed i' ivhUc widk btoW ferew 

The martial boy beheld tJiie fkalbful fceoe. 

With curving movenient o'er the field he ronje^ 

Th 'oppofing troops his wheeling fqaadrpns mow'd : 

The purple dawnr and evening fun beheld 

His tents encampt afiert the con^er'd field* 

Thus when the ghoft of Julius hover d o'er 

Philippics plain, appeafed with Roman gGre». 

Oftavius' legions left the field in flight. 

While happier Marcus trimnph'd in the fight. 

When endlefs night had feaFd his mortal eyes^ 
And brave Alonzo's fpirit fought the ikies, 
The fecond of the name, the valiant John, 
Our thirteenth monarch, now afcends tht throne* 

The Prince of Pprtugrf. 


Digitized by 


i66 THE L U 8 I A D. BooicIV^ 

To feizc immortal fame» his mighty mind. 

What man had never dared before, defign'd ; 

That glorious labour which I now purfue. 

Through fcas unfail'd to find the ihores that view 

The day-ftar, rifing from his watery bed. 

The firft grey beams of infant morning Ihed. 

Seleded meflcngers his will obey ; • 

Through Spain and France they hold their vent'rous way: 

Through Italy they reach the port that gave 

The fair * Parthenope an honoured grave j 

That ihore which oft has felt the fervile chain^ 

But now fmiles happy in the care of Spain. 

Now from the port the brave ad vent Vers bore. 

And cut the billows of the Rhodian ihore ; 

'Now reach the ftrand where noble Pompcy ' bled ; 

And now, repair'd with reft, to Memphis fped j 

And now, afccnding by the vales of Nile, 

Whofe waves pour fatnefs o*er the grateful foil. 

Through Ethiopia's peaceful dales they ftray'd. 

Where their glad eyes Mefliah's rites ^ furvey'd : 

And now they pafs the famed Arabian flood, 

Whofe waves of old in wondrous ridges ftood. 

While Ifraers favoured race the fable bottom trode : 


« ParthiMft WW OTC of the Syrent. • — l^l^iri noiU Pmfiy iUi — The coaft 

EnrasedbecanTefbe could not allure UlyiTet, of Alexandria. . 

(he threw hcrfclf into thefca. Her corps "' * Meffiab's rites /^rvo^V — An^g the 

was thrown alhorc, and buried where Naples Chriflians of Freftcr Jebn, or Abyflynia. 

*""•• BehincI 

Digitized by 


BqokIV. \ THE L U S I A D- 167 

Behind them gliftening to tEe morning ikies^ 

The mountains named from Izmael's offspring ^ rife -, 

Now round their fteps the bleft Arabia fpreads 

Her groves of odour, and her balmy meads. 

And every breaft, infpired with glee, inhales 

The grateful fragrance of Sabaea's gales : 

Now paft the Perfian gulph their rout afcends 

Where Tygris wave with proud Euphrates blends ; 

Illuftrious ftreams, where ftill the native fliews 

Where Babel's haughty tower unfinifli'd rofe : 

From thence through climes unknown, their daring courfe 

Beyond .Whers Trajan forced liis way, they *" force j 

Carman lan hofds, and Indian tribes they faw. 

And many a barbarous rite, and many a law 

Their fearch explored ; but to their native (hore, 

Enrich'd with knowledge, they returned no more. 

The glad completion of the Fate's decree, 

Kind heaven referved, Emmanuel, for thee. 

The crown, and high ambition of thy ' iircs^ 

To thee defcending, waked thy latent fires $ 

And to command the fea from pole to pole. 

With reftlefs wifli inflamed thy mighty fouL 

^ Tb$ tncutirains nam d from IzmaePs ojf- Ctefiphon, which he fuBdacd*. The Roman 

Aring — — The Nabatheaa mountains j Hiflorians boailed that India was entirely 

to named from Nabaoth, the fon of I A- conquered by him; bat they could only 

xnael. mean Arabia Fcelix. Vid. Dion, Caff. 

« Beyond ivbere Trajan The Empcror Eufeb. Cfiron. p. 206. 

Trajan extended the bounds of the Roman ^ The crewn^ and high arnhmon of thy 

Empire in the Eaft, far beyond anv of his ^$s — — > Emmanuel was coufin to the late 

I>redeceirors. His conqueHs reached to the king John II. and grandfon to king Edward, ^ 

riyer Tigris, near which ftood the city of . bri of John L 


Digitized by 



i68 THE L^Ua-tA'T). .BookIV. 

Now from the, iky the ikcrcd light withdmwn> :^ * • ' 
O'er heaven's clear azure ihone the iVara of dawn. 
Deep Silence fprcad her glgomy wiagp around. 
And human griefs were wrapt in ilecp prpfpund. 
The monarch flumber'd on his golden bed. 
Yet anxious cares pofleft his thoughtful head j 
His generous foul, intent on public good. 
The glorious duties of his birth reviewed. 
When fcnt by heaven a facred dream infpircd 
His labouring mind, and with its radiance fired : 
High to the clouds his towering head was rear*d. 
New worlds, and nations fierce and flrange, appeared ; 
The purple dawning o'er the mountains flow'd. 
The foreft- boughs with yellow fplendor glow'd ; 
High from the ftcep two copious glafly dreams 
RoU'd down, and glitter'd in the morning beams. 
Here various monfters of the wild were feen^ 
And birds of plumage, azure, fcarlet, green : 
Here various herbs, and flowers of various bloom s 
There black as night the forefl's horrid gloom, 
Whofe fliaggy brakes, by human ftep untrod. 
Darkened the glaring lion's dread abode. 
Here as the monarch fix'd his wondering eyes. 
Two hoary fathers from the ftreams arife ; 
Their afped ruftic, yet a reverend grace 
Appcar'd majeftic on their wrinkled face : 

• Their 

Digitized by 


$doxIY. THE LUSIAD- 1^9 

^ Their tayny beards uncqmb'dt anfl fwccpy long, 

Adown their kncps in (haggy ringlets hung; 

From every lock the chryftal drops difttH^ 

And bathe their limbs as in a trickling rill ; 

Gay wreaths of flowers, of fruitage, and of boughdt 
' }f amelefs in Eurcps, cronra'd their furrow'd browf • 

Bent o'er^his fttffi; more filver'd o'er with years^ 

Worn with a longer way* the Ooe appears ; 

Wh6 now daw beckoning with his wither'^ haod^ 

As now adva;iced before the kiiig thefilandi 

O thou, whom worlds to Europe yet unknown, 
'Art- doom'd to yield, and dignify thy crown j 
^o thee our goldpa fliores die Fates decree ; 
Our necks, un;iK>wM before, iliall bend tothee. 
Wide through the world r^efounds our wealthy fame ; 
Haftcj, ipeed thy prows, that fftt^d wea'lth to claim. 
From Paradife my baUowed waters ipriftg ; 
The facred Ganges I, my briOther king 
Th* illuftrious author of the Indian name: 
Yet toil fhall langui(h, and rthe^ght ihall ilame^ 
Our faireil lawns with ftreaming gore ^all fmoke. 
Ere yet our fhoulder$ hc9d beneath the yoke ; 
But thou fhalt qonquer : sdl thine eyes furvey. 
With all our various tribes, ^ihail own thy fway^. 

Z He 

Digitized by 


170 THE L U S I A D. Book IV*. 

He fpoke ; and melting in a iQvery ftream 
Both difappear'd ; when waking from his dreamj 
The wondering monarch thriU'd with awe divine^ 
Weighs in his lofty thoughts the facred iign> 

Now mdrning burfting from the eaffern (ky 
Spreads o'er the clouds the bluihing rofe's dye ; 
The nations wake^ and at the fbvereign's call 
The Lufian nobles crowd the palace hall. 
The vifion of his ikep die monarch tells > 
Each heaving breaft with joyful wonder fwells : 
Fulfil, they cry, the facred fign obey. 
And fpread the capvas for the Indian tea. 
Inftant My looks with troubled ardour burn'd. 
When keen on Me his eyes the monarch tum'd : 
What he beheld I know not ; but I know, ^ 

Big fweird piy bofom with a prophet's glow : 
And long my mind, with wondrous bodinga fired. 
Had to the glorious dreadful toil afpired t 
Yet to the king, whatever my looks betrayed^ 
My looks the omen of fuccefs displayed*. 
When with that fweetnefs in his mien expreft. 
Which unrefifted wins the generous breaft. 
Great are the dangers, great the toils, he cried. 
Ere glorious honours crown the vi&or's pride« 


Digitized by 


Book IT- THE L U S I A D- 171 

If in the glorious ftitfe the hero fall^ 

He proves no danger could his foul appall ; 

And but to dare fo gretc a toiU ihall raife 

Each age's wonder^, and immortal praiici 

For this dread toil new oceans to explore/ 

To fpread the fail where fail ne'er flow'd before. 

For this dread labour^ to your valour doe. 

From all your peers I name, O Vasco, you. 

Dread as it is, yet light the talk ihatl be 

To you my Gama, as performed for Me.— — 

My heart could b^ar no more Letflcies on fire. 

Let frozen feas, let horrid war conipire, 

I dare them all, I cried, and but repine 

That one poor life is all I can refign. 

Did to my lot Akides' labours fidl. 

For you my joyful heart would dare them all ; 

The ghaftly realms of death could man invade. 

For you my fteps ihould trace the ghaftly (hade. 

While thus with loyal zeal my bofom fwelVd, 
That panting zeal my Prince with joy beheld : 
Honoured with gifta I flood, but honoured more 
By that efteem my joyful Sovereign bore. 
That generous praife which fires the foul -of worth. 
And gives new virtues unexpedted birth, 

Z 2 Thjtf 

Digitized by 


172 THE L U S I A J5. Book IV. 

That praife even now my heaving bofoni firts. 
Inflames my courage^ and each wiifh irifpires. 

Moved by aiFedion, zstd allured by fiune,, • 
A gallant youths who bore thq deareft naaifCp 
Paulas my brother^ boldly fued to (hare 
My toils^ my dangers^i and my fate ii^ w^r^ 
And brave Coello urged the Hero's claim 
To dare, each hardlbip^ and to join onr faine: 
For glory both with reftlefi ardour bum'd» 
And iilken eafe for horrid danger fpnm'd $ 
Alike renown'd in council or in fields 
The fnare to baffle^ or the fword to wteld« 
Through Lifboa*s youth the kindling ardour ran> 
And bold ambition thriird from nan to ima t 
And each the megnefl of the veiitarous hand 
With gifta ftood hocpur'd by the Sovereign's hafMi. 
Heavens ! what a fury fwelUd each wiufrior^s breaii:> 
When each, in turn, the finiling King addreft ! 
Fired by his words the direft toils they {axvtd. 
And with the horrid luft of danger ficrcfely bum'^d. 

With fuch bold rage the youth of Mynia glowed. 
When the firft keel the Euxine furges plow'dj 


Digitized by 


«oak 17- THE L U S 1 A D. ^7^ 

When bravely vmturous for the-golddn flwee 
Gracious Argo faiVd from wwidering ^ GT€tce. 
Where Tago's yellow ftream the hdi)K)iif :lave^. 
And flowly miagles with the ocean wavesj • 
In warlike pride «my gallant navy ro4e. 
And proudly o*er thejbuch my foldicrs ftrode. 
Sailors and land-men .marfhall^d <^er thecftrand^ 
In garbs of various hue around me ftand, * 
Each earned firil to plight the QtcrcA vow. 
Oceans uoknowo end gulphs untry'd to plow : 
Then turning to the fhips .^beir fparkling €fc$. 
With joy they heard the breathing winds arifei 
Elate with joy beheld the flapplng*fa41. 
And purpk ftandards floating on the gale; 
While each pfcftged that great aft Arge'« lame»« 
Our fleet Ihould give fomentef^i baad a n^nc. 

Where foaming; on the £hore the tide appears, 
A facred fane its hoary arches rears : 
Dim o'er the fea the evening (hades defcend. 
And at the holy fhrine devout we bend : 
There, while the tapers o'er the altar blaze. 
Our prayers and earneft vows to^hea¥«a wc mk. 

Digitized by 


174 THE L U 8 I A D. BoOK IV. 

« Sftfe tihrough the deep, where every yawning wave 

*' Still to the Sailor*8 eye difplays hit grave; 

<* Threugh howling tempefts, and through gulphs untry'd, 

«* Ol mighty God ! be thou our watchful guide/' 

W^ile kneeling thus before the £icred ihrine. 

In Holy Faith's moft foiemn rite we jota. 

Our peace with heaven the bread of peace confirms. 

And meek contrition every bofbm warms : 

Sudden the lights extingui(h'd, all around 

Dread filence reigns, and midnight gloom profound i 

A facred horror pants on every breath. 

And each firm breaft devotes itfelf to death. 

An offered facrifice, fwora to obey 

My nod, and follow where J lead the way. 

Now pfoftrate round the hallow'd fhrine we ■ lie. 

Till rofy morn befpreads the eailem fky ; 

Then, breathing fixt refolves, my daring mates 

March to the (hips, while pour'd from Li(boa*s gates, 

Thoufands on thoufands crowding, prefs along, 

A woeful, weeping, melancholy throng. 

t Naw pr§ftrati round ihi hJh^J ^m confitmcivt. Seqdenti die cam multt ttoi 

«i»£^— This fokmn fone it uwnixim m iUias cantiiiii giada, fed alionim edam, foi 

IdAory : Aherat Olvfippcme pme fBom iUi coauies erant* conveoiflciit, fiiit ab obi« 

qoatuor paiiiDiii miUia templam mc idip nibus in icaphis dednftos. Neqoe iolftm 

M>fiiiii et fanftam ab Henrico in honorem homines reliriofi, fed re^qm omnes Yoce 

umAiffimae vii^nis edi£catnm ••••«• maxima com Jadymit i Deo jwecabantvrf 

In id Gama pndie illias £ei« qoo erat mu- tt bene i^ jproTpcra ilia tarn pcncnlofa nafi- 

itorns, ferecepit, at nodon com gatio omnUMt evenifef» 8c aniverfi le ben) 
lelipoib hominibos qm in aedibos ten^do gefia ioctriomca in paMm rediienc 
cnnjua&is haUtabanty In pricibaa etvoda 

A thoufand 

Digitized by 



Book IV, THE L U S I A D. lyf 

A thoufand white-robed priefts our flsps attend^ 

And prayers, and holy vows to heaven afcend. 

A fcene fo folemn, and the tender woe 

Of parting friends, conftrained my tears to flow« 

To weigh our anchors from our native (hore— - 

To dare new oceans never dared before*— 

Perhaps to fee my native coaft no mott"^ 

Forgive, O king, if as a man I feel> 

I bear no bofom of obdurate fteel— 

(The godlike hero here fuppreft the figb, ' 

And wiped the tear-drop from his manly eye f 

Then thus refuming — ) All the peopled fliore 

An awful, filent look of anguiih wore; 

Affedion, friendship, all the kindred ties 

Of fpoufe and parent languiih'd in their eyes : 

As men they never fhoald again behold^ 

Self-olFer'd vidlims to deftrudion fold. 

On us they fixt the eager look of woe. 

While tears o'er every cheek began to flow;. 

When thus aloud, Alas I my fon, my fon,. 

All hoary Sire exclaims ! Oh, whither run» 

My hearths Mt joy^ my trembling age*s ftay. 

To yield thy limbs the dread fea*monfter's prey ! 

To feek thy burial in the raging wave. 

And leave me cheerkis finking to the grav» t 


Digitized by 


176 THE L U S I A D. Book IV. 

Was it for this I watched thy tender yeart, * - 
And bore each fever of a father'4 fears ! 
Alas ! my boy ! — His voice is heafd no more> 
The female fhriek rcfounds alofig the fliore : 
With hair difheveird, through the yielding crowd 
A lovely bride fprings ont and fcreams aloud ; 
Oh ! where, my hufbsiid, wfaefe to feas unknown^ 
Where would'ft thou fly me> «ndmy love-diibwn! 
And wilt thou, cruel, to the -deep confign 
That valued life, the joy^ the foul of mine : 
And muft our lovfcs, und all the kindred train 
Of rapt endearments, all erpftte in vain 1 
All the dear tranfports of the warm embrace^ 
When mutual love infpired each raptured fxice ! 
Muft all, alas ! be fcatter'-d in tlie wind. 
Nor thou beftow one lingering look- b6ilf nd 1 

Such the lorn parents* otid the fpoufes' woes. 
Such o'er the ftrand ihe VMce of wailing rofe 5 
From breaft to breaft At foft com^ion crept. 
Moved by the woeful fotind the cMdren wept ; 
The mountain ecchws catcA the big-fwcfln figh«. 
And through the dales prolong the tntitrori^s cries ; 
The yellow fands with tears are £lvef'd o'er. 
Our fate the mountahis Mid tht beach deplore. 


Digitized by 


Book IV- THE L U S I A D- 

Yet firm we march^ nor turn one glance afide 

On hoary parent^ or on lovely bride. 

Though glory fired our hearts^ ^oo well we knew 

What foft affedion and What love could do. 

The laft embrace the braveft worft can bear : 

The bitter yearnings of the parting tear 

Sullen we fhun> •unable4o fuftain 

The melting pailion of fuch tender paio»^ 


Now on the lofty decks prepared we ftand. 
When towering o'er the crowd that veiFd the ftrand^ 
A reverend * figure fixt each wondering eye. 
And beckoning thrice he waved his hand on high. 

fekdad.— A maids tanen interi m Ji fle tqi 
atqne lamentitio fiebat, ut ftmiis dfate vi« 
derratur. Sic enim dioebant: En quo mi<' 
feios mortales provexit capiditas et amUdo? 
Potoitne gravios fopplidum hominibiu iftia 
conditui, fi in fe iceleEam aUquod facinoa 
admififient ? Eft enim Ulia immenfi mans 
longitudo peragranda, fliifbis immanej dif- 
ficillima navigadonc fupcrandi, vitae dircri« 
men in locis infinids obeundum. Non Toit 
mnlt6 tolerabilius, in terra qoovis genera 
mords abfumi, qnim tarn procal ^ patris 
marinis lloaibas fepeliri. Hsc et alia 
multa in hanc fententiam dicebanc, ciUn 
omnia mol^ triftiora fingere prse metu co- 

gerehtan The tender emotion and fixi 

reibludon of Gama, and the eameft paffion 
of the maldtudes on the (hore, are thns 
added by die iame veniemble hiftorian : 
Gama tamen quamvit lacrymas luorom de- 
fiderio funderet, ret tamen bene gerenda 
fidaciaconfirmatus, alacriter in navem faufHs 

omnibus confcendit ; Qui in littore 

confiftebant, non priu» abfcedew voluerunt, 
quam naves vento iecuodo pleniilimis velis 
ab omnium confpedu remotae-fuat. 

* J nnHTimd figmri'^'^^y this old 
b perfonified the popdaoe of Portugal. The 
endeavours to diibover the Eaft-fidies by 
the Southern ocean, for about eighty years 
hid been the lavpnrite topic of complaint ; 
and never was any meafure of government 
more unpopular than the expedidon of 
Gams. Emmanuel's council were almoft 
nnanimousagainft the attempt. Somedread- 
^ the intrmiudion of wealth, and its at- 
tendants, luxury and effeminacy; while 
others affirmed, that no adequate advantages 
could arife from fo perilous and remote a 
navigation. Others, with a fbrefight pe- 
culiar to Politicians, were alarmed, left the 
Egypdan Sultan, who was powerful in the 
Edl, ihould fignify his dilpleafure; and 
others forefaw, that fuccefs would combine 
all the Princes of Chriftendom in a league 
lor the deftrudion of Portugal. In ihort, 
if glory, intereft, or the })ropagadon of the 
golpel, were deiired, Africa and Ethiopia, 
they faid, afforded both nearer and more 
advantaeeous fields. The expreffions of the 
thoufands whocrouded the (hore when Gama 
gave his fails to the wind, are thus exprefled 
iff Oforins, from whom tji^ above faS^ are 

A a 


Digitized by 


»78 THE L'U S I AD. . Book IV. 

And thrice his hoary curia he flernly fhaok> 
While griciF and anger mingjffd iii his looki , 
Then to its height his faultering iroice he reared ,v 
And through the fl^bt'thefe awful words were heard r 

O frantic thirft of honour and of fame» 
The crowd's blind tribute, a fallaciofife name; 
What flings, what plagues, what ^rct fco^H'get curft^ 
Torment thofe bofoms where thy pride is nurft ! 
What dangers threaten, and wl^at ^^^^ deftrby 
The haplqfs youth, whom thy vain gleams decoy I 
By thee, dire Tyrant of the noble mind. 
What dreadful woea are pour'd on human kind i 
Kingdoms and Empires in confufion hurl'd^ 
What ftreams of gore have drenched the haplef^ world f 
Thou dazzling meteor, rain as fleeting air. 
What new-dread horror doft thou now prepare ! 
High founds thy voice of India's pearly fliore, *. 
Of endleft triumphs and of countleA ftore : 
Of other worlds fo tower'd thy fwdling boaft. 
Thy golden dreams, when Paradife was loft, 
Whea thy big promife fteep'd the world in gore. 
And fimple innocence was known no more. 
And fay, has fame fo dear, fo dazzling charms T 
Muft brutal fiercenefs aad the trade of arjns,. 


Digitized by 


BdoK IV. T H B L U S I A D. ij^ 

Conqueft, and laurels dipt in blood, be prizodi 
WhUc life is fcbrfl'd, and allits joys defpifcd } 
And fay, does zeal for holy Faith infpire 
To fpread its mandates, diy anrpWd defire ? 
Behold the Ha^ene in armour ftands. 
Treads on thy borders, and the foe demftads i 
A thoufand cities owiv hi6 lordly fway« 
A thoufand tarious ihore» hid Dod ob&y. 
Through all thefe regions, all theft cities, fcom'd 
Is thy religion, and thine altar» ^um'd. 
A foe renown'd in arms the brave reqttircj 
That high-plumed foe, renown'd for martial fire. 
Before thy gates his (hintng fpear difplays, 
Whilft thou wouldft fondly dare the watery maze. 
Enfeebled leave thy native land behind. 
On fhores unknown a foe lutknown to find. 
Oh ! madnefs of ambition ! thus to dare 
Dangers fo fruitlefs, Co remote a war I 
That Fame's vain flattery may thy name adorn. 
And thy proud titlejs on her fiag be borne : 
Thee, Lord of Perfia, thee, of India Lord, 
O'er Ethiopia's Vaft, and Araby adored t 

CnrA: be the oian who firil on floating wood, 
Forfook the beach, and braved the treacherous flood \ 

Aa a oil 

Digitized by 


i8p T H El L U S I A D. BookIV. 

Oh ! never, never may the facred Nine, 

To crown his brows, the hallowed wreath cntwiiief' ' 

Kor may his name to future times refound, ^ 

Oblivion be his meed, and hell profound ! 

Curft be the wretch, the fire of heaven who ftole, 

And with ambition firft debauched the foul ! 

What woes, Prometheus, walk the frighteo'd earth ! 

To what dread flaughter has thy pride given birth I 

On proud Ambition's pleafing gales upborne, ' 

One ' boaAs to guide the chariot of the morn : 

And one on treacherous pinions foaring high. 

O'er ocean's waves dar'd fail the liquid iky: 

Dafli'd from their height they mourn their blighted aim ; 

One gives a river, one a fea the name ! 

Alas ! the poor reward of that gay meteor Fame ! 

Yet fuch the fury of the mortal race, 

Though Fame's fair promife ends in foul difgrace,, 

Though conqueft ftill the vidlor's hope betrays. 

The prize a fhadoyr, or a rainbow blaze. 

Yet ftill through fire and raging icas they run 

To catch the gilded fhade, and fink undone ! 

' Om hafts u gmie fhe chariot of the the utmoft care on CTery inddent that could 

moTHf &c. Allttding to the fables of Phaeo p^bly imprefs our minds with high ideas 

ton and Icarus. of the determined rage of the injured hero, 

Tbi dipartun of the fleet from the Tagms. * and of the bvincible patience of the «roXvT^aK 

•—In no circumftance does the judgment ^a^'ohj^^i^, Virgil uiroughouttheEneidhas 

and art of Homer appear more conipicuous, followed the fame cCrarfe. » Erery incident 

than in the conftant attention he pavs to his that could poffiblv t^d to mac^ify the 

propofed fubjeds, the wrath ot Achilles^ dangers and difficulties of the wanderings of 

and the fufierings of Ulyfies. He befiowt iEneas. b his long fearch for the promifed 


Digitized by 


Book IV. 



Italy, is iet before us In the fulleft magni- 
tude. But, however, this method of en- 
nobling the Epic, by the utmoft attention 
to give a grandeur to every circumftance of 
the propoted fubjeA, may have been iieg- 
leded by Voltaire in hb Henriade, and by 
fome other modems, who have attempted 
the Epopoeia ; it has not been pmitteg bv 
Camoens. The Portuciiefe Poet has, witn 
mat art, conducted the voyage of Gama. 
Every circumftance attending it is repre- 
fented widi magnificence and dignity. 
John II. deijgns what had never been at- 
tempted before. Mefifengers are fent by 
land to difcover the climate and riches of 
India. Their rout is defcribed in the man- 
ner of Homer. The palm of difcovcry, 
however, is referved for a fucceeding mo- 
narch. Emmanuel i^ warned by .a dream« 

which afibrds another (bikineinftance of the 
fpirit of the Grecian Poet. The enthufiafm 
which the king beholds on the aiped of 
Gama is a noble Uroke of poetry ; the fo- 
lemoity of the night (jpent in devotion ; die 
fullen refolution of the Adventurers when 
going aboard the fleet ; the affecting grief 
of their friends and fellow-citizens, who 
viewed them as felf-devoted vidims, whom 
they were never more to behold ; and the 
angry exclamations of the venerable old man, 
give a dignity and intereiHng pathos to die 
departure of the fleet of Gama, unborrowed 
from any of the clafiics. In the uEneid, where 
the Trojans leave a colony of Invalids in 
Sicily, nothin? of the awfully tender is at- 
tempted. ' And in the Odyfley there is no 
circumftance which can be called'fimilar. 


Digitized by 



L U S I A D. 


TT 7HI L E on the beach the hoary father flood 

^ ^ And fpoke the murmurs of the multitude^ 
We fpread the canvas to the riling gales ; 
The gentle winds diftend the fnowy fails. 
As from our dear-loved native fhore we fly 
Our votive fhouts^ redoubled^ rend the fky i 
«< Succefs, fucccfs," far ecchoes o'er the tide. 
While our broad hulks the foamy waves divide. 
From Leo now, the lordly ftar of day, 
Intenfely blazing, (hot his fierceft ray ; 
When flowly gliding from our wifhful eyes. 
The Lufian mountains mingled with the fkies ; 


Digitized by 


BookiV. t H'E -L^U S TA IK i«3 

Tago's loved ftream, and C)mtra'8 moutttains cold 

Dim fading now, we now co mere behold j 

And ftill with yearning- beafts.Otfr eyeiiexplfire. 

Till one dim fpeck of land appears no more. 

Our native foil now far behind, yft ply 

The lonely dreary yvafte of fcaa and boundlcfs iky. 

Through the wiW dejsp .<Hm: vantrirons i>a»y bore. 

Where but our Henry ploughed thfi wave * before : 

The verdant iflands, firft by bipx.defqry'^ 

We paft J and now in profpeA opening wide. 
Far to the left, increafisg on the yiew, 
Rofe Mauritania's hillk of paly blue : 
Far to the right the reftlefs ocean roared, 
Whofe bounding furges never keel explcM:ed> 
If bounding " fhore, as Reafbn deems, divide 
The vaft Atlantic from the Indian tide. 

Named from her woods, with fragrant bo'Wers adoro'd. 
From fair Madeira's purple coaft we turn'd : 
Cyprus and Paphos' vales th« frailing loves 
Might leave with joy for fair Madeira's groves > 

* Whert but our Htury —— Don Henry, till 1498. The fleet of Ganu failed from 

Prince of Portagal, of whom, ieethePre- the T^n in 1497. 

fiice. * Madeira's furfle etajl—' Ctdlei by the 

^ I/ieuaJifig Jbore — The difcovery 6f ancienu Iii/'ul<e Parfurariit. Now MaHtint 

ibme of the Weft-Indian iflands by Colum- and Porte Sauto. The f<»mer was fo 

bos was made in 1491 and 1 493. His dif- named by Jnan Gonzales, and Triftan Vaz,. 

oovoy of the continent of America was not from the Syanifli word Madera, wood. 

A ihorc 

Digitized by 


i84 THE L U S I A D. . Book V. 

A fhore fo flowery, and fo fweet an air, 

Venus might build her deareft temple there« 

Onward we paf; Maifilia's barren ftrand, 

A waAe of withered grafs and burning fand j 

Where his thin herds the meagre native leads, j 

Where not a rivulet laves the doleful meads ; 

Nor herds nor fruitage deck the woodland maze : ■] 

O'er the wild wafte the ftupid oftrich ftrays. 

In devious fearch to pick her fcanty meal, . 

Whofe fierce digeftion gnaws the tempered fteeL 

From the green verge, where Tigitania ends. 

To Ethiopia's line the dreary wild extends. "^ 

Now paft the limit, which his courfe divides. 

When to the North the Sun*s bright chariot rides. 

We leave the winding bays and fwarthy (hores. 

Where Senegal's black wave impetuous roars ; 

A flood, whofe courfe a thoufand tribes furveys. 

The tribes who blacken'd in the fiery blaze. 

When Phaeton, devious from the folar height. 

Gave Afric's fons the fable hue of night. 

And now from far the Lybian cape is feen. 

Now by my mandate named the Cape of * Green. 

Where midft the billows of the ocean fmiles 

A flowery fifl:er-train, the happy * iflcs, 

*-•*— Ctf/f of Gr^M— Called by Ptolemy, ** thi happy ijla — — Called by the 

Ctf/«/ Jfinaritm. ancients, In/ulseFortunata^ now the Canaries. 


Digitized by 


#of>KV. THE! L U S I.A D.. 1^5 

Ouf ontk^ar-d proWs the murmuring forges lave ; 

And now our vcffels plough the gentle wave. 

Where the blue ifl^nds, named of Hefper old. 

Their fruitful bofcms to the deep unfold. 

Here changeful Natare flicws hor various facCr 

And frolicks o'er the dopes with wildeft grace : 

Here our bold fleet their ponderous anchors threw. 

The fickly cherifli, and our /b)re3 renew. ' 

From him the witrlike guardian power of Spain, 

Whofe fpear's * dread lightning o^ier th* embattled plain 

Has oft o'erwhdm'dJhc Moors in dire difmay. 

And fixt the fortunq of the doubtful day j 

From him we name^ our ftation of repair, 

And Jago's nam^ that ifle (ball ever bear. 

The northern winds now curl'd the blackening. main, . * i . . 

Our fails unfurl'd we plough the tide again : ' ' 

Round Afric's coaft our winding courfe we fteer. 

Where bending to the Eaft the (bores appear. . 

Here ^ Jalofo its wide extent difplays, . 

And vaft Mandinga fliews its nunierous bays ; 

^ Wbt>/e/pear*s ^riod lighining'-''-^\tw^ ^nd the Zaaago. The lateer has other- 
common for Spaniih and Portugoefe com- names inthefeveralconntriea through which 
roandcra to fee St. James in complete ar- it runs. In its courfe it makes many iflands, 
pour fighting in the heat of battle at the inhabited only by wild beaftl. ' It i;^ navi- 
bead of their armies. The General and ^ble 150 leagues, at the eod of which it 
fome of his officers declared they faw the ^ croilibd by a ^upendovs ridge of perpea« 
Warrior S^ntbeckomng them with his fptar dicular rocks, oirer whidi the river ru(h/C9 
to advance; SanlagOflago^wza immediately with fuch violence, that travellers pafs un« 
ecchoed through the ranks, and victory dar it without any other inconveniency than 
ufually crowned the ardotir of en thufiafm* Ibic prodigious noife. The Gambea.. or 

^ ' hire 7^/y^— t— Th!9 pioviflp^pi: Jalftfb Ri^^, Graadf raoa 180 kagues^ but. it noi; (q 

lies between the two rivers, the GaA^4 '^ njiyjg^e* . JLt ciccits ^crci.wdfer^ .j»|id 

. » « B b runs' 

Digitized by 


i86 THE L U S I A !>• BookV. 

Whofc ' mountains' fides, though parch'd and barren, hold. 

In copious ftorc, the feeds of beamy gold. 

The Gambea here his fcrpent journey takes. 

And through the lawns a thoufand windings makes ; 

A thoufand fwarthy tribes his current laves. 

Ere mix his waters with th' Atlantic waves. 

The * Gorgades we paft, that hated ihore. 

Famed for its terrors by the bards of yore ^ 

Where but one eye by Phorcus* daughters (hared. 

The lorn beholders into marble ftared ; 

Three dreadful ilfters ! down whofe temples roll'd 

Their hair of fnakes in many a hifling fold. 

And fcattering horror o'er the dreary ftrand. 

With fwarms of vipers fow'd the burning fand. 

Still to the fouth our pointed keels we guide. 

And through the Auftral gulph ilill onward ride. 

Her palmy forefts mingling with the fkies> 

Leona's ' rugged fteep behind us flies : 

runs with Ids noife than the other, thoagh 
filled with many rivers which water the 
country of Mandinga. Both rivers are 
brandies of the Niger. Their waters have 
this remarkable qiudity; when mixed to- 
|edier they operate as an emetic, but when 
feparate they do not. They abound with 
great variety of fifties, and their banks are 
covered wim horiet, crocodiles, winged fer- 
pents, elephants, oonces, wild boars, with 
great nnmbers of other animals, wonderM 
for the variety of their natnre and diierent 
fimis. Faria j Sou/a. 

t Wb%fe m9untmns* fidii'^'^Tmik$tm^ the 
mart of Mandinga gold was matly reforted 
to by the merchantt of Grand Cairo, Toniit 
Oran, Tr«mi|bi» Fcz> Mofocoo, Aec 

^ Thi Gwgaies •— — Contra hoc'promofi- 
toriwn (Hefperionceras) Gorgades infuls 
narrantur, Gorgonnm quondam domus, bi- 
dui navigatione difbmtes fi continente, nc 
tradit Xenophon Lampfacenos. Penetravic 
in eas Hanno Pcenomm imperator, prodi- 
dit^oe hirtm foeminamm coipora viros per* 
niatate evafiiTe, duamm^oe Gor^num cn^ 
tes argiimenti et miracuh gratia m Junonis 
templo pofnit, A>e6btas ufeoe ad Carthagi- 
aem captam. Plin. Htft. mt. 1. 6. c. 3 1. 

* Litmus rugged ftitp This ridge of 
moontains, on account of its great height, 
was named by die antients Bwt Sxi»f*», th$ 
charUt rf tb§ G$ds. Camoens rives it its 
Portugneie Mun^ Snra Li§09 ^ J^^^^ •/ 


Digitized by 


BookV. the LUSIAD^ 187 

The Cape of Palms that jutting land we name. 

Already confcious of our nation's fame. 

Where the vext waves againft our bulwarks roar. 

And Lufian towers overlook the bending ihore : 

Our fails wide fwelling to the conftant blaft. 

Now by the ifle from Thomas named we pafti • 

And Congo's fpacious realm before us rofe. 

Where copious Zayra's limpid billow flows ; 

A flood by ancient hero neyer ieen. 

Where many a temple o'er the banks of green, 

Rear'd by the Lufian ^ heroes, throu^ the night 

Of Pagan darknefs^ pours the mental light. 

O'er the wild waves at fouthward thus we ftray, 
Qur port unknown, unknown the watery way ; 

k je#«rV iy thi Lufian im</~— During deftroyed, and diardket bnlt. Soon iftcr, 
die rdgn of Johnll. the Portogoefe ereaed the Prinoe, who wat then ahfent at war, 
leveral fbitt, and acqoired great power in was baptized by the name f£ Ahmu. Hia 
the extenfive regions of Gninea. A»ambtgu^ younger brother, Jqmtim$9 however, wooU 
a Portugnefe captain, liavbg obtained leave not receive the faith, and the father, be» 
from Caramanja^ a Negro Prince, to ereft caofe allowed only one wife, turned apoA 
a fort on his territories, an dnlocky acci- tate, and left the crown to his Pagan fon, 
dent had almoft proved fatal to the difoo- who, with a great army, furronnded hit 
verers. A huge rock lay sm commodioos brother, when onlv attended b]jf ibme Por- 
for a quarry ; the workmen beean on it ; tnguefe and ChriiHan Blacks, in all only 
but this rock, as the Devil wodd have it, thirty-feven. By the bravery of thefe, how- 
happened to be a Negro God. The Por- ever, Aquitimo was defeated, taken, and 
tnguefe were driven awav 1^ the enraged flain. One of Aquitimo'% officers declarod» 
worihippen, who were afterwards with Af- they were not de^MUed by the thirty-feven 
fieuity pacified by a profufion of fiich pre- Chriftians, but by a gk)rious army who 
icttts as they moft efteemed* fought under a fhlning crofs. The Idols 
. The Portuguefe having brought an Am- lyere again deftroyed, and Alonzo feat his 
baflador from Coneo to Liflxm, ient him fons, grandfons, and nephews, to Portugal 
back inftruAed in thp faith. By his means to ftudy \ two of whom were afterwaxids 
the King, Queen, and about 100,000 of hifliops in Congo. Extiadled from Paris 
the people were baptis&ed ; the idols were y Sou/a. 

B b 2 Each 

Digitized by 


m ,T.H E. iL.tu s:n:A d. 

Each night we fee, impreft With. folcma^ 'awe,' ' ^ . 

Our guiding ftars and native ikies' withdraw : 

In the wide void wc lofc their cheering bcanw: . . 

Lower and lower itiUithe Pok-ftar gleatDs^ 

Till paft the limit, where the car of day ' 

Roird o'er our head«| and pourM the downward ray. 

We now difprove the faith of ancient lore*; 

Bootes' fhining car spears no nfio«.: 

For here we faw Califto's ftar * rttiM ' 

Beneath the waves, unawed by Jano's ire. 

Here, while the Sun hib polar journeys takies^ 

His vifit doubled, double feafonniakcs i . * 

Stern winter twice deforms the changeful year. 

And twice the.f|>ring*s gay flowers their honours rear* 

Now preffing onward, paft the burning TOnc, 

Beneath anpthejr heaven, and ftars unknown. 

Unknown to heroes, and to fages dd, 

^^'^ith fouthward prows our pathlefs courfe we hold : 

H^re gloomy night alTumes a darker reign. 

And fewer ftars emblaze the heavenly plain ; 


* Ctf///J!o'j ^tfr — According to fable, 
Califlb was a nymph of Diana. Jupiter, 
hnvlng aiTamed the figure of that goddefs, 
compleated his amorous deiires. On the 
difcovery of her pr^ancy, Diana drove 
heV from her train. She fled to the woods, 
where (he was delivered of fon. Juno 
changed them into bears, and Jupiter placed 
them in heaven, where they form the con- 

flellatioA of Uf/a major and miwr. JonOt 
ftill enraged, entreated Theds never to fnifo" 
Califto to bMhe ia the fea. This is ibond* 
ed Ob Sthe ajppeanmce of the northern pole*- 
Aar to the inhabitants of oar hemifphere;. 
but when Gama approached the fonthtra 
pole, the northern, of confequence, difap- 
peared ohdcr the waves. 



Digitized by 


Booicy. .T H E: L ^ S 1 A D. 189 

Fewer than thofc that gild the northern pole, 
And o*er our feas their glittering chariots roll—— 
While nightly thus the lonely feas we trave 
Another Pole-ftar rifes o^er the wave ; 
Full to the fouth a fliining crofe " appears ; 
Our heaving breafts the blifsful Omen cheers : 
Seven radiant ftars cocnpofe the hallowed fign 
That rofe ftill higher o'er the wavy brine. 
Beneath this fouthern axle of the world. 
Never, with daring fearch, was flag unfurl'd ; 
Nor pilot knows if bounding fliores are placfcd> 
Or if one dreary fea overflow the lonely wafte. 

While thus our keels ftill onward boldly ftray'd„ .' 

Now toft by tempefts^now by calms delayed,.. 
To tell the terrors Qf the deep ontxy'd, •;>.!.* 

What toils we fufFer'd, and what ftorms defy'd ;: 
What rattling deluges the black clouds pour'd^ 
What dreary weeks of folid darkncfs lour'd ; 
What mountain furges mountain furges lafh'd,. 
What fuddcn hurricanes the canvas dafli'd; 

." Full to the fouth ajhining Croft appears Voltaire fomcwhere obferves, ^ tfiat tfiis 

-^i— iThc conftellation of the fouthem pole looked like a prophecy, when, in the fuc- 

YMW called The Crofs by the Portuguefe fai- cccding age, thefe four ftars were known 

loirs, from the appearance of that figure to be near the Antartic polfe. Dante, how-' 

formed by feven ftars, four of which are ever, fpoke allegorkally of tke four car- 

pmcularly luminoo*. Dante, who wrote dinal virtues. 

te«i y V P •"*' ^"^* "* *' obferves, the night. «/darker than in th»- 

Air altro po/o, e vi'di quattro ftelh temf Itttrj. • - ■ 

, /^« vifte mat, fuor r *' W/tf Prima geute. 


Digitized by 


J90 THE L U S I A D. Book V. 

What buriling lightnings^ with inceflant flare^ 

Kindled in one wide flame the burning air ; 

What roaring thunders bellow'd o'er our head. 

And feem'd to (hake the reeling ocean's bed : 

To tell each horror on the deep reveaVd^ 

Would aik an iron throat with tenfold vigour fteel'd : 

Thofe dreadful wonders of the deep I faw» 

Which fill the failor's breaft with facred awe ; 

And which the fages^ of their learning vain, 

Efteem the phantoms of the dreamful brain. 

That living fire, by fea-men held ' divine, • ' 

Of heaven's own care in florms the holy fign. 

Which midft the horrors of the tempeft plays, 

And on the blaft's dark wings will gaily blaze ; 

Thefe eyes diftinft have feen that living fire 

Glide through the ftorm^ and round my fails aipire. 

• Thai IMngfirt^ iy /ta-men btU dwint 
—-—The ancients thus accounted for this 
appeannoe: The ful^hureous vapours of 
die air, after bein^ violently agitated by 
a tempedt unite, and when the humidity be* 
fi;ihs to fnbiide, as is the cafe when the ftorm 
IS almoft exhaufled, by the agitation of their 
atoms they take fire, and are 4rttraAed by 
the mafts and cordage of the ihip. Beiug 
thos naturally the pledges of the approach- 
ing calm, it is no wonder that the (uper- 
ftition of f^ulors (hould in all ages havecf- 
Aeemed them divine, and 

Of Amvm's twii cmt m fitrms the bofyjigit. 

In t&e expedition of the Golden Fleece, 
in a violent tempeft thefe fires were feen to 
knver over the beads of Caftor and Pollux, 
vdho were two of the Argonauts, and a 
calm immediately enfiied. After ike apo- 

theofes of thefe heroes, the Grecian (aitoti 
invoked thofe fixes by the names of Caitor 
and Pollux, or the fin$ of Jufiter. The 
Athenians called them Z^vn^K, SavUmrs^ 
and Homer, in his hymn to Cafior and 
Pollux, (ays, 

Plin.Nat. Hift. 1. a. Seneca, Qneft. Nau 
c. I. and Caeiar de Bell. Afr. c. VI. mendoa 
thefe fires as often feen to alight and reft om, 
the points of the fpou-s of the ibldiers. By 
the French and Spaniards they are called Sc 
Helmc's fires ; and by the Italians, the fitea 
of St. Peter and St. Nicholas. Modem 
difcoveries have proved that thefe appear- 
ances are the eleAric fluid attra^ed by the 
fpindleof the maft, or the point of the ipear* 


Digitized by 


BookV. THE L tJ S i A D. 191 

And oft, while wonder thriird my breaft, mine eyes 

To heaven have feen the watery columns rife. 

Slender at firft the fubtle fume appears. 

And writhing round and round its volume rears : 

Thick as a maft the vapour fwells its fize ; 

A curling whirlwind lifts it to the fkies : 

The tube now ftraitens, now in width extends. 

And in a hovering cloud its fummit ends : 

Still gulp on gulp in fucks the rifing tide. 

And now the cloud, with cumbrous weight fupply'd. 

Full-gorged, and blackening, fpreads, and moves, more flow. 

And waving trembles to the waves below. 

Thus when to fhun the fummer's fultry beam 

The thirfty heifer fceks the cooling flream. 

The eager horfe-lcech fixing on her lips. 

Her blood with ardent throat infatiate fips. 

Till the gorged glutton, fwell'd beyond her fize. 

Drops from her wounded hold, and burfting dies. 

So burfts the cloud, overloaded with its freight. 

And the da(h'd ocean ftaggcrs with the weight. 

But fay, • ye fages, who can weigh the caufe. 

And trace the fecret fprings of Nature's laws, 

^ But fay y ye /ages''''^ltL this book, par- Fitetc^gOylilJiueJimilisnuhtsdira uavigan" 
dcularlv in the defcription of Maffilia, the tihus 'uotatur et eohmna, cHm/piJktus humor 

icularlv ] 

Gorgadesy the fires called Caftor and Pol- rigwfyut ipfifi fyfiiutty tt in Ungam i/eluti 
lux, and the water-fpoat, Camoens has fi^ulam uuies aquam trabit. Dr. Prieftley, 

happily imitated the manner of Lucan. It from SiguUr BttcarU^ thus defcribes the 
is probable that Camoens, in his voyase to water-fpoats : " 1*^^^ generally apj^ar in 
the Eaft-Indies, Was an eye-wstnefs of the calm weather. The fea ieems to boil, and 
baenomena of the files and water-fpout. The fend up a fmoke under them, riiing in a hilt 
Iter is diQS defcribed by Pliny, I. a. c. 51. towms the fpon^* A rumbling noife is 


Digitized by 


.^92 T H ?' I. y S J A D. Book V. 

Say, why the wave, of bitter brine erewbile. 

Should to the bofom of the deep recoil 

Robb'd of its fait, and from the cloud diftil 

Sweet as the waters of the limpid rill? 

Ye fons of boaftful wifdom, famed of yore, 

Whofe feet unwearied wandered many a fbore. 

From Nature's wonders to withdraw the veil. 

Had you with me unfurl'd the daring fail. 

Had view'd the wondrous fcenes mine eyes funrey'd. 

What feeming miracles the deep difplay'd. 

What fccret virtues various Nature fhew'd. 

Oh ! heaven ! with what a fire your page had glow'd ! . 

And now fince wandering o'er the foamy fpray. 
Our brave Armada held her venturous way. 
Five times the changeful Emprefs of the night 
Had fiird her {hining horns with filver light. 
When fudden from the main-top's airy round 
Land, land, is ccchocd— At the joyful found. 
Swift to the crowded decks the bounding crew 
On wings of hope and fluttering tranfport flew, 

lieard. The form is that of a fpeaking fame nature as wbirlvvinds and horricanes on 

tiumpct, the wider end being towards the land. Camoens fays, the water of which 

clouds, and the narrower towards the fea. they are compofed, becomes frefhened; which 

The colour is fomctimes whitifh, an^at other fome have thus accounted for : When the vio- 

times black. Their pofition is fometimes lent heat attrafts the waters to rife in tho 

perpendicular, fometimes oblique, and fome- form of a tube, the marine falts are left 

times in the form of a curve. Their con- behind by the action of rarefaftion, being 

tinuance is various ; fome vanjlh inftantly * too grofs and fixed to afcend. It is thus, 

and prefently rife afi;ain ; and fome continue . when the. overloaded vapour burfts» that it 

near an hour." Modern philofophers aicribe ' defcends 

Acm to elcftricity, and clleem them of the . Swet as the vattts of the Rtr^d riU. 


Digitized by 


BookV. the L U S I a Di 194, 

And each ftrain'd eye with aching fight explores 
The wide horizon of the eaftern (hores : 
As thin blue clouds the mountain fummits rife^ 
And now the lawns falutc our joyful eyes j 
Loud through the fleet the eccjboing fhouts prevail, . 
We drop the anchor, and reftrain the fail ; 
And now defcending in a fpacious bay. 
Wide o'er the coaft the venturous foldiers ftray. 
To fpy the wonders of the favage (hore, 
Where ftranger*s foot had never trod before. 
I, and my pilots, on the yellow fand 
Explore beneath what fky the fhores expand. 
That fage Device^ whoie wondrous ufc proclaims 
Th' immortal honour of its authors' ' names> 
The Sun's height meafurcd, and my Compafs fcann'd 
The painted globe of ocean and of land. 
Here we perceived our venturous keels had pad, 
Unharm'd, the fouthern tropick's howling blaft j ^ 

And now approach'd dread Neptune's fccret reign. 
Where the ftern Power, as o'er the Auftral main . 
* He rides, wide fcatters from the polar ftar 
Hail, ice, and fnow, and all the wintery war. 

p That fag* irv^/— The Aftrolabtmii, lohn 11. by two Jew Phyficians, named 

an inftrament of infinite iervice in naviga- * Roderlc and Jofeph. It is aiTerted by feme 

tion» by which the altitude of the fan* and . that they were affifted by Martin of Bohe- 

diftance of the ftars are taken. It was in- niia» a celebrated Mathematician. Partly 

vented in Portugal daring the' reign of *. ^om Camera. Vid.BarrosjDec. i.I«4*<^-'' 

'\ C c • ' Which 

Digitized by 


1^4 f I* t E U S I AD- BookV. 

While thus attcntite on the bea^h tte ftood, ' ' 
My foldiersy haflening from the upland Wo6d» 
Right to the fhore a trembling Kegr& fcfought. 
Whom on the forcft-beiglrt by for<ie they eaught. 
As diftant wander'd froiW the ccH of hoatte» 
He fuck'd the honey from the porou» £offlb. 
Horror glar^ in his look, and f6:Etf ejitreme 

In mien more wild thirl bmfil Pdlyphttftea 

No word of rich Arabia's tongtie hekneW> 

No fign could anfwcf, nor <Jt»f gems would ti«w t 

From garcaents ftriped with fhining gold he turn'di 

The ftarry diamond and the iilvef fpurn'd. 

Strut at my nod are wotthkfs trinkets: brought > < 

Round beads of chryilal as a bracekt wrought, 

A cap of red, and dangling on a ftfing 

Some little bells of brafs before him nng i 

A wide-toouth'd laugh confeft his barbarous joy. 

And both his hahds he rdfed to graip the toyp 

Pleafcd with thefe gifts we fet the favage free. 

Homeward he fprings away> and b6uAds With glee. 

Soon as the gleamy ftreaks of purple morn 

The lofty foreft's topmoft boughs adorn^ 

Down the fleep moitntaifi's fide^ yet hoar with dew, 

A naked crowds and black as night their hue. 

Come tripping ta the (hore 2 Their wifhful Cyct 

Declare what tawdry trifles moil they prize : 


Digitized by 


Doox V, T HE L U S I A Q. 5^ 

Thefe to their hopes were ^i^o» audi, void of ftar# 

Mild feem'd their manners^ and tbpir looks ii£K:ere« 

A bold rafli youth^ 9mblti9yt$ of the fan^c 

Of brave adventurer, Vcloife his rmncp 

Through pathlefi brakes their hpwcwanj ftep« atUodfj 

And on his iingle arm fpr help depends. 

Long was his ftay t my earncft eyes explore^ 

When rufliing dowo the mouotain Jo the flbore 

1 marked him; (error urged his rapid ftrides ; 

And foon Cocllo's ikiff the wave divides. 

Yet ere his friends advanced, the treacherous foe 

Trod on his lateft fteps, and aim^d the faiow. 

Moved by the danger of a youidi fo brave, 

Myfelf now fnatcfa'd aa oar, 2nd ipruBg to fave : 

When fudden, blackoning down the mountain's height* 

Another crowd purfijed his pasting flight ; 

And foon an arrowy and a flinty fhowcr 

Thick o'er our heads the iiierce barbarians pour^ 

Nor pour'd in vain ; a feathcr'd arrow flood 

Fix*d ' in iny leg, and drank the gufhing blood. 

4 Fix^d in my kg -— Camoens* in dcf- Are$ could Uttderftajdd diem^ A ctMhittetx:« 

cribing thcadvctttiire cfFtnmndo VtUfi^ by however wu oommeoGed by figna and gcf- 

* depwtiBg from the -truth of hiftory* has turcs. Gama behaved to them with great 

Ihewn his jodgment as a Poet. The Place dvilinr j the fleet was dicarfally fupplied^ 

where the Portugaefe landed they named die With frefh pronfioni^ for which the natives 

iKy o( St. Hiien. They oaaght one of two received doaths and trinkets. But tljis 
negroes, fays Farisy who. were bufied in * friendfhip wasibosi infaent\pled by a young 

faScring honey on a mountain. Their be* niih PortugneCe. Haying cpntraaed an in* 

avionr to this favage, whom they ^gratified timacv with ibme of Jth^ negrpes» he ob- 

with a red cap, ibme glafles and bell^, in- tained leave to penetrate into the country 

duced him to bring a number of hk eompa- along with them, ia^ferve^heir hsd>itatiQ^8 

nions for the like trifles. Though fome who and ftcmgih. They ccmdafted him tp dieir 

accommnied Gama were ikillc3 in the va* huts with great good nature, And placed 

H0U8 Ethiopic languages, not one of the na- before him, what they efteemed an elegant 
* C c 1 itpaft. 

Digitized by 




JSboK V 

Vengeance as fudden cvfery wound repays. 

Full on their fronts our flafhing lightnings blaze ; 

Their flirieks of horror inftant pierce the iky. 

And wing'd with fear at fuUeft fpeed they fly; 

Long tracks of gore their fcattcr'd flight betray 'd, 

And now, Velofo to the fleet conveyed. 

His fportful mates his brave exploits demand. 

And what the curious wonders of the land : 

*' Hard was the hill to climb, my valiant friend, 

<• But oh ! how fmooth and eafy to defcend 1 

** Well hafl: thou. proved thy fwiftnefe for the chace, 

** And {hewn thy matchlefs merit in the race!" ' 

With look unmoved the gallant youth reply'd, 

*' For you, my friends, my fleetcft fpeed was try'd ; 

** 'Twas you the fierce barbarians meant to flayj 

" For you I fear'd the fortune of the diy^ 

repaft, a feacalf di^fled in the way of 
their country. This fo mach difgufted the 
delicate Portuguefe, that he «p 
and abruptly left them. Nor did they op- 
pofe his departure, but accompanied him 
with the greateil innocence. As fear> how- 
ever, is always jealous,, he imagined they 
were leading him as a vidim to flaught'cr. 
No fooner md he come near the (hips, than 
he called aloud fol- afliftance. Coello's boat 
immediately fet oiF for his refcue. The 
Ethiopians fled to the woods; and now 
eileeming the Portuguese as a band of law- 
lefs plunderers, they provided themfelves 
with arms, and lay in ambufh. Their 
weapons were javelins, headed with ihort 
pieces of horn, which they threw with 
great dexteritv. Soon after, while Gama 
and feme of nis officers were on the fliore. 

taking the altitode of the fun by the adrota- 
biam, they were fuddenly and with great 
fury attacked by the ambuHl from the woods. 
Several were much wounded, muh^s cowvul" 
tUrantj inter quos Gama in fedt 'uulnus acet^ 
pity and Gama received a wound in the foot. 
The Admiral made a fpeedy retreat to the 
fleets prudently chafing rather to leave the 
negroes the honour of the victory, than to 
riique the life of one man in a quarrel fo 
foreign to the deftination of his expedition ; 
dnd where, to imprefs the terror of his arms 
could be of no fervice to his intereft. When 
he came nearer to India he aded in a dif- 
ferent manner. He then made himfelf 
dreaded whenever the treachery of the natives 
provoked his refentment. Collected from 
Faria axid O/oriut. 

** Your 

Digitized by 


Book V; 




Your danger great without mine aid I knew^ 
*^ And ' fwift as lightning to your refcue flew." 
He now the trcafon of the foe relates. 
How foon, as paft the mountain's upland ftraits. 
They changed the colour of their friendly (heWn, 
And force forbade, his fteps to tread below : 
How down the coverts of the fteepy brake 
Their lurking ftand a treacherous ambufh take ; 
On us, when fpecding to defend his flight. 
To rufh, and plunge us in the fhades of night : 
Nor while in friendfhip would their lips unfold 
Where India's ocean laved the orient fhores of gold* 

Now profp'rous gales the bending canvas fwell'd ; 
From thefe rude fhores our fearlefs courfe we held ; 

' jf/td /kvifi as UgbtntHg — The Cliticty 
particularly the French, have vehemently 
declaimed againft the leaft mixture of the 
Comic, with the dignity of the Epic Poem. 
It is needlefs to enter into any defence of 
this paflage of Camoens, farther than to ob- 
ferve» that Homer, Vireil, and Milton, have 
offencled|the critics in the fame manner ; and 
diat this piece of raillery in the Luftad is by 
much the politeft, and the leaft reprehen- 
fible of any thing of the kind in tne four 
Poets. In Homer are feveral flrokes of low 
nullery. Patroclus having lulled Hedor^s 
charioteer, puns thus on his fudden fall. 
•« // tJ a pity be is not nearer the fea ! He 
njoould foon catch abundance of oyfters^ nor 
nvould the ftorms frighten him. See how hi 
di'ues from his chariot do*wn to the fand ! 
What excellent dinisrs are the Trojans ! 
Virgil, the mod judicious of all Poets, de- 
fcends even to the ftyle of Dutch painting, 
where the commander of a galley tumbles 
the Pilot into the fea, and the failors after- 
ward laugh at him, as he fits on a rock 
fpewing op the fait water : 

— — SegnemoM Menteten 
Jn nutre frschitem pupfi tktiarhat ah alto. 
Jtt gravis vt/undo vix twdem rediitus into efi 
Jamfenior^ nuuSdaque fluens iuvefte Menvtes^ 
Summa petit fcopult ficcaque iu rupt refeiit, 
JUlum et labentem Teucrif et rifere netantem ; 
EtfaJfos rident revomentem pcQoreJhtffus, 

And though the chara^ers of the fpeakers' 
(the inMnious defence which has been of^ 
fered for Milton) may in fome meafure, 
vindicate the raillery which he pats into the 
mouths of Satan and Belial, the lownefs of 
it, when compared with that of Camoens, 
mull flin be acknowledged. Talking of 
the execution of the diabolical artillery a- 
mong the good angels, they, fays Satan, 

Flew off, and ioto (Iran^c vagvies fell 

As they i»oidd dance, yet for a dance they feemM 

Somewhat extrayagant and wild, perhaps 

For joy of offcr'd peace.—— 

To whom thus Belial, in like gameibme mood, 

JLeadcr, the ternu we ient were terms of weight,. 

Of hard contents, and fall of force org'd home,. 

Such as we might perceive amns'd them all. 

And (himbUd many-*-- 

• -—this gift they have beftde. 

They (hew as when our foes walk not upright. 


Digitized by 


198 THE L & S I A D, BookV. 

Beneath the gliftening wave the God of day 

Had now five times withdrawn the parting ray. 

When o'er the prow a fuddcn darkncfs fprcad. 

And flowly floating o'er the maft's tall head 

A black cloud ht)ver"d : nor appeared from far 

The moon's pale glimpfe, nor faintly twinkling ftar j 

So deep a gloom the louring vapour caft, 

Transfixt with awe the braved: ftood aghaft. 

Meanwhile a hollow budling roar refounds. 

As when hoarfe furges lafli their rocky mounds ; 

Nor had the blackening wave, nor frowning heaven 

The wonted figns of gathering tempeft given. 

Amazed we flood — O thou, our fortune's guide. 

Avert this Omen, mighty God, — I cried ; 

Or through forbidden climes adventrous ftray'd. 

Have we the fecrets of the deep furvey'd. 

Which thefe wide folitudcs of ftis and fky 

Were doom'd to hide from man's unhallowed eye ? 

Whatever this prodigy, it threatens more 

Than midnight tempefts and the mingled roar. 

When Tea and iky combine to rock the marble (hove. 

I i^oke, when riling through the darkened air^ 
Appaird we faw an hideous Phantom glare ; 
High and enormous o'er the flood he tower'd^ 
And thwart our way with fullen afpe<£t lour'd : 



Digitized by 


Book V. 




An earthly palenefs o'er his cheeks was fpread, 
Ere<a uprofe his hairs of withered red ; 
Writhing to fpeak, his fable lips difclofe. 
Sharp and disjoined, his gnafhing teeth's blue rows ; 
His haggard beard flow'd quivering on the wind^ 
Revenge and horror in his miep combined ; 
His clouded front, by withering lightnings feared^ 
The inward anguiih of his foul declared. 
His red eyes glowing from their dufky cave^ 
Shot livid fires : Far ecchoing o cr the wave& 
His voice refunded, as the cavern'd fhore 
With hollow groan repeats the tefhpeft's roar. 
Cold gliding horrors thriird each hero's breaft> 
Our bridling hair and tottering knees confeil 
Wild dread ; the while with viiage ghaftly wan^ 
His black lips trembling, thus the* Fiend ' began t 

• Tie A//tfriVm— The partiality of Trati- 
flators and Editors is become alxnoft prover- 
bial. The admiration of their author is fap* 
poied when they undertake to introdacehim 
to the public; that admiration therefore, 
may without a blufh be confeAed ;. but if 
die reputation of judgment is valued, all the 
jealoufy of circtfmipeAioa is neccflary, for 
the tranfition from admiration to parthdity 
and hypercridcifm, is not only eafy, but to 
Qhefelf often imperceptibTe.. Yet however 
ffuarded againft this partiality of hypercri- 
ticifm the Tranilator of Camoens may deem 
himfelfy he is aware that fome of his colder 
readers, may perhaps, in the followidz in- 
fiance accufe him of it. Regafdlefs how- 
ever of the fang /roU of Aofe who judge by 
authority and not by their own feelmgs^ he 
will venture to appeal to the few whofe 
tafte, though fornVM by the claffics, is un- 
tsonted Vim daffical prejudices. To thelb 

he will appear, and to tkefe he ^11 ventorr 
the dFernon, that the fi£Hon of the apps^ 
rition of the Cape of Tempefts, in fttblimity 
ami awful graildeiir of imagination, ftandr 
unfurpafl^d in human' compofition.— Vol- 
taire, and the foreign Critics, have con- 
fefied its merit.'— In the prodigy of the- 
Harpies in the JSntid^ neither the 

Vtrgina volucrum vuUus^ fm^Jftnia ventrir 

ProhtVus, wi€Jtgue mOttut, ft ^alCdaJemfer 

Oraftttnt : 
Though Virgil, to heighten the defcriptioOy. 
&trodu(es it with 

■ Mic fovhr ulJa 

PeJHs it tfH DedmStypaf^eexmSi muCs: 
Nor the prediftions of the harpy CeUnor 
can, in point of dignity, bear any ccMn^ 
parifon with the lEdtion of Camoens. The • 
noble and admired defcription of Fame, ixr 
the fourth JBneid„ may feem indeed to« 
challenge competition-: 

Digitized by 




Book V. 

O you, the boldeft of the nations^ fired 
By daring pride, by luft of fame infpired. 
Who fcornful of the bowers of fweet repofc. 
Through thefe my waves advance your fearlefs prows, 
Regardlefs of the lengthening watery way. 
And all the ftorms that own my fovereign fway. 

Fama^ malum quo fiM aHui velocm ulhim : 
Motivate viga, vire/que acqutrit nmJo : 
Parva metu /n»iS / moxftfi attollU in auras^ 
Inffre£tttrqueJoh, & captit inter nMa condit : 
Jltam Terra parens^ ira irritata Deorum^ 
Extremam Cut perbiheutj Ceto Enceladoquefororem 
Progemnt j pembus celerem et penudbus alis : 
Monftrum horrendum^ iugens ,\ ad quetfimt cwrpwe 

Tot vigiies ocuRfuhter (mrMe tUBaJ 
Tot Rtigua, totiiem orafinant^ totfubriget aures, 
I^o8e volat cerli medio terraque^ per unihram 
Stridens, nee dulci deelinat lumnafomno : 
iMceJedet cttftos, aut/umni culmine teBi, 
Turribus out altis, et magnas territat urhcu 

Fame, the great ill, from fiAall beginnings grows ; 
Swift from the 6rft, and every moment brings 
New yigoar to her flights, new pinions to Yifix wings. 
Soon grows the Pigmy to gigantic fize. 
Her feet on earth, her fordbead in the ikies : 
Enraged again ft the Gods, rerengeful Earth 
Produced her laft of *the TiUnian birth. 
Swift in her walk, more fwilt her winged hafte» 
A monftroas phantom, horrible and vaft ; 
As many plumes as raife her lofty flight. 
So many piercing eyes enlarge her fight : 
Millions of opening mouths to Fame belong, 
And every mouth is furniih'd with a tongue, 
Ad roand with lidning ears the flying 

is hung; 
She fills the peaceful unirerfe with cries. 
No flambers ever clofe her wakeful eyes : 
By day from lofty towers her head (he fliews.^- 


The Mohilitati vlget^ the Vires aequirit 
iundoy the Par<ua metu primo^ Sec, the Ca^ 
put inter nubila condity the fluma^ oculi 
linguity orat and aures^ the No^ie 'volaty the 
Luce fedet cuftos^ and the Magnas territat 
urhesy are all very great, jand finely ima- 
eined. But the whole pidure is the ofT- 
Ipring of careful attention and judgment ; 
it is a noble difplay of the calm majefty of 
Virgil, yet it has not the enthuiiafm of that 
heat of fpontaneous conception , which the 
ancients honoured with the name of infpi- 
s-4tion. The fi£Uon of Camoens, on ue 

long, -J 

nguc, # 
plague Y 

contrary, is the genuine effiifion of die glow 
of poetical imagination. The defcriptioa 
of the fpeftre, the awfnlnefs of the prc- 
didiouy and the horror that breathes through 
the whole, till the phantom is interrupted 
by Gama, are in the true fpirit of the wild 
and grand terrific of an Homer, oraShake- 
fpeare. But however Camoens may,^ ia 
this pafiTage, have excelled Virgil, he him<* 
felf is infinitely furpafled by two paflages of 
Holy Writ. •* A thing nxfas/ecretly hrougbf 
<< to mr," fays the Author of the book of 
Job, " and mine ear received a little tben^ 
of. In thoughts from the 'uifions of the night, 
when deep Jeep falleth on men^ fear came upon 
me, andtrtmhling, which made all my bones to 
Jhake : then a fpirit paffed before mj face ; 
the hair ofmyJUJb flood up : It ft.od fill, 
but I conld not difcern the form thereof: an 
image was before mine tyes, there was fi* 
lenccy and I heard a njoice : Shall mortal man 
be morejuft than God! Jhall a man be more 
pure than his Maker / Behold, be put no trufl 
in his fervants, and his angels hi charged 
with folly : how much Ufs in them that dwell 
in houfes of clay, whofe foundation is in the 
dufty and who are crufied hefcre the moth ! 

This whole paiTage, oarticularly the in- 
diltinguifliable form and the filence, are as 
fuperior to Camoens in the inimitably wild 
terrific, as the followinfi;, from the lApoca- 
lypfe, is in grandeur of defcription. " And 
ifaiAj another mighty angel cume do^wnfrom 
hea*uen, cloathed with a cloud, and a rain- 
boiv *was upon his head, his face ^was as it 
were the fun, and his feet as pillars off re 
.... and he fet his right foot upon the fea, 
and his left foot upon the earth, and cried with 
a loud voice, as nvhtu a lion roareth ..'..•• 
and he lifted up bis hand to heaven, and fw are 
by Him that livethfor ever and ever$ .... 
that Timejhouldbe no moro 


Digitized by 


Who mid furrp^a^ipff f9$I^.»94^^M«§«{|^qff 
Where never hero t^m^ <)IK.<9^ Mwff 4 
Ye fons of LuCua, vh9 iiit^.^ssicfc prtfaa^ 
Have view'd the i^cuits of otpr awful reign*. 
Have pafs'd the faeon^s iiciudi>eaioui tifatare diJ^ 
To veil her fecret ihr^ fcom.aMrlial vioir ( 
Hear from my Ijps what iBflt&I mitt attend* 
And burfting foon {ht3i.a>tirf9^rjMt itt(sifi4 1 


With every bbttntKi^ iuel that iana toy iapf. 
Eternal wariiby iocfes apd Aonnsrflia^l svaijf* 
The next proud fleet &at dmui^ fByik«ir * |cloma«Q» 
With daring fearch fliall hoife the ftreaming vane. 
That galljftt «ayy i,y my 9rhirlwia4$ lQft» 
And raging feas, flialI.p«i<iA m my <:<l*ft 1 
Then He who firft my Hm ee^a 4cfcriftl. ' 
A naked corfe wide floating o'^er ike tide 
Shall drive— Vnlefs mj heart's fiall raptures fail, 
O Lufus \ oft {halt thott thy childceh waUi 
Each year thy fhipwreck'd fons flialt thou deplore, 
Eafih ye«r thy flwetwJ laafts ihaU ftrew my fhorc. 

» r** autf ^4^;lw,— «-€>« die retam 
-cit Gaioa to Potto^gal, a dc^ of tidttak 
fail, 4tedar the <^iamairf of iUb> Akvtisds 
C^nl, .was feat Qttc uit die Sacomi vajzat lo 
indM, where «he adair^ watii only fix ftam 
jrmod, The t^ wa.mMy, ddbbFei 
by a ternble tcmpeft at ths .Capa of XSoad. 
Hop<^ which lafted twnty day*. The 

4af .liate, %s ;Vw/«, «a< fo iaA that th* 
ikHoTf ooald fcarcefy ^ee each othet, or heaif 
Wbat ■»« Aid, for the horrid ndfe ^ di« 
taajii. Amoiri diofe who periflied was die 
oelffaqaced BartMmttv DU«, who wat th« 
firft aodent difooverer of the Cape of Good 
Hope^ which he named die Cape of Tern* 

D d 


Digitized by 


4*1 T tt E^ LU S I A D^ fiooK V. 

With trophic^ plumed behold * an Hero come> • 
Ye dreary wilds^ prepare his yawning tomb. 
Though fmiling fortune bleft his youthful mom. 
Though glory's ray^ his laurel'd brows adorn. 
Full oft though he beheld with fparkling eye 
The Turkifli moons in wild confufion fly,. 
While he, proud Vidor, thundered in the rear^ 
All, all his mighty fame (hall vanifli here. 
Quiloa*s fons, and thine, Mombaze, fhall fee 
Their Conqueror bend his laureFd head to Me f 
While proudly mining with the tempeft'a. found,. 
Their fhouts of joy from erery cliff rebounds. 

The howling blaft, ye (lumbering (lorms prepare^ 
A yduthful Lover and his' beauteous Fair, 
Triumphant fail from India's ravaged land;; 
His evil angel leads him to my (brand... 
Through the torn hulk the da(hing waves* (hall roar; 
The (hatter'd wrecka (hall blacken all my (hore* 

^ SehU an ier^. nmt^TianFrmti/io' nmeh againft liis will, forced lim to marA* 
' di Jlmt^Ja. He was the firft Portngoeie ' agsiinft the blacks. '< Ah» whither (he ex- 
viceroy of India, in which country he ob- ** claimed) will yon carry the infirm map 
tuned federal great viawiea over the Md* ** dLixXy yean.*' After plundering a mi-^ 
hammedans and Pagvns^ He conquered ierable vOlage^ onr.the retom to thetr fliipt 
Qniloa, and Mombafla or Mombaao. On they weve attacked by a faperior nomber of 
hia tttttia to Portugal he put into the bi^ of Caffies, .who fought with fuch (tty. in refi 
Saldamay near the Cape of Good Hope^ to cue of their children, whom the Portuguefii 
lake itt^ water and provi&ons. The rudenefs had feized, that the TiGeroj^4Mid^fift/ of hi»> 
of one of his fervants produced a quarrel wit^ attcndanto wexe flain. 
tiieCaffres>^or£U)ttentott» HU attendinls^ 


Digitized by 


Book V. T H E t U S^i A D* 103 

Themfelves efcaped, defpoil'd by ikvage hvidf , 

Shall naked wander o*er the burning fands» > 

Spared by the waves far deeper woes to bear. 

Woes even by Me acknowledged with a tear. 

Their infant race, ihe promifed heirs of joy. 

Shall now no more an hundred hands employs 

By cruel want, beneadi the parents* eye, 

In thefe wide waftes their infant race (hall die. 

Through dreary wilds where never Pilgrim trod. 

Where caverns .yawn and rocky fragments nod. 

The haplefs Lover and his Bride fhall ftray. 

By night unfheltcr'd, and forlorn by day* 

In vain the Lover o'er the tracklefs plain 

Shall dart his eyes, and cheer his fpoufe in vain. 

Her tender limbs, and breaft of mountain fnow. 

Where ne'er before intruding blaft might blow, 

Parch'd by the fun, and (hrivell'd by tlie cold 

Of dewy night, fhall he, fond man, behold. 

Thus wandering wide, a thoufand ills o'erpafl. 

In fond embraces they fhall fink at laft 1 

While pitying tears their dying eyes o'erflow. 

And the laft iigh fhall wail each other's ' woe. 

• And ibi lajt fighjhatl wsrl each othei^t five hundred mctt, his tSXon and doflicftic^ 

w»^— This poedod defcription of ' the wasdafhed to pieces cm. the rocks at (he 

niferable cataftrophc of Don Emmanuel dc Cape of Good Hope. Don EmmanueU 

€ottza» and his beandfal fpoufe Leonora de his ladv, and three children, with four 

•Si, is by no means exaggerated. He was hundred of the crew, cfca^d, having only 

Several years governor of Diu in India> faved a few arms and provifions. As they 

where lie amaffdd immenfe wealth. On marched through the rude uncultivated de- 

%is return to' his native country, the Ihip in i*erts, fome di^ of fiunine,» of thirft, and 

^hieh were hii lady, aB faia riches, and iatigue; other*, who wandered fiom the 

Dd z 1BU» 

Digitized by 


Some few, the &llc(mpahhh^df itriJr^^atdi 
Shall yet furvive, ptdttHiS^'h^ rtiy feltd/ ' 
On Tagus* banks^tht; cKAifrf fdld ttf tAt - 
How blaftcd by thy ftoM yotti^ hefo^s fell. 

'Boty!^ T9 


He paused, Iti i&ftiSt farther t» difcfofe 
A long, a dreary Woes i 
When fpringing cJmv^ifd, londttiy Voice feiduft^s. 
And midft his fagd fhd ^'rSaVemng Sliade confotinds 
What art thou, Irforrid Form, that rideft the air ? 
By heaven's eternal Kght, Hern Fiend, (hectare. 
His lips he writhes. His cyts far round ne throwSj^ 
And from his bread deep hollow groanis arofe ; 
Sternly alkaunce tie flood : witli wouricfed pridtf 
And anguiih torn. In Me, behold, he cried. 

n^un body Ii> fearch of #i<ilP, ^Mt WIftri 
dered by the favages, or deftroycd by the 
wild beafls. TkeTiorror tf dnlr nSfepiijie. . 
fituation was mofl dreadfully aggravated to 
Donna Leonora : her hujfistnd br|^ir M dX> 
cover ftarts of infanity. Thejr arrived at laft 
at a village inhabited by Ethiopia* Citoflitttw 
At firft they were courteoofly received, and 
SoWH partly ftapified wifh ^ief, at the 
defire of the barbarians, yielded up to theiil 
the arms of his company. N^ lodger \Vat 
^is done, than the favages ftripped the 
whole company naked, and left them defU- 
pM ta the mercy of- the de&rc. Tbe 
w|«t(^ednei6 of the delicate and expofed 
Xeo^on was encreafed by tlie brm^^l infuhi 
of the negroes^, Hei^ hufband, anable te 
tdteve» be|ield her miferies. After having 
tfevelted aboat 3001 leagjocs, her legs ^IN 
.ett her ieet bleeding at every (kp, and 
lier flKftgtlv exhaufkd, &c funk down^ ai^ 
iMt tW ikod covered herHl^ to t^ t^i^ 

fituation, (he beheld two. of her children^ 
expire., titt owfn dikiti foVfi followed* 
Her Wihandy who had been long enamour- 
ed dT her betairf^ reeeiveij isstut tMt bttam 
in Jk diftradkd em^acCi. Immediately he' 
Ihafdredf his tfih-d chMd ia Ms anm <l^' 
uttering the' mod lamentable cries, he ran* 
rn^ tlM.thickeft of the woeBv wAere 4j^ 
wlril beafts were foon lifeard^ to growl over 
their wnfy. Of th^ WhcSb foer hiladred. 
wiio elcapcd the wavft^rOnly fix and twenty^ 
arrived at another Ethiopian village, whofe 
jmhabitanti were molt eivilAedy and traded*^ 
with the merchaniA of the Red fea: fron^ 
bence thev found a palfat^ to EufOpe^ 
sfid broi^c the tid^gs of tho unhappjr 
fate of their coiiifaaioDS. ^poaie do Cor«* 
tereai^ a Ponugueft poet> has wrimeA aV 
a^£Un^ poem on the (hrpwr«ck and dei- 
plorable cataA»ophe of Don Emiaauel akd 


Digitized by 


While dark-red fptHlft^ &WA !U§ e^feBaSR itJC'dj?,^ " '• ' 

In Me the Spirit of dM? Cs^ b^KiiU? 

That rock by ywt tlitf Gap* rf 'tiijiipei^s ttJNrieJj 

ByNcptuiMj'8ragt'm-fi6rr»'dlriR<tttA*e*'^ttiri^^^^ ' ■ 

When Jove's red B««s o'^t- TSkztfi cfffsprfttg 'ffitattai ' 

With wide-ftretoliM jAlits I guard the patllleft ffrattd. 

And Africa fotithttfn tootntd ttttttioved I ftanrf f 

Nor Roman prow, not Jiii' iia ^ Tytaair ^ 

Ere dafli'd the whit© HWve, fojtaiiflg •<<> ttty Adri i 

Nor Greece nor Ckfthagc ever ^cad tBrer fJi) 

On thefe my feas to catch the trading gale^ 

You, you alone Irt*^ ^ared fe ple*gii- tty* ihaSai^ 

And with the hatbstA r^t ^BBxerh ri^ylMidame id^ 



He * 4>okei anJ'ddep a fcftgtfetW** figlv be dte^rj, 
A doleful ibund,, and vatiiil^d fit«l Are vk^ s. 

« Hifp9kt — ^ The cipciiinftaiices of the 
d^^appearalK^^^f fXe ^£1Mf «f6 iii Ae Ikme 
poetical fpirit of the intrbduAion. To 
fuppofe this fpedre tike 8|ii^ of xiUC hiig^ 
promontory the Cape of Tempeih, which 
by night makes its awM apneBfance tv tfad 
fleet of Gama^ while wandering in an un- 
known ocean,, is a. noble fli^ of inrafK 
nation. As already obfeived in the Pre- 
facc» the machinery of Camoens is allego* 
jtctl: To eftabtiii CMftknity w die Eiit, 
is exfiefly iatd ia the Lttfiad. to be tke 

Seat purpofe of the Heio. df Baechii^ 
e demon who oj^fet the exf)edi(iQto». 
t^ geiuii*.of MohaouaBdifn^ muft of cddfe- 
. opence be uaderdood: andi accoidkijrfyy. in 
the ^ghth.booIb> the Evil Sjpisif and Bodchus^ 
arc mentioned as tlie. .nmo pei>fOM|^ ; 
wKere» in the figure of Mohammed^ he ap- 
pears in a dream to a Mohammedan prieft. 
. id« kkfr maonesr by. Adamailor>, the genliia. 

of Mohammediiin moft be ftippo/ed to Be* 
nieafK. The Moors^ ^htr pt'6f(rtfe(f tSat 
religion, were, till the arrival of Gasia, the: 
file navigators qH tife6afteffi i^ar, atkid by 
every exertion of force find fraud, xhey vbl^ 
dtttioutfitd to*.pr^v<6nt-the< feliicMients-^f fte 
Chriflians. In die figure of the fpe&i^^ 
the ^tiStA CftfiHatey ^liidk-^ ef^a^* descrip- 
tion of the perfon of Mohammed, his fierce* 
demeanour and pale oomplexion ; , bi|t ho* 
eatmxAj came$ Ais uhfsnftlAenY toO fj^r in- 
feveral infltficet : to rhttriit^ duly two ;; 
** Mofaantflivd (fays he) was a fkKe pro- 
** pbe^ kf k AdaBiaft6r, wfto fays Em- 
- <* auanol ^t Sooto and his ijfibuie flvafl die 
. <^ in one anodier's tnttiS^ Whereaf flie htkf- 
'* bond was; devovred by #ild bei^ m rRe 
«<. wood. ... fly the mecamorpHbfis' 6f 
. «* AdattiaAor into an liuge mi^ of earfbr 
" and rock, laved by the wanes, is meant 
^ the deatkand tomhof Molumuned.. He^ 


Digitized by CrOOQ IC 

:t66 THE L U 8 IAD. 

Therfrighten'd billows gave a rolling fwell» 
/And diftant far prolong'd die difmal yell j 
IFaint and more faint the howling ecchoes diet 
^ And the black cloud difperfing leaves the fkj. 
iHigh to the angel hoft» whofe guardian care 
}Had ever round us watch'd» nay hands I rear» 
iAnd heaven's dread kingiimplore^ Jls o'er our head 
The fiend diflblved^ an empty ihadow fled ; 
:So may his curfes by the winds of lieaven 
iFar o'er the deepj, their idle fport^ be driven 1 

Booi^ V* 

With facred horror thrilVd* Melmda's Lord 
'Held up the eager hand, and caught the word, 
^Oh wondrous faith of ancient days, he cries, 
<Conceal*d in myftic lore, and dark dil^ife ! 
Taught by their fires, our hoary fathers tell. 
On thefe rude fhores a giant fpedre felU 
What time from heaven the rebel band were thrown^ 
And oft the wandering Twain has heard his moan. 
While o'er the wave the clouded moon appears 
To hide her weeping face, his voice he rears 

^* died of t dropfy» bekold the waters 
'** whick farroand bim ; ^^iia Us tatue qui 
<< Ventourint*^»}SL% tomb was exceeding 
«< highy behold the height of the promon- 
<< tory/' By fuch lautiide of interpfeta* 
don, the allegory which was really intend-, 
ed by an aothor, becomes fofpeded by the 
! reader. As Camoens» however, has afluied